Lecture notes on E-commerce

e-commerce and e-business lecture notes. what is e commerce advantages and disadvantages and what is e-commerce architecture pdf free download
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E COMMERCE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SREE CHAITHANYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING E COMMERCE BY CH.DEEPTHI ASSISTANT PROFESOR SREE CHAITHANYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KARIMNAGAR SCCE_CSE Page 1 E COMMERCE B.Tech IV/CSE IInd semester Term: 2010-2011 SYLLABUS UNIT-1: Introduction, Electronic Commerce Framework, the Anatomy of E-Commerce applications, E-Commerce Consumer applications, E-Commerce organization applications. UNIT-2: Consumer Oriented Applications, mercantile process models, mercantile models from the consumer’s perspective, Mercantile from the merchant’s perspective. UNIT-3: Types of Electronic Payment Systems, Digital Token-Based Electronic Payment Systems, Smart Cards & Electronic Payment Systems, Credit Card- Based Electronic Payment Systems, Risk & Electronic Payment Systems, Designing Electronic Payment Systems. UNIT-4: Electronic Data Interchange, EDI Applications in Business, EDI implementation, MIME, and value added networks. UNIT-5: Intra organizational E-Commerce, Macro forces and Internal Commerce, Work flow automation and Coordination, Customization and Internal Commerce, Supply Chain Management(SCM). UNIT-6: Making a business case for a Document Library, Digital document types, Corporate Data warehouses, Advertising and Marketing, the new age of Information Based Marketing, Advertising on Internet, charting the Online marketing process, Market Research. UNIT-7: Consumer Search and Resource Discovery, information search and Retrieval, Electronic commerce catalogs or directories, Information Filtering. UNIT-8: Multimedia and Digital video, Key Multimedia concepts, Digital Video & Electronic Commerce, Desktop Video Processing, Desktop Video Conferencing. Text Books: 1.Frontiers of electronic commerce – Kalakota, Whinston, Pearson 2. E-Commerce, S.Jaiswal – Galgotia SCCE_CSE Page 2 E COMMERCE Unit- I 1. Introduction: • It is a general concept covering any form of business transaction or information exchange executed using information and communication technologies (ICT’s) • It includes electronic trading of goods, services and electronic material. • It takes place between companies, between companies and their customers, or between companies and public administrations. They can be classified by application type: 1. Electronic Markets • Present a range of offerings available in a market segment so that the purchaser can compare the prices of the offerings and make a purchase decision. Example: Airline Booking System 2. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) • It provides a standardized system • Coding trade transactions • Communicated from one computer to another without the need for printed orders and invoices & delays & errors in paper handling • It is used by organizations that a make a large no. of regular transactions Example: EDI is used in the large market chains for transactions with their suppliers 3. Internet Commerce • It is use to advertise & make sales of wide range of goods & services. • This application is for both business to business & business to consumer transactions. Example: The purchase of goods that are then delivered by post or the booking of tickets that can be picked up by the clients when they arrive at the event 2. Scope of E-Commerce: • Internet e-commerce is one part of the overall sphere of e-commerce. SCCE_CSE Page 3 E COMMERCE 3. Electronic Commerce and the trade cycle: • It can be applied to all, or to different phases of the trade cycle • The trade cycle various depending on  The nature of the organizations  Frequency of trade between the patterns to the exchange  The nature of goods and services being exchanged • Trade cycle support 1. Finding goods and services (referred to as a search & negotiation) 2. Placing the order, taking delivery & making payment (execution and settlement) 3. After sales activities such as warrantee, services etc. The three generic trade cycles can be identified: 1. Regular, repeat transactions (repeat trade cycle) 2. Irregular transactions, where execution & settlement are separated (credit transactions) 3. Irregular transactions where execution & settlement are combined (cash transactions) SCCE_CSE Page 4 E COMMERCE Electronic Markets: • It increases the efficiency of the market • It reduces the search cost for the buyer & makes it more likely that buyer will continue the search until the best buy is found • It exist in commodity, financial markets & they are also used in airline booking system • It is irregular transaction