Lecture notes Wireless sensor Networks

wireless sensor networks current status and future trends and wireless sensor networks applications wireless sensor networks principles and practice pdf free download
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Dr.BlakeMorton,Jordan,Researcher
Published Date:17-07-2017
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Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks: Networking Aspects Nancy Panousopoulou Electrical and Computer Engineer, PhD Signal Processing Lab, ICS-FORTH apanousoics.forth.gr 8.04.2014, 10.04.2014Introduction & Reasoning of Existence • 10+years old • 3-in-1 attribute: sensing, processing, communicating • Secret of success: Miniaturized and cost-effective deployment • Research: Full of challenges ∝ Application areas…Introduction & Reasoning of Existence • What is a sensor node • Basic unit in sensor network processing, transceiver sensor (connection to the outer-world, (transducer, measuring a storage e.g. other sensor nodes, or data physical phenomenon e.g. (communication with sensor, • Contains on-board sensors, processor, collectors sinks) heat, light, motion, vibration, data acquisition, and and sound) memory, transceiver, and power supply preprocessing, buffers handling, etc) • What is a sensor network power unit (battery based – limited lifetime) • Consists of a large number of sensor nodes • Nodes deployed either inside or close to the phenomenon/parameter being sensedIntroduction & Reasoning of Existence Application Areas (1): Wild-life and environmental monitoring 1-8Introduction & Reasoning of Existence Application Areas (2): Industrial control & Automotive, structural health monitoring, Smart Cities 9-11Introduction & Reasoning of Existence Application Areas (3): Body area networks for sports, healthcare and wellbeing 12Introduction & Reasoning of Existence In contrast to data networks: Necessary means for accessing the “physical” space… Infrastructure-less information transfer towards support systems and decision makersIntroduction & Reasoning of Existence Technical Specs (Holistic Aspect) • Highly scalable (10 – 1000+) • Depending on the application • Lower bit rates than data networks (nominal max typically 250kbps) – reduced bandwidth requirements • Easily stretched w.r.t. application area changes & / the network size increases • Throughput / s.m. Dense networks are not only large-scale networks… • Power autonomy (and associated issues…) • Fixed in position? Maybe – Static in operation? No…. • No need for network infrastructure (unattended, long term monitoring) • Base Station / Gateway support for reaching the outer world.Outline • Part 1: Applications, Standards and Protocols • Introduction & Reasoning of Existence • Sensing, Processing, and Networking Aspects • Topologies, Standards & Network Protocols • Part 2: WSN Programming • Operating Systems • Examples & Hands on Session • A case study of network protocol design and experimental evaluation.sensing What do we sense? Depends on the application Challenges: • Accuracy & Operational parameters (e.g. how battery fluctuations affect accuracy) • Size • Hardware design • How to make them battery-less….proces sing How do we process it? Limited (for conventional platforms) • Trade off: Computational Efficiency Vs Power • Basic calculations at 16-bit architectures • More advanced? Doable but reduced speed (software & compiler) e.g. on-node Kalman filter for motion reconstruction (6 inputs – 4 outputs) 5seconds • Newer trends in hardware design: • increased memory for programming and calculations • New trend: collaborative & in-network processing • + distributed storage - resolved network issues… networ king What do we do with it? One of the most active research area in WSNs for the last decade… • Propagation characteristics & channel modeling • Protocols design (routing, MAC) • Energy conservation • Security • Topology Control • ….networ king What do we do with it? on-node & intra-network: w.r.t. OSI’s protocol stack No session / APP Sensing, Data Processing presentation layers as in conventional data networks ? Depending on HW capabilities & application demands Transport (lightweight version – limited functionality) NWK Open for research ( well-studied algorithms in practice) Fixed (e.g. TDMA / FDMA) or Contention-based (CSMA) approaches MAC (depends on both the technology and the appl. demands) – Also defined by standards PHY Standard-compliant or “Closed”What do we do with it? Inter-networking: w.r.t. application demands and outer-world connectivity Fusion Center Sensor Node Virtual flow Application