Management Concepts and Organizational Behaviour Lecture Notes

how organizational behaviour affects organizational effectiveness and how can organizational behavior help managers. what is organizational behaviour with examples
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Subject: Management Concepts and Organizational Behaviour Subject Code: MC-101 Author: Dr. Karam Pal Lesson No: 01 Vetter: Prof. Harbhajan Bansal INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT Objective: The objectives of this lesson are to enable to define management; to describe the nature and scope of management; to know the difference between management and administration; to understand various levels of management; and to describe the various skills that are necessary for successful managers. Lesson Structure: 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Definition of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Management Functions/ the Process of Management 1.5 Nature of Management 1.6 Management Vs. Administration 1.7 Levels of Management 1.8 Managerial Skills 1.9 The Manager and his job 1.10 Principles of Management 1.11 Significance of Management 1.12 Summary 1.13 Self Assessment Questions 1.14 Suggested Readings 1.1 INTRODUCTION A business develops in course of time with complexities. With increasing complexities managing the business has become a difficult task. The need of existence of management has increased tremendously. Management is essential not only for business concerns but also for banks, schools, colleges, hospitals, hotels, religious bodies, charitable trusts etc. Every business unit has some objectives of its own. These objectives can be achieved with the coordinated efforts of several personnel. The work of a number of persons are properly co-ordinated to achieve the objectives through the process of management is not a matter of pressing a button, pulling a lever, issuing orders, scanning profit and loss statements, promulgating rules and regulations. Rather it is the power to determine what shall happen to the personalities and happiness of entire people, the power to shape the destiny of a nation and of all the nations which make up the world." Peter F. Drucker has stated in his famous book "The Practice of Management" that, "the emergence of management as an essential, a distinct and leading social institution is a pivotal event in social history. Rarely in human history has a new institution proved indispensable so quickly and even less often as a new institution arrived with so little opposition, so little disturbance and so little controversy?" Management is a vital aspect of the economic life of man, which is an organised group activity. It is considered as the indispensable institution in the modern social organization marked by scientific thought and technological innovations. One or the other form of management is essential wherever human efforts are to be undertaken collectively to satisfy wants through some productive activity, occupation or profession. 2It is management that regulates man's productive activities through coordinated use of material resources. Without the leadership provided by management, the resources of production remain resources and never become production. Management is the integrating force in all organized activity. Whenever two or more people work together to attain a common objective, they have to coordinate their activities. They also have to organize and utilize their resources in such a way as to optimize the results. Not only in business enterprises where costs and revenues can be ascertained accurately and objectively but also in service organizations such as government, hospitals, schools, clubs, etc., scarce resources including men, machines, materials and money have to be integrated in a productive relationship, and utilized efficiently towards the achievement of their gals. Thus, management is not unique to business organizations but common to all kinds of social organizations. Management has achieved an enviable importance in recent times. We are all intimately associated with many kinds of organizations, the most omnipresent being the government, the school and the hospital. In fact, more and more of major social tasks are being organized on an institution basis. Medical care, education, recreation, irrigation, lighting, sanitation, etc., which typically used to be the concern of the individual or the family, are now the domain of large organizations. Although, organizations other than business do not speak of management, they all need management. It is the specific organ of all kinds of organizations since they all need to utilize their limited resources most efficiently and effectively for the achievement of their goals. It is the most vital forces in the successful performance of all kinds of organized social activities. 3Importance of management for the development of underdeveloped economies has been recognized during the last one and a half decade. There is a significant gap between the management effectiveness in developed and underdeveloped countries. It is rightly held that development is the function not only of capital, physical and material resources, but also of their optimum utilization. Effective management can produce not only more outputs of goods and services with given resources, but also expand them through better use of science and technology. A higher rate of economic growth can be attained in our country through more efficient and effective management of our business and other social organizations, even with existing physical and financial resources. That is why it is now being increasingly recognized that underdeveloped countries are indeed somewhat inadequately managed countries. The emergence of management in modern times may be regarded as a significant development as the advancement of modern technology. It has made possible organization of economic activity in giant organizations like the Steel Authority of India and the Life Insurance Corporation of India. It is largely through the achievements of modern management that western countries have reached the stage of mass consumption societies, and it is largely through more effective management of our economic and social institutions that we can improve the quality of life of our people. It is the achievements of business management that hold the hope for the huge masses in the third world countries that they can banish poverty and achieve for themselves decent standards of living. 