Lecture notes in Manufacturing Processes

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Introduction to manufacturing processes; Overview 2.810 Fall 2002 Professor Tim GutowskiProcess overviews 1. Subtractive 2. Additive 3. Continuous 4. Net shape„„„ 1. Subtractive Processes Processes Machining: Turning, milling, boring, grinding Non-traditional machining: EDM, chemical milling, waterjet, etc. Micro-electronics processes: Primarily etching type processes using either masks or beam„„„„ Subtractive Processes Characteristics of machining processes Flexible High variable costs compared to net shape process Long cycle times compared to net shape process Good dimensional controlMilling Cutter Spindle Arbor Shank Spindle End mill Arbor Slab milling Face milling End milling Source: Kalpakjian, “Manufacturing Engineering and Technology”Milling Head Table Column Saddle Knee Base Source: http://www.mfg.mtu.edu/marc/primers/milling/Introduction ; Source: Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, KalpakjianEDM (ElectroDischarge Machining) Tool - electrode Dielectric (light oil) Workpiece Initial shapes of electrode and workpiece Final complementary shapes of electrode and workpiece Source: http://cybercut.berkeley.edu/mas2/html/processes/edm/index.htmlWaterjet Machining Water preparation system Pressure generation system Cutting head and motion system water High pressure outlet water outlet Attenuator Mixing Abrasive chamber particles Water inlet as piston Water inlet as piston moves right moves left Source: http://www.seas.smu.edu/rcam/research/waterjet/par1.html; http://www.seas.smu.edu/rcam/research/waterjet/par3.html; http://kbm.mt.polsl.gliwice.pl/wjm/basics.htmlWaterjet Machining Water preparation Pressure generation Cutting head and motion system system system Source: http://cybercut.berkeley.edu/mas2/html/processes/edm/index.html; http://www.omax.com/components_of_waterjet.htmlLithography (additive + subtractive) Exposing radiation Mask Illuminated areas Photoresist EXPOSURE Thin film Substrate Positive resist Negative resist DEVELOPING ETCHING AND STRIPPINGBlanking and Punching Sheet T Punch D Die Part or slug Discarded Punching Blanking Source: http://bdi-inc.qc.ca/processes/stamping/sp.htmlŠŠŠŠ „„„„ 2. Additive Processes Processes Rapid Prototyping Very flexible to part shape; usually limited in material choices; slow rates; fully automated Advanced Composites Processes Combination of additive and net shape processes Microelectronics Processes Physical and chemical vapor deposition processes and coating methods Joining & Assembly Broad category includes welding, adhesives, and mechanical assemblyStereolithography (SLA) Source: http://cybercut.berkeley.edu/mas2/html/processes/stereolith/more.htmlStereolithography (SLA) http://web.mit.edu/2.810/www/lecture/SLA_movie.mpeg Source: http://www.dtm-corp.comSelective Laser Sintering (SLS) Source: Michelle Griffith and John S. Lamancusa, "Rapid Prototyping Technologies," Rapid Prototyping. 1998Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) http://web.mit.edu/2.810/www/lecture/sinter_movie.mov Source: DTM Corporation (3D Systems) 3D Printing Selective joining of powder using ink-jet printing of a binder material Spread Powder Print Layer Drop Piston Repeat Cycle Finished Part Intermediate Last Layer Printed Stage Source: Kruth, J.P. (1991), “Material incress manufacturing by rapid prototyping techniques”Hand Lay-Up of Advanced Composites (a) Hand lay-up (b) Hand assisted tape lay-up Filament winding machine Source: http://www.sgva.com/fabrication_processes/rna_filwind.html ; http://www.advancedcomposites.com/winding.htmCVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) - Creates solid materials directly from chemical reactions in gas and/or liquid compositions or with the substrate material - LP(Low Pressure) CVD, PE(Plasma Enhanced) CVD Typical hot-wall LP(Low Pressure) CVD Source: http://www.memsnet.org/mems/beginner/deposition.htmlPVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) - Material to be deposited is released from a source and transferred to the substrate - Evaporation, Sputtering Counter Electrode RF sputtering system e-beam evaporation system Source: http://www.memsnet.org/mems/beginner/deposition.html

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