trade cycle. Electronic Data Interchange: • Applications are sending test results from the pathology laboratory to the hospital or dispatching exam results from exam boards to school  It is used trade exchanges  Users are vehicle assemblers, ordering components for the supermarkets  It is used for regular repeat transactions  It takes quite lot of work to set up systems  It is part of schemes for just-in-manufacture and quick response supply  Mature use of EDI allows for a change in the nature of the product or service  Mass Customization is such an example SCCE_CSE Page 5 E COMMERCE Internet Commerce:  The first stage  Advertising appropriate goods and services  Internet sites offer only information & any further steps down the trade cycle are conducted on the telephone  The Second stage  An increasing no. of sites offer facilities to execute & settle the transaction  Delivery may be electronic or by home delivery depending on the goods and services  The final stage  After-sales service  On-line support & On-Line services. SCCE_CSE Page 6 Technical standards for electronic documents, m ultim edia contents, business transactions, and network protocols Public policy, legal, econom ical developm ent, and privacy issues E COMMERCE Generic Framework of Electronic Commerce Electronic Commerce Applications Supply Chain Management Online Marketing and Advertising Procurement & Purchasing Online Shopping Audio and Video on Demand Online Financial Transaction Entertainment and Gaming Education and Research Common Business Services Infrastructure (Security/Authentication, Electronic Payment, Directories/Catalogs) Multimedia Content & Network Publishing Infrastructure (Digital Video, Electronic Books, World Wide Web) Messaging & Information Distribution Infrastructure (EDI, E-Mail, HyperText Transfer Protocol) Information Superhighway Infrastructure (Telecom, Cable TV, Wireless, Internet) 3. Electronic Commerce Framework • E-Commerce application will be built on the existing technology infrastructure  A myriad of computers  Communication networks  Communication software • Common business services for facilitating the buying and selling process • Messaging & information distribution as a means of sending and retrieving information • Multimedia content & network publishing, for creating a product & a means to communicate about it • The information superhighway- the very foundation-for providing the high way system along which all e-commerce must travel • The two pillars supporting all e-commerce applications & infrastructure • Any successful e-commerce will require the I-way infrastructure in the same way that regular commerce needs • I-way will be a mesh of interconnected data highways of many forms  Telephone,wires,cable TV wire  Radio-based wireless-cellular & satellite • Movies=video + audio SCCE_CSE Page 7 E COMMERCE • Digital games=music + video + software • Electronic books=text + data + graphics + music + photographs + video • In the electronic ‘highway system’ multimedia content is stores in the form of electronic documents • These are often digitized • On the I-way messaging software fulfills the role, in any no. of forms: e-mail, EDI, or point-to-point file transfers • Encryption & authentication methods to ensure security • Electronic payment schemes developed to handle complex transactions • These logistics issues are difficult in long-established transportation 4. Anatomy of E-Commerce applications E-Commerce applications are: 1. Multimedia Content for E-Commerce Applications 2. Multimedia Storage Servers & E-Commerce Applications i. Client-Server Architecture in Electronic Commerce ii. Internal Processes of Multimedia Servers iii. Video Servers & E-Commerce 3. Information Delivery/Transport & E-Commerce Applications 4. Consumer Access Devices SCCE_CSE Page 8 E COMMERCE Multimedia Content for E-Commerce Applications • Multimedia content can be considered both fuel and traffic for electronic commerce applications. • The technical definition of multimedia is the use of digital data in more than one format, such as the combination of text, audio, video, images, graphics, numerical data, holograms, and animations in a computer file/document. • Multimedia is associated with Hardware components in different networks. • The Accessing of multimedia content depends on the hardware capabilities of the customer. Multimedia Storage Servers & E-Commerce Applications: • E-Commerce requires robust servers to store and distribute large amounts of digital content to consumers. • These Multimedia storage servers are large information warehouses capable of handling various content, ranging from books, newspapers, advertisement catalogs, movies, games, & X-ray images. • These servers, deriving their name because they serve information upon