Personality measurement and Development lab

personality development how to improve and personality development and communication skills and personality development notes pdf free
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Published Date:17-07-2017
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Professional Skills & Personality Development Lab Name: Roll No. : Branch: Section: PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities 2 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities Objectives  To listen to different texts and comprehend them.  To train students to use appropriate language for public speaking.  To encourage students to make writing habit.  To make the students understand the importance of working in teams in the present day scenario.  To make students understand how setting goals in life is important.  To make students realize how group decision making is better than decisions made individually.  To help students better understand basic leadership qualities and personality traits.  To stress upon students, the importance of time management.  To facilitate critical thinking and analysis of activities and attitudes that support company’s success. Outcomes  Comprehend conversations and speeches.  Speak with clarity and confidence, thereby enhancing their employability skills.  Identify his/her creative self, and express effectively the same in writing.  Explain the advantages of teamwork and how the tasks could be completed effectively when done as a cohesive unit.  Realize that selecting goal is a fundamental component to long-term success of an individual.  Enable students to understand different aspects of leadership and evaluate in their own strengths.  Be more organized and disciplined. 3 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities Syllabus 1. Seminar Presentations-2 Sessions 2. Public Speaking- 2 Sessions 3. Writing for different purposes-2 Sessions 4. Reading Comprehension- 2 Sessions 5. Listening Comprehension-2 Sessions 6. Working in Teams-1 Session 7. The art of Goal setting- 1 Session 8. Group decisions-1 Session 9. Time Management- 1 Session 10. Visioning Exercise- 1 Session 11. Leadership in Action- 1 Session 4 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities Contents Seminar Presentation ............................................................................................................................................ 6 Public Speaking ...................................................................................................................................................... 8 Writing for Different Purposes............................................................................................................................. 10 Reading Comprehension ...................................................................................................................................... 15 Listening Comprehension .................................................................................................................................... 18 Working in Teams ................................................................................................................................................ 20 The Art of Goal setting ......................................................................................................................................... 22 Group Decision Making ........................................................................................................................................ 24 Time Management ............................................................................................................................................... 26 Visioning Exercise ................................................................................................................................................. 28 Leadership in Action ............................................................................................................................................ 29 5 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities Seminar Presentation Objectives: Cognitive Objectives 1. To develop higher cognitive abilities. 2. To develop the ability of responding. 3. To develop the ability of keen observation of experience, feelings and to present them effectively. 4. To develop the ability to seek clarification and defend the ideas of others effectively. Affective Objectives 1. To develop the feeling of tolerance. 2. To develop the feelings of co-operation. 3. To develop the emotional ability among the participants of the seminar. 4. To acquire the good manners of putting questions and answering the questions of others effectively. Outcome: The presentation skills training seminars will transform students’ into influential presenters. A memorable presentation is about delivering your content with power and passion. Tips and Techniques for an Effective Presentation:  If you have handouts, do not read straight from them.  Do not put both hands in your pockets for long periods of time. This tends to make you look unprofessional.  Do not wave a pointer around in the air like a wild knight branding a sword to slay a dragon. Use the pointer for what it is intended and then put it down.  Do not lean on the podium for long periods.  Speak to the audience... NOT to the visual aids, such as flip charts or overheads. Also, do not stand between the visual aid and the audience. 6 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities  Speak clearly and loudly enough for all to hear. Do not speak in a monotone voice. Use inflection to emphasize your main points.  Use colored backgrounds on overhead transparencies and slides (such as yellow) as the bright white light can be harsh on the eyes. This will quickly cause your audience to tire.  Learn the name of each participant as quickly as possible. Based upon the atmosphere you want to create, call them by their first names or by using Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms.  Listen intently to comments and opinions. By using a l a t e r a l t h i n k i n g t e c h n i q u e (adding to ideas rather than dismissing them), the audience will feel that their ideas, comments, and opinions are worthwhile.  Circulate around the room as you speak. This movement creates a physical closeness to the audience.  List and discuss your objectives at the beginning of the presentation. Let the audience know how your presentation fits in with their goals. Discuss some of the fears and apprehensions that both you and the audience might have.  Get to the presentation before your audience arrives; be the last one to leave.  