1.2 DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT Although management as a discipline is more than 80 years old, there is no common agreement among its experts and practitioners about its precise definition. In fact, this is so in case of all social sciences like psychology, 4sociology, anthropology, economics, political science etc. As a result of unprecedented and breath-taking technological developments, business organizations have grown in size and complexity, causing consequential changes in the practice of management. Changes in management styles and practices have led to changes in management thought. Moreover, management being interdisciplinary in nature has undergone changes because of the developments in behavioural sciences, quantitative techniques, engineering and technology, etc. Since it deals with the production and distribution of goods and services, dynamism of its environments such as social, cultural and religious values, consumers' tastes and preferences, education and information explosion, democratization of governments, etc., have also led to changes in its theory and practice. Yet, a definition of management is necessary for its teaching and research, and also for improvement in its practice. Many management experts have tried to define management. But, no definition of management has been universally accepted. Let us discuss some of the leading definitions of management: Peter F. Drucker defines, "management is an organ; organs can be described and defined only through their functions". According to Terry, "Management is not people; it is an activity like walking, reading, swimming or running. People who perform Management can be designated as members, members of Management or executive leaders." Ralph C. Davis has defined Management as, "Management is the function of executive leadership anywhere." 5According to Mc Farland, "Management is defined for conceptual, theoretical and analytical purposes as that process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organization through systematic, co-ordinated co-operative human effort." Henry Fayol, "To mange is to forecast and plan, to organize, to compound, to co-ordinate and to control." Harold Koontz says, "Management is the art of getting things done through and within formally organized group." William Spriegal, "Management is that function of an enterprise which concerns itself with direction and control of the various activities to attain business objectives. Management is essentially an executive function; it deals with the active direction of the human effort." Kimball and Kimball, "Management embraces all duties and functions that pertain to the initiation of an enterprise, its financing, the establishment of all major policies, the provision of all necessary equipment, the outlining of the general form of organization under which the enterprise is to operate and the selection of the principal officers." Sir Charles Reynold, "Management is the process of getting things done through the agency of a community. The functions of management are the handling of community with a view of fulfilling the purposes for which it exists." 6E.F.L. Brech, "Management is concerned with seeing that the job gets done, its tasks all centre on planning and guiding the operations that are going on in the enterprise." Koontz and O'Donnel, "Management is the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individuals, working in groups, can perform efficiently and effectively toward the attainment of group goals. It is the art of getting the work done through and with people in formally organized groups." James Lundy, "Management is principally a task of planning, co- ordinating, motivating and controlling the efforts of other towards a specific objective. It involves the combining of the traditional factors of production land, labour, capital in an optimum manner, paying due attention, of course, to the particular goals of the organization." Wheeler, "Management is centered in the administrators or managers of the firm who integrate men, material and money into an effective operating limit." J.N. Schulze, "Management is the force which leads guides and directs an organization in the accomplishment of a pre-determined object." Oliver Scheldon, "Management proper is the function in industry concerned in the execution of policy, within the limits set up by the administration and the employment of the organization for the particular objectives set before it." 7Keith and Gubellini, "Management is the force that integrates men and physical plant into an effective operating unit." Newman, Summer and Warren, "The job of Management is to make co-operative endeavour to function properly. A manager is one who gets things done by working with people and other resources in order to reach an objective." G.E. Milward, "Management is the process and the agency through which the execution of policy is planned and supervised." Ordway Tead, "Management is the process and agency which directs and guides the operations of an organization in the realizing of established aims." Mary Parker Follett defines management as the "art of getting things done through people". This definition calls attention to the fundamental difference between a manager and other personnel of an organization. A manager is one who contributes to the organization’s goals indirectly by directing the efforts of others – not by performing the task himself. On the other hand, a person who is not a manager makes his contribution to the organization’s goals directly by performing the task himself. Sometimes, however, a person in an organization may play both these roles simultaneously. For example, a sales manager is performing a managerial role when he is directing his sales force to meet the organization’s goals, but when he himself is contacting a large customer and negotiating a deal, he is performing a non-managerial role. In the former role, he is directing the efforts of others and is contributing to the organization’s goals indirectly; in the latter role, he is directly utilizing his skills as a salesman to meet the organization’s objectives. 