request, must handle large-scale distribution, guarantee security, & complete reliability i. Client-Server Architecture in Electronic Commerce • All e-commerce applications follow the client-server model SCCE_CSE Page 9 E COMMERCE • Clients are devices plus software that request information from servers or interact known as message passing • Mainframe computing , which meant for “dump” • The client server model, allows client to interact with server through request-reply sequence governed by a paradigm known as message passing. • The server manages application tasks, storage & security & provides scalability-ability to add more clients and client devices (like Personal digital assistants to Pc’s. See in fig. ii. Internal Processes of Multimedia Servers • The internal processes involved in the storage, retrieval & management of multimedia data objects are integral to e-commerce applications. • A multimedia server is a hardware & software combination that converts raw data into usable information & then dishes out. • It captures, processes, manages, & delivers text, images, audio & video. • It must do to handle thousands of simultaneous users. • Include high-end symmetric multiprocessors, clustered architecture, and massive parallel systems. iii. Video Servers & E-Commerce The electronic commerce applications related to digital video will include 1. Telecommunicating and video conferencing 2. Geographical information systems that require storage & navigation over maps 3. Corporate multimedia servers 4. Postproduction studios 5. Shopping kiosks. SCCE_CSE Page 10 E COMMERCE • Consumer applications will include video-on-demand. • The figure which is of video–on demand consist video servers, is an link between the content providers (media) & transport providers (cable operators) Information Delivery/Transport & E-Commerce Applications • Transport providers are principally telecommunications, cable, & wireless industries. Transport Routers Information Transport Providers Information Delivery Methods • Telecommunication companies long-distance telephone lines; local telephone lines • Cable television companies Cable TV coaxial, fiber optic & satellite lines • Computer-based on-line servers Internet; commercial on-line service providers • Wireless communications Cellular & radio networks; paging systems Consumer Access Devices Information Consumers Access Devices • Computers with audio & video Personal/desktop computing capabilities Mobile computing • Telephonic devices Videophone • Consumer electronics Television + set-top box Game systems • Personal digital assistants (PDAs) Pen-based computing, voice-driven computing SCCE_CSE Page 11 E COMMERCE E-Commerce Consumer applications: • People needs entertainment on demand including video, games, news on-demand, electronic retailing via catalogs etc. • Currently now we are taking the video on-demand. • Why most companies betting heavily on this? 1. 93 million homes have television 2. Americans spend nearly half their free time watching television 3. Every evening, more than one-third of the population is in front of a television 4. Sight, sound, and motion combine to make television a powerful means of marketing 1. Consumer Applications and Social Interaction: • Lessons from history indicate that the most successful technologies are those that make their mark social • In 1945, in U.S no one had TV. By 1960 about 86percent of households did • Now contrast with Telephone. Bell invented the telephone in 1876 and by1940, 40% of U.S. households and by 1980 about 95-98 percent of households connected • Penetration was slower for Telephone than for TV because of the effort needed to set up the wiring infrastructure  The impact of both was good on business, social, consumer behavior and entertainment habits  Radio began in 1960, and by 1989, almost 3 decades later, just 319 radio stations followed the news format  In 1994, their number exceeded 1000 What do Consumers really want? 1. They want quality and cost of service 2. If a new system requires more steps to do essentially the same things, consumers may resist it 3. Some people fit that mold, but most of public prefers to lay back and just watch television and let someone else do the work of figuring out the sequence of television programming SCCE_CSE Page 12 E COMMERCE What are Consumers willing to spend? 