Be prepared to use an alternate approach if the one you've chosen seems to bog down. You should be confident enough with your own material so that the audience's interests and concerns, not the presentation outline, determines the format. Use your background, experience, and knowledge to interrelate your subject matter.  When writing on flip charts use no more than 7 lines of text per page and no more than 7 words per line (the 7 7 rule). Also, use bright and bold colors, and pictures as well as text.  Consider the time of day and how long you have got for your talk. Time of day can affect the audience. After lunch is known as the graveyard section in training circles as audiences will feel more like a nap than listening to a talk.  Most people find that if they practice in their head, the actual talk will take about 25 percent longer. Using a flip chart or other visual aids also adds to the time. Remember - It is better to finish slightly earlier than to overrun. 7 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities Public Speaking Objective: To make the student confident and relaxed in front of an audience. Outcome: The student will be able to structure his presentations and deliver them professionally. Public speaking (sometimes termed oratory or oration) is the process or the act of performing a presentation (a speech) focused around an individual directly speaking to a live audience in a structured, deliberate manner in order to inform, influence, or entertain them. Public speaking is commonly understood as the formal, face-to-face talking of a single person to a group of listeners. It is closely allied to "presenting", although the latter is more often associated with commercial activity. Most of the time, public speaking is to persuade the audience. In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as "who is saying what, to whom, using what medium, with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to tell a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence, persuasion, informing, translation, or ethos. Professional public speakers often engage in ongoing training and education to refine their craft. This may include seeking guidance to improve their speaking skills—such as learning better storytelling techniques, for example, or learning how to effectively use humor as a communication tool—as well as continuous research in their topic area of focus. Key Points Chances are that you'll sometimes have to speak in public as part of your role. While this can seem intimidating, the benefits of being able to speak well outweigh any perceived fears. To become a better speaker, use the following strategies:  Plan appropriately.  Practice.  Engage with your audience.  Pay attention to body language.  Think positively.  Cope with your nerves.  Watch recordings of your speeches. 8 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities If you speak well in public, it can help you get a job or promotion, raise awareness for your team or organization, and educate others. The more you push yourself to speak in front of others, the better you'll become, and the more confidence you'll have. 9 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities Writing for Different Purposes Objectives: To introduce the students the different kind of writing skills. Outcome: Students are proficient enough to write for different purposes. Each individual writer has their own aims and needs and their own way of approaching various parts of the writing process. However, whether you are writing a short essay, an article, a report or a research paper, the overall process is generally the same. As everyone knows that writing is an art, some people are born writers and some people are inspired writers and the people who are able to read more can write well and become good writers. Always be clear about the type of writing you are aiming for. Identify four key areas - genre, audience, purpose and style. Who exactly are you writing for, and what are you trying to tell them?  Genre - What type of text you are writing? Ex. A magazine article.  Audience - Who will be reading your text? Ex. Teenagers.  Purpose – What is your purpose? Ex. To convince people to do more sport.  Style - Your chosen writing style. Ex. Informal. Make notes on these four areas and use them to help plan your writing. You should also think about:  Content - what you want to say.  Organization - how to lay out and structure your writing.  Accuracy - correct spelling and punctuation.  Vocabulary – using interesting words to bring your writing to life. Writing an Argument: It is a useful skill to have and will enable you to express your opinions and views. Many essays that you have to write, whether during your school or college course or in an examination, will require you to present a reasoned argument on a particular issue. This will often be based on your research into the topic, but some questions may ask you to give your opinion. In both cases, your argument must be clearly organized and supported with information, evidence and reasons. The language tends to be formal and impersonal. 10 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities Task: Write a letter to your Local Education Authority, arguing for or against compulsory school uniforms for all pupils. Before attempting the task, think about the genre, audience, purpose and style of your letter:  Genre - the genre is a formal letter. This means you should think about layout, openings and closings and structure.  Audience - the intended audience is a member of the Local Education Authority. This means that they'll be a professional adult who you should address in a formal tone and style.  Purpose - the purpose is to influence their decision on the compulsory wearing of school uniform, either for or against.  Style - the style is formal and measured so no use of slang words. You are hoping to influence your audience and be taken seriously. Writing a Report: It describes a study, an investigation, or a project. Its purpose is to provide recommendations or updates, and sometimes to persuade the readers to accept an idea. It is written by a single person or a group who has investigated the issue. It is read by people who require the information. Reports can vary in length, but a good rule to remember is that they should be as long as necessary and as short as possible. Need to make the objective of the report clear so that the people who are reading the report know why they are reading. Thinking about the readers and what they need to know will help to improve the report. Writing to Inform: To inform means to give facts to another person. If you were informed someone about a job, you should:  Use straightforward language to convey essential information. Ex. What is involved in the job?  