8A somewhat more elaborate definition of management is given by George R. Terry. He defines management as a process "consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and other resources". According to this definition, management is a process – a systematic way of doing things. The four management activities included in this process are: planning, organizing, actuating and controlling. Planing means that managers think of their actions in advance. Organizing means that managers coordinate the human and material resources of the organization. Actuating means that managers motivate and direct subordinates. Controlling means that managers attempt to ensure that there is no deviation from the norm or plan. If some part of their organization is on the wrong track, managers take action to remedy the situation. To conclude, we can say that various definitions of management do not run contrary to one another. Management is the sum-total of all those activities that (i) determine objectives, plans, policies and programmes; (ii) secure men, material, machinery cheaply (iii) put all these resources into operations through sound organization (iv) direct and motivate the men at work, (v) supervises and control their performance and (iv) provide maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and employees and public at large. 1.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features: 1. Economic Resource : Management is one of the factors of production together with land, labour and capital. As 9industrialization increases, the need for managers also increases. Efficient management is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity as it is the force which assembles and integrates other factors of production, namely, labour, capital and materials. Inputs of labour, capital and materials do not by themselves ensure production, they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. Thus, management is an essential ingredient of an organization. 2. Goal Oriented : Management is a purposeful activity. It coordinates the efforts of workers to achieve the goals of the organization. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the management at various levels. 3. Distinct Process : Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. 4. Integrative Force : The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Managers apply knowledge, experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals' goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. 105. System of Authority : Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority, a hierarchy of command and control. Managers at different levels possess varying degree of authority. Generally, as we move down in the managerial hierarchy, the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. 6. Multi-disciplinary Subject : Management has grown as a field of study (i.e. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as engineering, anthropology, sociology and psychology. Much of the management literature is the result of the association of these disciplines. For instance, productivity orientation drew its inspiration from industrial engineering and human relations orientation from psychology. Similarly, sociology and operations research have also contributed to the development of management science. 7. Universal Application : Management is universal in character. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business, education, military, government and hospital. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be coordinated. 1.4 MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS /PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT There is enough disagreement among management writers on the classification of managerial functions. Newman and Summer recognize only four functions, namely, organizing, planning, leading and controlling. 11Henri Fayol identifies five functions of management, viz. planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. Luther Gulick states seven such functions under the catch word "POSDCORB' which stands for planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. Warren Haynes and Joseph Massie classify management functions into decision-making, organizing, staffing, planning, controlling, communicating and directing. Koontz and O'Donnell divide these functions into planning organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. For our purpose, we shall designate the following six as the functions of a manager: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating and controlling. 1. Planning : Planning is the most fundamental and the most pervasive of all management functions. If people working in groups have to perform effectively, they should know in advance what is to be done, what activities they have to perform in order to do what is to be done, and when it is to be done. Planning is concerned with 'what', 'how, and 'when' of performance. It is deciding in the present about the future objectives and the courses of action for their achievement. It thus involves: (a) determination of long and short-range objectives; (b) development of strategies and courses of actions to be followed for the achievement of these objectives; and (c) formulation of policies, procedures, and rules, etc., for the implementation of strategies, and plans. The organizational objectives are set by top management in the context of its basic purpose and mission, environmental factors, business forecasts, and available and potential resources. These objectives are both long-range as well as short-range. They are 12divided into divisional, departmental, sectional and individual objectives or goals. This is followed by the development of strategies and courses of action to be followed at various levels of management and in various segments of the organization. Policies, procedures and rules provide the framework of decision making, and the method and order for the making and implementation of these decisions. Every manager performs all these planning functions, or contributes to their performance. In some organizations, particularly those which are traditionally managed and the small ones, planning are often not done deliberately and systematically but it is still done. The plans may be in the minds of their managers rather than explicitly and precisely spelt out: they may be fuzzy rather than clear but they are always there. Planning is thus the most basic function of management. It is performed in all kinds of organizations by all managers at all levels of hierarchy. 