Lecture notes on General Psychology

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LECTURE NOTES For Health Science Students General Psychology Girma Lemma Defense University College In collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education July 2005 Funded under USAID Cooperative Agreement No. 663-A-00-00-0358-00. Produced in collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education. Important Guidelines for Printing and Photocopying Limited permission is granted free of charge to print or photocopy all pages of this publication for educational, not-for-profit use by health care workers, students or faculty. All copies must retain all author credits and copyright notices included in the original document. Under no circumstances is it permissible to sell or distribute on a commercial basis, or to claim authorship of, copies of material reproduced from this publication. ©2006 by Girma Lemma All rights reserved. Except as expressly provided above, no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission of the author or authors. This material is intended for educational use only by practicing health care workers or students and faculty in a health care field. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer acknowledges with gratitude THE CARTER CENTER (TCC) ETHIOPIAN PUBLIC HEALTH TRAINING INITIATIVE (EPHTI) for initiating and providing financial support for the preparation of this lecture note. I would like to extend my special thanks and appreciation to Dr.Youdit Abraha and Dr. Bekele Kebede, dean and associate dean of the Defense College of Health Sciences, for their facilitation and constant monitoring of the work. The insightful comments forwarded by ato Waleligne from Alemaya University, Ato Yohannes from Jimma University, Ato Yemataw Wondie from Gondar University, Ato Feseha W/ Michael and Ato Abesha Ayele from Kotobe College of Teacher Education, Ato Fasika Melesse, Ato Birhane G/Kidan and Ato mekonnen Zegeye from Defense University College deserve special attention. i FOREWORD Psychology is increasingly getting importance in human lives. Major problems of our time such as poverty, environmental and ecological crisis and many other social and economic problems have important psychological implications. Today, no walk of human life can be out of the practical contributions of psychology. Its contribution is particularly recognized in the area of health. Psychologists focus on the prevention of physical and psychological problems rather than just on their treatment. To achieve this, the study of human behavior and how human beings interact with their environment and how they develop physically, socially, emotionally and mentally is important. This teaching material is prepared as part of The Ethiopian Public Health Initiative: Curriculum and Staff Strengthening Program sponsored by The Carter Center. It was recognized that there is a need to write simplified lecture notes to health science students enrolled in the university colleges. The specific need for writing this lecture note arose from mitigating shortages of teaching materials in these higher institutions. This teaching material provides students with basic understanding of human behavior in general and shows the ii contribution of psychology in alleviating the health problems of our society in particular. It has incorporated essential and selected topics arranged in a logical manner so as to serve the prospective practitioners in carrying out their duties and responsibilities effectively. Each chapter begins with a list of behavioral objectives and an introductory remark about the contents, followed by brief concepts structured in a didactic approach. The topics under each chapter are enriched with varieties of health related examples and activities aimed at promoting active learning. What is more, all chapters end with self- assessment questions measuring higher-order learning outcomes in line with the objectives stated under each chapter. Long years of teaching experience in the field coupled with constructive comments and suggestions solicited from the intra and inter review workshops largely helped the writer to elaborate basic concepts of the subject in a simple and understandable way. Though the teaching material is intended primarily to serve instructors and students in the health colleges, it is equally relevant to universities and colleges running non-health related programs. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Content topic Page Acknowledgement ..............................................................i Forward .............................................................................ii Table of contents .............................................................. iv Acronyms ..........................................................................x Chapter one: Introductory concepts in psychology...1 1.1. The subject matter of psychology....................1 1.2. Major perspectives in the historical development of Psychology ........................10 1.2.1. Early perspectives ..............................11 1.2.2. Recent perspectives ...........................19 1.3. Some branches of psychology .....................22 1.4. Research methods in psychology .................28 Chapter two: Biological basis of behavior ..................41 2.1. Definition and general remark ......................41 2.2. Neurons ........................................................42 2.3. Neurotransmitters .........................................44 2.4. Major parts of the brain and their relationship to behavior .......................................................48 iv 2.5. Major components and functions of the endocrine system .........................................54 Chapter three: Sensations and perceptions................56 3.1. General remark .............................................56 3.2. Basic terms and concepts related to Sensation and perception ............................58 3.3. Theories related to sensation and perception ..............................................................................67 Chapter four: Psychology of learning ..........................77 4.1. General remark and definition .......................77 4.2. Modes of learning .........................................79 4.3. Factors for effective learning ........................80 4.4. Theories of learning.......................................83 4.4.1. General remark...................................83 