1. According to the video on-demand, consumers get the cable bill at basic charge they will buy 2. If it is doubled they will not buy and at the service provider economics will increased then network operators might look to advertises to fill the gap Delivering products to Consumers 1. Packing and distribution must be considered 2. Blockbuster video collects the information and shows the typical consumer 3. Spends 12 a month on home video expenditures 4. Go to video store to select video on limited budget and has time to kill 5. Only periodically expends a large sum of money Consumer Research and E-Commerce Consumer opinion about interactive television is  46% be willing to pay  39% want video phone calls  63% would pay for movies on-demand  57% would pay for Television shows on-demand  78% said their worry about it is that they will pay for something that they previously received free of charge  64% are think it make it harder for viewers to protect privacy  41% are tell that it is too confusing to use Changing business Environment 1. The traditional business environment is changing rapidly 2. Many companies are looking outside and within to shape business strategies 3. These activities include private electronic connections to customers,suppliers,distributors,industry groups etc 4. The I-superhighway will expand this trend so that it allow business to exchange information. SCCE_CSE Page 13 E COMMERCE E-Commerce and the retail Industry 1. Conditions are changing in the “new economy” with respect to the retail industry 2. Consumers are demanding lower prices, better quality, a large selection of in-season goods. 3. Retailers are filling their order by slashing back-office costs, reducing profit margins, reducing cycle times. buying more wisely and making huge investments in technology 4. Retailers are in the immediate line of fire and were first to bear the brunt of cost cutting Marketing and E-Commerce 1. E-commerce is forcing companies to rethink the existing ways of doing target marketing and even event marketing. 2. Interactive marketing is in electronic markets via interactive multimedia catalogs 3. Users find moving images more appealing than still image and listening more appealing than reading text on a screen 4. Consumer information services are a new type of catalog business Inventory Management and Organizational Applications 1. With borders opening up and companies facing stiff global competition 2. Adaptation would include moving to computerized, “paperless” operations to reduce 3. Once targeted business process is inventory management, solutions for these processes go by different names 4. In manufacturing industry they’re known as just-in-time inventory systems, in the retail as quick response programs, and in transportation industry as consignment tracking systems SCCE_CSE Page 14 E COMMERCE Just-in-Time (JIT) Manufacturing 1. It is viewed as an integrated management system consisting of a number of different management practices dependent on the characteristics of specific plants 2. The first principle is elimination of all waste (time,materials,labour & equipment) 3. The following management practices are focused factory, reduced set-up times, group technology, total productive maintenance, multifunction employees, uniform workloads, IT purchasing,kanban total quality control & quality circles Quick Response Retailing (QR) 1. It is a version of JIT purchasing tailored for retailing 2. To reduce the risk of being of out of stock, retailers are implementing QR systems 3. It provides for a flexible response to product ordering and lowers costly inventory levels 4. QR retailing focuses on market responsiveness while maintaining low levels of stocks 5. It creates a closed loop consisting of retailer, vendor, & consumer chain,& as consumers make purchases the vendor orders new deliveries from the retailer through its computer network Supply Chain Management 1. QR and JIT address only part of the overall picture 2. Supply Chain Management (SCM) is also called “extending”, which means integrating the internal and external partners on the supply and process chains to get raw materials to the manufacturer and finished products to the consumer 3. It includes following functions  Supplier management: The goal is to reduce the number of suppliers and get them to partners SCCE_CSE Page 15 E COMMERCE  Inventory management: The goal is to shorten the order-ship-bill cycle. When a majority of partners are electronically linked, information faxed or mailed  Distribution management: The goal is to move documents (accurate data) related to shipping  Channel management: The goal is to quickly disseminate information about changing operational conditions ( technical, product, and pricing information) to trading partners  Payment management: The goal is to link company and the suppliers and distributors so that payments can be sent and received electronically  Financial management: The goal is to enable global companies to manage their money in various foreign exchange accounts  Sales force productivity: The goal is to improve the communication flow of information among the sales, customer & production functions In sum, the supply chain management process