Give the readers a bit more information. Ex. What is interesting about the job and what you enjoy about it?  Remember you are giving information. Imagine that someone asked about your job because they are thinking they might like a similar one. When informing, you should remember:  Genre - giving instructions, recipes, directions, manuals, science experiment.  Audience - could be anyone. 11 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities  Purpose - to inform, giving unbiased information which is reliable and factual.  Style – formal. Useful Techniques When writing to inform, make sure:  The language is clear, factual and impersonal.  Use short and clear sentences. Break up the writing with diagrams, illustrations, pictures and subheadings Writing to Explain: To explain means to make clear, show the meaning or to account for:  Who you're writing to.  Why you're writing to them. Ex. Being fair is a good quality in a career because... When explaining, you should remember:  Genre - could be explaining a set of data, a speech, or how a mechanism works.  Audience - could be anyone.  Purpose - to explain, to make clear and show the meaning/to account for something.  Style - formal or informal. Useful Techniques  Writing to explain is generally in the third person and in the past or present tense.  Use clear and factual language.  Give a balanced view with evidence for any points made.  Use connectives of comparison. Ex. whereas, though, while, unless, equally, however. Writing to Describe: To describe is to give a description of what something or someone is like. When describing, remember your thoughts and feelings are important. How does this place make you feel and why?  Genre - writing a story, describing a scene, a diary entry.  Audience - could be anyone.  Purpose - to describe, to get a vivid picture in the readers' head so they almost feel like they are there.  Style - informal. 12 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities Useful Techniques When writing to describe, use adjectives and adverbs. Ex. He walked away casually. Use similes. Ex. He is acting like a fool, Use metaphors. Ex. That girl is a star. Most importantly, appeal to the readers' senses:  What does it look like?  What does it feel like?  What does it sound like?  What does it smell like?  What does it taste like? Writing Emails: Emails vary in formality depending on how well you know the reader and what your status is in relation to them. All emails should be polite, but the variation in level of politeness depending on who you are writing to and what you are asking them. Writers use the level of formality and politeness to achieve an appropriate tone. Emails between colleagues of a similar status can be informal and personal, but should still be polite and friendly. Email Etiquette:  Always use a short, informative subject line, not single general words. Ex. Urgent  Mention attachments and say what they contain. Don’t leave the body of the email empty.  Acknowledge email attachments you receive. Thanks and your name are often enough.  Reread your email before you send it to make sure it is understandable and not offensive.  Should not use very informal language, incomplete sentences, exclamation marks of emotions.  Can be less formal as you establish a working relationship with somebody.  Academic emails are usually personal, not official. You are writing to a specific named individual, not to somebody in the official role.  Remember to use a level of formality and politeness to achieve an appropriate tone. Writing a CV or Resume: A well-written and appropriate CV or Resume is vital for getting you to the interview stage for a job. 13 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities  Adapt your CV so that it is appropriate for the job you are applying for.  Keep your CV short-not more than 2 pages if possible.  Present yourself positively and accurately.  Make your CV attractive and easy to read, use capital, bold type, spacing and underlining.  Choose a typeface such as Times New Roman, Arial or Verdana at least 10 PT.  No need to mention age, gender, nationality, race, religion or marital status. Don’t send a photo unless you are asked for.  Write an objective to give an employer an idea of who you are.  Educational and experience, from most recent to the last. Writing a Covering Letter: A covering letter accompanies a CV or an application form. In British and America, they are usually typed on a single page. A good letter uses formal language and presents some key arguments for why your application should be taken seriously. 14 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities Reading Comprehension Objective: To make the students learn different levels of comprehension and tips to strengthen their comprehension of the reading. Outcome: Students strengthen reading by using these levels of comprehension and solve any kind of Reading Comprehension test. Define Reading Comprehension? According to Webster's Dictionary, comprehension is "the capacity for understanding fully; the act or action of grasping with the intellect." Reading is "to receive or take in the sense of, as letters or symbols, by scanning; to understand the meaning of written or printed matter; to learn from what one has seen or found in writing or printing. Strengthening Reading Comprehension: 1. Analyze the time and place in which you are reading - If you've been reading or studying for several hours, mental fatigue may be the source of the problem. If you are reading in a place with distractions or interruptions, you may not be able to understand what you're reading. 2. Rephrase each paragraph in your own words - You might need to approach complicated material sentence by sentence, expressing each in your own words. 3. Read aloud sentences or sections that are particularly difficult - Reading out loud sometimes makes complicated material easier to understand. 4. Reread difficult or complicated sections - At times, in fact, several readings are appropriate and necessary. 5. Slow down your reading rate - Simply reading more slowly and carefully will provide you with the needed boost in comprehension. 6. Turn headings into questions - Refer to these questions frequently and jot down or underline answers. 7. Write a brief outline of major points - This will help you see the overall organization and progression of ideas. 8. Highlight key ideas - After you've read a section, go back and think about and highlight what is important. Highlighting forces you to sort out what is important, and this sorting process builds comprehension and recall. 15 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities 9. Write notes in the margins - Explain or rephrase difficult or complicated ideas or sections. 