4.4.2. Behaviorist learning theory .................84 4.4.3. Cognitive learning theory .................103 Chapter five: Motivation and emotion .......................117 5.1. Motivation: definition and general remark....117 5.2. Theories of motivation .................................118 5.3. Emotions......................................................125 5.3.1. Definition and general remark.......125 5.3.2. The functions of emotions.............127 v 5.3.3. Types of emotions ........................128 5.3.4. Theories of emotion ......................129 5.3.5. Expressions of emotions...............132 Chapter six: Developmental psychology...................134 6.1. Definitions and general remark..................134 6.2. Heredity versus environment issue............137 6.3. Sensitive periods in development..............141 6.4. Stages of human development..................142 6.4.1. Pre-natal development...................142 6.4.2. Post-natal development.................147 Chapter seven: Psychology of personality................167 7.1. Definition and general remark .....................167 7.2. Historical development of personality psychology .................................................171 7.3. Theories of personality ................................173 7.3.1. General remark......................................174 7.3.2. Psychoanalytic theories.........................177 7.3.2.1. Personality structures ................179 7.3.2.2. Anxiety and defense mechanism184 7.3.2.3. Psycho-sexual stages and how personality develops .................189 7.3.3. Other psychoanalytic theories ...............193 7.3.3.1. General remark..........................193 vi 7.3.3.2. The analytic psychology of Carl Jung............................................194 7.3.3.3. Alfred Adlers individual psychology ...................................................195 7.3.3.4. Evaluating psychoanalytic theories ....................................................197 7.3.4. Trait theories..........................................198 7.3.4.1. General remark..........................198 7.3.4.2. Allport’s trait approach ...............199 7.3.4.3. Cattel’s personality traits............201 7.3.4.4. Eysenack’s dimensions of personality ................................203 7.3.4.5. The new trend............................205 7.3.4.6. Evaluation of trait theories .........207 7.3.5. Humanistic approaches to personality...207 7.4. Personality assessment...............................209 7.4.1. General remark......................................209 7.4.2. Self report inventories............................210 7.4.3. Projective techniques ............................213 7.4.4. Physiological measures.........................214 7.4.5. The interview technique.........................215 7.4.6. Behavioral assessment .........................216 7.4.7. Case study.............................................219 7.4.8. Personality and the health profession ...220 vii Chapter eight: Health stress and coping ...................222 8.1. Health ....................................................222 8.1.1. What is health? .............................222 8.1.2. Mental health ...............................226 8.1.3. Health models ..............................229 8.2. Definition of stress and stressors ................230 8.3. The coping process and coping strategies ..233 8.4. The general adaptive syndrome ..................236 8.5. The role of psychology in health..................238 Chapter nine: Abnormal psychology ........................241 9.1. General remark ...........................................241 9.2. Mental health professionals.........................243 9.3. Defining psychological disorders .................244 9.4. Perspectives on the causes of psychological disorders .....................................................248 9.4.1. The biological perspective ................248 9.4.2. The psychological perspective .........249 9.4.3. The interpersonal or family systems perspective ...................................250 9.4.4. The socio cultural perspective..........250 9.5. Classification of psychological disorders.....251 9.5.1. Anxiety disorders..............................251 9.5.2. Somatoform disorders.......................255 9.5.3. Dissociate disorders..........................257 viii 9.5.4. Mood disorder ...................................259 9.5.5. Schizophrenia ...................................261 9.5.6. Personality disorders ........................264 9.5.7. Sexual and gender identity disorder .269 9.5.8. Eating disorder..................................272 Chapter ten: Treatment of psychological disorders .274 10.1. General remark..........................................274 10.2. Treatment techniques................................275 10.2.1. Psychoanalytic therapy...............275 10.2.2. Behavioral therapy......................277 10.2.3. Cognitive approaches to therapy282 10.2.4. Humanistic therapy.....................285 Glossary ...................................................................288 References ...................................................................292 ix ACRONYMS WHO: world health organization ACH: acetylcholine DA: dopamine ATP: adenosine tri-phosphate EEG: electro encephalogram CAT: computerized axial tomopgraphy HIV: human immuno-deficiency virus PET: position emission tomography MRT: magnetic resonance imaging S-R: stimulus-response UCS: unconditioned stimulus UCR: unconditioned response NS: neutral stimulus CS: conditioned stimulus CR: conditioned response VIS: visual information store DRT: drive reduction theory x MMPI: Minnesota-multi phase inventory ABC: antecedent behavioral consequences AIDS: acquired immuno deficiency syndrome PTSD: post traumatic stress disorder GAs: general adaptive syndrome DSM: diagnostic statistical manual xiGeneral Psychology CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS IN PSYCHOLOGY Objectives: at the end of the chapter the student is expected to: ƒ Define basic terms in the course; ƒ Explain the role of psychology as a means of promoting human welfare; ƒ Differentiate the sub fields of psychology; ƒ Relate major perspective of psychology with issues it is concerned about; ƒ Describe and evaluate major theoretical approaches to psychology; ƒ Identify the main areas of research interest and professional activities in psychology. 