increasingly depends on electronic markets Work group Collaboration Applications: 1. A internetwork that enables easy and inexpensive connection of various organizational segments 2. It is to improve communications and information sharing and to gather and analyze competitive data in real-time 3. Videoconferencing, document sharing and multimedia e-mail, are expected to reduce travel and encourage telecommuting 4. Improves the distribution channel for documents and records to suppliers, collaborators and distributors SCCE_CSE Page 16 E COMMERCE Unit- II CONSUMER-ORIENTED APLLICATIONS • The wide range of applications envisioned for the consumer marketplace can be broadly classified into: (i) Entertainment (ii) Financial Services and Information (iii) Essential Services (iv) Education and Training Consumer Life-Style Needs Complementary Multimedia Services • Entertainment Movies on demand, video cataloging, interactive Ads, Multi-user games, on-line discussions. • Financial Services and Home Banking, Financial services, Information, Financial news. • Essential Services Home Shopping, Electronic Catalogs, telemedicine, remote diagnostics. • Education and Training Interactive education, multiuser games, video conferencing, on-line databases. 1. Personal Finance and Home Banking Management (i) Basic Services (ii) Intermediate Services (iii) Advanced services 2. Home Shopping (i) Television-Based Shopping (ii) Catalog-Based Shopping 3. Home Entertainment (i) Size of the Home Entertainment Market (ii) Impact of the Home Entertainment on Traditional Industries 4. Micro transactions of Information SCCE_CSE Page 17 E COMMERCE 1. Personal Finance and Home Banking Management: • The newest technologies are direct deposit of payroll, on-line bill payment and telephone transfers • The technology for paying bills, whether by computer or telephone, is infinitely more sophisticated than anything on the market a few years ago • In 1980s were the days of “stone age” technology because of technology choices for accessing services were limited • For home banking, greater demands on consumers and expanding need for information, it’s services are often categorized as basic, intermediate and advanced (i) Basic services • These are related to personal finance • The evolution of ATM machines from live tellers and now to home banking • The ATM network has with banks and their associations being the routers and the ATM machines being the heterogeneous computers on the network. • This interoperable network of ATMs has created an interface between customer and bank that changed the competitive dynamics of the industry. See in next figure • Increased ATM usage and decrease in teller transactions • The future of home banking lies with PC’s SCCE_CSE Page 18 E COMMERCE (ii) Intermediate Services • The problem with home banking in 1980 is, it is expensive service that requires a PC, a modem and special software • As the equipment becomes less expensive and as bank offers broader services, home banking develop into a comprehensive package that could even include as insurance entertainment • Consider the computerized on-line bill-payment system • It never forgets to record a payment and keeps track of user account number, name, amount and the date and we used to instruct with payment instructions. See in Fig; (iii)Advanced Services • The goal of advanced series is to offer their on-line customers a complete portfolio of life, home, and auto insurance along with mutual funds, pension plans, home financing, and other financial products • The Figure explains the range of services that may well be offered by banks in future • The servic3es range from on-line shopping to real-time financial information from anywhere in the world • In short, home banking allows consumers to avoid long lines and gives flexibility SCCE_CSE Page 19 E COMMERCE 2. Home Shopping: • It is already in wide use. • This enable a customer to do online shopping (i) Television-Based Shopping: • It is launched in 1977 by the Home Shopping Network (HSN). • It provides a variety of goods ranging from collectibles, clothing, small electronics, house wares, jewelry, and computers. • When HSN started in Florida in 1977, it mainly sold factory overruns and discontinued items • It works as, the customer uses her remote control at shop different channels with touch of button. At this time, cable shopping channels are not truly interactive (ii) Catalog-Based Shopping • In this the customer identifies the various catalogs that fit certain parameters such as safety, price, and quality • The on-line catalog business consists of brochures , CD-ROM catalogs, and on-line interactive catalogs • Currently, we are using the electronic brochures SCCE_CSE Page 20

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