10. Determine whether you lack background knowledge - Comprehension is difficult, at times, and it is impossible, if you lack essential information that the writer assumes you have. Levels of Comprehension The three levels of comprehension. • Least = surface, simple reading • Most = in-depth, complex reading Level One Literal - what is actually stated?  Facts and details  Rote learning and memorization  Surface understanding only The tests in this category are objective tests dealing with true / false, multiple choice and fill in the blank questions. Common questions used to elicit this type of thinking are who, what, when, and where questions. Level Two Interpretive - what is implied or meant, rather than what is actually stated.  Drawing inferences  Tapping into prior knowledge / experience  Attaching new learning to old information  Making logical leaps and educated guesses  Reading between the lines to determine what is meant by what is stated. The tests in this category are subjective, and the types of questions asked are open-ended, thought-provoking questions like why, what if, and how. Level Three Applied - taking what was said (literally) and then what was meant by what was said (Interpretive) and then extend (apply) the concepts or ideas beyond the situation.  Analyzing  Synthesizing  Applying 16 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities At this level, we are analyzing or synthesizing information and applying it to other Information. 17 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities Listening Comprehension Objective: To make the students accept and understand the importance of listening in professional scenario. Outcome: The students will be able to practically exercise his listening skills strategically. Listening comprehension is more than just hearing what is said; rather, it is a candidate’s ability to understand the meaning of the words he hears and to relate to them in some way. When students hear a story, for instance, good listening comprehension enables them to understand it, remember it, discuss it, and even retell it in their own words. This is an important skill to develop even at an early age, because good listeners grow up to become good communicators. Learning to listen carefully and comprehend those subtleties is not only an important prerequisite to reading comprehension, but also provides a rich resource for professionals to draw upon when they want to convey their own thoughts and feelings. Language learning depends on listening. Listening provides the aural input that serves as the basis for language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken communication. Effective language instructors show students how they can adjust their listening behavior to deal with a variety of situations, types of input, and listening purposes. They help students develop a set of listening strategies and match appropriate strategies to each listening situation. Listening Strategies Listening strategies are techniques or activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the listener processes the input. Top-down strategies are listener based; the listener taps into background knowledge of the topic, the situation or context, the type of text, and the language. This background knowledge activates a set of expectations that help the listener to interpret what is heard and anticipate what will come next. Top-down strategies include  Listening for the main idea  Predicting  Drawing inferences  Summarizing 18 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities Bottom-up strategies are text based; the listener relies on the language in the message, that is, the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning. Bottom-up strategies include  Listening for specific details  Recognizing cognates  Recognizing word-order patterns Strategic listeners also use metacognitive strategies to plan, monitor, and evaluate their listening.  They plan by deciding which listening strategies will serve best in a particular situation.  They monitor their comprehension and the effectiveness of the selected strategies.  They evaluate by determining whether they have achieved their listening comprehension goals and whether the combination of listening strategies selected was an effective one. 19 PSPD Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities Working in Teams Objective: To understand the importance of working as a team and the impact of team spirit on achieving organizational goals Outcome: Students would understand the importance of team-based projects when compared to individual projects in an attempt to boost growth and innovation in any organization. Teamwork means a group of individuals working together to achieve a common goal. People in the workplace, perform teamwork when workers combine their individual skills in pursuit of a goal. Teamwork is an important buzzword in schools, universities and at offices today. We are rapidly moving away from individual projects to team-based projects in an attempt to boost growth and innovation. An individual has his set of strengths and weaknesses, but when a group of individuals come together, they are able to eliminate their weaknesses and enhance their strengths. This is the power of teamwork. By combining the strengths of team members, new heights of success can be reached. When people work together, they don’t think about their individual gains; they think about the welfare of the group. Teamwork is a fusion of three elements – collaboration, compromise and cooperation. When a group of individuals work together, there is bound to be friction because of differing viewpoints. However, people come to a compromise to prevent the downfall of a group. In team-based sports such as football, hockey and cricket, we witness team members leaving their differences behind and working towards a common goal – to defeat the opponents. We don’t see competition between the members of the same team because there is no ‘I’ in teamwork. It is true that no one can break a bundle of sticks, but one can break single sticks if they are no longer part of a bundle. Similarly, it will be difficult to defeat a team because ‘unity is strength’. It is true that “united we stand, divided we fall”. So, it is only when individuals leave their differences behind and work towards a common goal can they achieve success. In a war, we notice the same phenomenon. Soldiers do not think of their glory and fame when fighting for their country. They put the nation before self. In history books and in reality, we have always seen the victory of teams and the downfall of individuals. This is the beauty of teamwork. Key points: Effective Teams have the following characteristics:  Common Goal 20

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