Layer APP Visualiza- Data tion Transport Transport Unit Network MGM Unit NWK NWK Wired / Network Stack Network Stack Wireless Wireless, (e.g. WiFI, MAC MAC ad-hoc, GSM/GPRS, self- LAN, Ethernet, organized etc) PHY PHY Router / Gateway Resources • High Volume of information Small volume of information • Global perspective on the entire (locally available) systemOutline • Part 1: Applications, Standards and Protocols • Introduction & Reasoning of Existence • Sensing, Processing, and Networking Aspects • Standards, Topologies & Protocols • Part 2: WSN Programming • Operating Systems • Examples & Hands on Session • A case study of network protocol design and experimental evaluation.The standards The standards family: IEEE 802.15 13 • Topologies and network roles • PHY - frequency and channels, spectrum handling, modulation, bit rate • MAC – packet formats, operational modes, timing aspects, topologiesThe members of the family 13-14 Standard Description Initial Release / Revision Date Amendments IEEE 802.15.1 MAC and PHY Layer Specifications for 2002 / 2005 Bluetooth Core Configuration v4.0 and (Bluetooth) Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Bluetooth Low Energy (2009) IEEE 802.15.2 Coexistence of Wireless Personal Area 2003 In hibernation since 2011. Networks With Other Wireless Devices Operating in Unlicensed Frequency Bands IEEE 802.15.3 MAC and PHY Layer Specifications for High 2003 802.15.3b (2006): Amendment to MAC Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (HR- Sublayer WPANs) 802.15.3c (2009): Millimeter-wave-based Alternative Physical Layer Extension IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and PHY Layer Specifications for Low- 2003 /2006/ 2011 802.15.4.a (2007): PHY Layer Extension to Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR- WPANs) Chirp Spectrum Techniques and UWB systems 802.15.4c (2009): Alternative PHY Extension to support one or more of the Chinese 314-316 MHz, 430-434 MHz, and 779-787 MHz bands 802.15.4d (2009): Alternative PHY Layer Extension to support the Japanese 950 MHz bands 802.15.4e (2012): Amendment 1: MAC sub- layer 802.15.4f (2012): Active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) System PHY 802.15.4j (2013) – Alternative PHY Extension to support Medical Body Area Network (MBAN) services operating in the 2360-2400 MHz band - IEEE 802.15.5 Mesh Topology Capability in Wireless 2009 Personal Area Networks - IEEE 802.15.6 Wireless Body Area Networks 2012IEEE 802.15.4 Standard Description Initial Release / Revision Date Amendments IEEE 802.15.4 PHY and MAC Layer for Low Rate 2003 /2006/ 2011 802.15.4.a (2007): PHY Layer Extension to Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR- Chirp Spectrum Techniques and UWB systems WPAN) 802.15.4c (2009): Alternative PHY Extension to support one or more of the Chinese 314-316 MHz, 430-434 MHz, and 779-787 MHz bands 802.15.4d (2009): Alternative PHY Layer Extension to support the Japanese 950 MHz Bands 802.15.4e (2012): Amendment 1: MAC sub- Layer 802.15.4f (2012): Active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) System PHY 802.15.4j (2013) – Alternative PHY Extension to support Medical Body Area Network (MBAN) services operating in the 2360-2400 MHz bandIEEE 802.15.4 IEEE 802.15.4 Types of Devices 15 • Full-Function Device (FFD) • Capable of acting as the network’s coordinator or as a simple device • Undertaking complex network functionalities • Reduced-Function Device (RFD) • Extremely low bandwidth demands application specs (e.g. front-end low complexity sensors with no network intelligence, passive RFID, etc) A PAN Coordinator • Associates a PAN with an ID. Networks with different PAN IDs cannot communicate directly with each other. • Allows nodes to join, leave the PAN. If necessary initiates, terminates, routes the communication (RFD) • Usually is plugged into power source (Vs RFDs and FFDs)Coordinator RFD IEEE 802.15.4 FFD Types of topologies 15 • Star: each device (FFD or RDF) communicates with the PAN coordinator only • Suitable for small-scale networks that operate within a limited space • home automation, computer peripherals, peripherals, games, and personal health care • Peer-to-peer: FFD devices can communicate with each other, as long as they are within communication range. • More flexible than star, suitable for larger-scale networks that need distributed coordination between peers without the necessity of a central unit. • Multi-hopping, Cluster Trees, and Mesh networking • Environmental & Wild Life, Smart Cities, Industrial, etc.

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