2. Organizing : Organizing involves identification of activities required for the achievement of enterprise objectives and implementation of plans; grouping of activities into jobs; assignment of these jobs and activities to departments and individuals; delegation of responsibility and authority for performance, and provision for vertical and horizontal coordination of activities. Every manager has to decide what activities have to be undertaken in his department or section for the achievement of the goals entrusted to him. Having identified the activities, he has to group identical or similar activities in order to make jobs, assign these jobs or groups of activities to his subordinates, delegate authority to them so as to enable them to make decisions and initiate action for undertaking these activities, and provide for coordination between himself and 13his subordinates, and among his subordinates. Organizing thus involves the following sub-functions : (a) Identification of activities required for the achievement of objectives and implementation of plans. (b) Grouping the activities so as to create self-contained jobs. (c) Assignment of jobs to employees. (d) Delegation of authority so as to enable them to perform their jobs and to command the resources needed for their performance. (e) Establishment of a network of coordinating relationships. Organizing process results in a structure of the organization. It comprises organizational positions, accompanying tasks and responsibilities, and a network of roles and authority-responsibility relationships. Organizing is thus the basic process of combining and integrating human, physical and financial resources in productive interrelationships for the achievement of enterprise objectives. It aims at combining employees and interrelated tasks in an orderly manner so that organizational work is performed in a coordinated manner, and all efforts and activities pull together in the direction of organizational goals. 3. Staffing : Staffing is a continuous and vital function of management. After the objectives have been determined, strategies, policies, programmes, procedures and rules formulated for their achievement, activities for the implementation of strategies, policies, programmes, etc. identified and grouped into jobs, the next logical step in the 14management process is to procure suitable personnel for manning the jobs. Since the efficiency and effectiveness of an organization significantly depends on the quality of its personnel and since it is one of the primary functions of management to achieve qualified and trained people to fill various positions, staffing has been recognized as a distinct function of management. It comprises several sub- functions : (a) Manpower planning involving determination of the number and the kind of personnel required. (b) Recruitment for attracting adequate number of potential employees to seek jobs in the enterprise. (c) Selection of the most suitable persons for the jobs under consideration. (d) Placement, induction and orientation. (e) Transfers, promotions, termination and layoff. (f) Training and development of employees. As the importance of human factor in organizational effectiveness is being increasingly recognized, staffing is gaining acceptance as a distinct function of management. It need hardly any emphasize that no organization can ever be better than its people, and managers must perform the staffing function with as much concern as any other function. 4. Directing : Directing is the function of leading the employees to perform efficiently, and contribute their optimum to the achievement of organizational objectives. Jobs assigned to subordinates have to be explained and clarified, they have to be provided guidance in job performance and they are to be motivated to contribute their 15optimum performance with zeal and enthusiasm. The function of directing thus involves the following sub-functions : (a) Communication (b) Motivation (c) Leadership 5. Coordination : Coordinating is the function of establishing such relationships among various parts of the organization that they all together pull in the direction of organizational objectives. It is thus the process of tying together all the organizational decisions, operations, activities and efforts so as to achieve unity of action for the accomplishment of organizational objectives. The significance of the coordinating process has been aptly highlighted by Mary Parker Follet. The manager, in her view, should ensure that he has an organization "with all its parts coordinated, so moving together in their closely knit and adjusting activities, so linking, interlocking and interrelation, that they make a working unit, which is not a congeries of separate pieces, but what I have called a functional whole or integrative unity". Coordination, as a management function, involves the following sub-functions: (a) Clear definition of authority-responsibility relationships (b) Unity of direction (c) Unity of command (d) Effective communication (e) Effective leadership 166. Controlling : Controlling is the function of ensuring that the divisional, departmental, sectional and individual performances are consistent with the predetermined objectives and goals. Deviations from objectives and plans have to be identified and investigated, and correction action taken. Deviations from plans and objectives provide feedback to managers, and all other management processes including planning, organizing, staffing, directing and coordinating are continuously reviewed and modified, where necessary. Controlling implies that objectives, goals and standards of performance exist and are known to employees and their superiors. It also implies a flexible and dynamic organization which will permit changes in objectives, plans, programmes, strategies, policies, organizational design, staffing policies and practices, leadership style, communication system, etc., for it is not uncommon that employees failure to achieve predetermined standards is due to defects or shortcomings in any one or more of the above dimensions of management. Thus, controlling involves the following process : (a) Measurement of performance against predetermined goals. (b) Identification of deviations from these goals. (c) Corrective action to rectify deviations. It may be pointed out that although management functions have been discussed in a particular sequence-planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating and controlling – they are not performed in a sequential order. Management is an integral process and it is difficult to put its functions neatly in separate boxes. Management functions 17tend to coalesce, and it sometimes becomes difficult to separate one from the other. For example, when a production manager is discussing work problems with one of his subordinates, it is difficult to say whether he is guiding, developing or communicating, or doing all these things simultaneously. Moreover, managers often perform more than one function simultaneously. 