1.1.The subject matter of psychology and its definition Brainstorming: Students will exchange their experience on the following questions as a means to assess their pre-conception about the subject psychology. What comes to your mind when you hear the word psychology? General Psychology Have you read or listened to anything related to psychology? What was its content about? Did you appreciate it? Why? What do you expect from the course in psychology? The introductory part of psychology emphasizes on two aspects: 1. Psychology as a science A Science is defined not by what it studies but by how it studies. Psychologists like any other scientists systematically observe facts about human beings and organize these facts to arrive at generalizations. Psychology shares with other sciences certain aims, assumptions, ways of carrying out research and ways of building and modifying theories. 2. Psychology is a body of knowledge that can be applied to help solve a variety of human problems. In addition to the contribution in the area of research (developmental, social, experimental, physiological psychology), there are many other areas of professional applications. Clinical psychologists work with psychiatrists in a hospital context or with other health professionals in the community. Educational psychologists work with children and adolescents in schools, colleges, and nurseries 2General Psychology and in the home. They collaborate with parents and teachers to assess a child’s progress at school and provide help and advice. Counseling psychologists work with individuals, families, couples or groups to improve people’s well being, alleviate distress and help them solve their own problems and take their own decisions. Definition and general remark The word psychology is derived from two Greek words “psyche” and “logos.” Psyche means soul and logos means the study. Thus, originally psychology was defined as the study of “soul” or “spirit.” But later on philosophers defined psyche as mind. Because of this, psychology began to be regarded as the study of an individual’s mind or mental process. Through time, this later definition of psychology was given up because the mind as an object does not exist: and cannot be observed and measured objectively. The most widely and accepted definition of psychology is: the science of behavior and mental processes of both humans and animals. There are some concepts in this definition which need further explanations: The terms are “science” and “behavior.” 3General Psychology What is science? Science is a group of related facts and principles of a particular subject. In science we collect related facts by the use of objective methods to develop a theory to explain those facts. From a given set of conditions, science helps us to predict future happenings. Example-Biology explains how living things grow and develop. Anatomy describes the structure of human body. Physiology deals with the function of various parts and systems of the body. Nursing and the rest of the health sciences are also founded on science. Similarly, Psychology as a science deals systematically with human behavior, motives, feelings, emotions, thoughts and actions of men and women. Like other sciences, Psychology discovers and explains the underlying laws and principles of behavior. Its goals are describing, explaining, predicting and finally modifying human behavior. What is behavior? Behavior In its broader sense includes all types of human activities. 4General Psychology Example- Motor activities (Walking, speaking) ƒ Cognitive activities (perceiving, remembering, thinking, reasoning) ƒ Emotional activities (feeling happy, sad, angry, afraid) Behavior is both mental and bodily. ƒ Mental behaviors are thinking, reasoning, imagination and other mental experiences or processes. ƒ Bodily behavior refers to the movements and actions of the body in response to a situation. Behavior is the reaction of an individual to a particular environment. The environment exerts influence on individuals. That influence is called stimulus. The stimulus in turn arouses an activity from the individual and this is called the response. Example-A man may be admitted to a hospital for a surgical operation (stimulus) The man feels frightened and worries because he is uncertain what may happen next (response) This stimulus response combination constitutes the behavior of an individual. The human behavior consists of physical responses, feelings, emotions and tensions, and all intellectual responses, perceiving, thinking, recalling, and reasoning. 5General Psychology Behavior shows growth and development from the early years of infancy to maturity and old age. Psychology as a science studies how behavior grows and develops from infancy to old age and also studies behavioral differences between people. In general there are four major facts proposed in relation to the nature of behavior. These are: ƒ Behavior has a bodily basis ƒ Behavior is dynamic ƒ Behavior varies from person to person ƒ Behavior is social Psychologists collect facts of behavior by means of objective methods such as observation and experiment and predict human behavior. Example- a patient may react with anger if his movements are restricted in the ward. If the health professional has knowledge of scientific psychology, it is possible to predict and control the patient’s behavior. At times psychologists study animal behavior. The reasons are: ƒ The study of animal behavior helps to develop general laws of behavior that apply to all organisms. ƒ The study of animal behavior provides important clues to answering questions about human behavior. 6General Psychology ƒ For ethical reasons it is sometimes difficult to conduct psychological experiments on human beings. Psychology has a contribution to the health professional. Some of the contributions are: 1. It helps to understand oneself. ƒ Helps to make rational decisions on becoming a health professional; ƒ To fulfill the need for economic self- sufficiency; ƒ Helps to assess ones own abilities and limitations; ƒ Enables to control situations in the college and attain goal through self-discipline. 2. It assists in understanding other people. ƒ The health professional works with patients, families, other nurses, doctors and administrative staffs. ƒ Equipped with the knowledge of psychology, the health professional will achieve greater success in interpersonal relationships. ƒ Psychology helps the health professional to learn why others differ from him/her in their 7

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