1.5 NATURE OF MANAGEMENT Management has been conceptualized earlier in this lesson, as the social process by which managers of an enterprise integrate and coordinate its resources for the achievement of common, explicit goals. It has developed into a body of knowledge and a separate identifiable discipline during the past six decades. Practice of management as an art is, of course, as old as the organized human effort for the achievement of common goals. Management has also acquired several characteristics of profession during recent times. Large and medium-sized enterprise in India and elsewhere are managed by professional managers – managers who have little or no share in the ownership of the enterprise and look upon management as a career. The nature of management as a science, as art and as a profession is discussed below : Management as a Science : Development of management as a science is of recent origin, even though its practice is ages old. Fredrick W. Taylor was the first manager-theorist who made significant contributions to the development of management as a science. He used the scientific methods of analysis, observation and experimentation in the management of production function. A perceptive manager, as he was, he distilled certain fundamental principles and propounded the theory and principles of scientific management. His work was followed by many others including Gantt, Emerson, Fayol, Barnard, etc. During the last few decades, great strides have been made in the development of management as a systematized body 18of knowledge which can be learnt, taught and researched. It has also provided powerful tools of analysis, prediction and control to practicing managers. The scientific character of management has been particularly strengthened by management scientists who have developed mathematical models of decision making. Another characteristic of science in management is that it uses the scientific methods of observation, experimentation and laboratory research. Management principles are firmly based on observed phenomena, and systematic classification and analysis of data. These analyses and study of observed phenomena are used for inferring cause-effect relationships between two or more variables. Generalizations about these relationships result in hypotheses. The hypotheses when tested and found to be true are called principles. These principles when applied to practical situations help the practitioner in describing and analyzing problems, solving problems and predicting the results. Even though management is a science so far as to possess a systematized body of knowledge and uses scientific methods of research, it is not an exact science like natural sciences. This is simply because management is a social science, and deals with the behaviour of people in organization. Behaviour of people is much more complex and variable than the behaviour of inanimate things such as light or heat. This makes controlled experiments very difficult. As a result, management principles lack the rigour and exactitude which is found in physics and chemistry. In fact, many natural sciences which deal with living phenomena such as botany and medicine are also not exact. Management is a social science like economics or psychology, and has the same limitations which these and other social sciences have. But this does not in any way diminish the value of management as a knowledge and discipline. It has provided powerful 19tools of analysis, prediction and control to practicing managers and helped them in performing their material tasks more efficiently and effectively. Management as an art : Just as an engineer uses the science of engineering while building a bridge, a manager uses the knowledge of management theory while performing his managerial functions. Engineering is a science; its application to the solution of practical problems is an art. Similarly, management as a body of knowledge and a discipline is a science; its application to the solution of organizational problems is an art. The practice of management, like the practice of medicine, is firmly grounded in an identifiable body of concepts, theories and principles. A medical practitioner, who does not base his diagnosis and prescription on the science of medicine, endangers the life of his patient. Similarly, a manager who manages without possessing the knowledge of management creates chaos and jeopardizes the well-being of his organization. Principles of management like the principles of medicine are used by the practitioner not as rules of thumb but as guides in solving practical problems. It is often said that managerial decision making involves a large element of judgement. This is true too. The raging controversy whether management is a science or an art is fruitless. It is a science as well as an art. Developments in the field of the knowledge of management help in the improvement of its practice; and improvements in the practice of management spur further research and study resulting in further development of management science. Management as a Profession : We often hear of professionalisation of management in our country. By a professional manager, we generally mean a manager who undertakes management as a career and is not interested in acquiring ownership share in the enterprise which he manages. But, is management a profession in the true sense of the word? or, is management 20

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