What are IT Security Objectives

it security control objectives and what are security objective components and what security objectives can be addressed by cryptography
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JuliyaMadenta,Philippines,Researcher
Published Date:15-07-2017
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Information Technology in Education Project IT Security In Schools Education Infrastructure Division Education Bureau The Government of the HKSAR www.edb.gov.hk/ited/ revised in May 2007 For enquiry on this document, please direct to the Information Technology in Education Section, Education Bureau at (852) 3698 3608 or write to the Chief Curriculum Development Officer, Information Technology in Education Section, Education Infrastructure Division, Education Bureau Kowloon Tong Education Services Centre, Rm E420, 4/F, East Block, 19 Suffolk Road, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon. The full text of this publication is available at the Information Technology in Education website at http://www.edb.gov.hk/ited/ IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools Table of Contents 1 WHY IT SECURITY IS IMPORTANT TO YOUR SCHOOL? ............................. 1 2 SECURITY BASICS .................................................................................... 3 2.1 IT Security Objectives ........................................................................... 3 2.1.1 Confidentiality ............................................................................ 3 2.1.2 Integrity .................................................................................... 3 2.1.3 Availability ................................................................................. 4 2.2 IT Security Controls .............................................................................. 4 2.2.1 Physical Security ......................................................................... 4 2.2.2 Access Control ............................................................................ 5 2.2.3 Data Security ............................................................................. 5 2.2.4 Network and Communication Security ........................................... 5 2.2.5 Security Audit and Incident Handling ............................................. 5 2.2.6 User Awareness and Education ..................................................... 6 2.2.7 Other Security Concerns .............................................................. 6 2.3 Striving for Balance .............................................................................. 6 2.4 More Information .................................................................................. 6 3 PHYSICAL SECURITY ................................................................................ 8 3.1 Security Zone Assignment ..................................................................... 8 3.2 Hardware and Software Asset Protection ................................................. 9 3.2.1 Access Media .............................................................................. 9 3.2.2 Server Room Protection ............................................................... 9 3.2.3 Floor-level Equipment Cabinet (FLEC) Protection ............................. 9 3.2.4 Power Damage Prevention ......................................................... 10 3.2.5 Mobile Devices .......................................................................... 10 3.2.6 Storage Media .......................................................................... 10 3.2.7 Software Copies and Backup Tapes ............................................. 10 3.2.8 Property Marking and Inventory Taking ....................................... 10 3.3 More Information ................................................................................ 11 4 ACCESS CONTROL ................................................................................... 12 4.1 User Accounts Administration ............................................................... 12 4.1.1 General User Accounts ............................................................... 13 4.1.2 Special User Accounts ............................................................... 14 4.2 User Security Options .......................................................................... 16 4.2.1 Password Handling .................................................................... 16 4.2.2 User and Access Rights Assignment ............................................ 17 4.3 More Information ................................................................................ 18 5 DATA SECURITY ...................................................................................... 20 5.1 Data Classification .............................................................................. 20 5.2 Data Handling .................................................................................... 21 5.2.1 Data Storage in Servers ............................................................. 21 5.2.2 Data Backup and Recovery......................................................... 21 5.2.3 Storage Media Labeling and Storing ............................................ 22 5.2.4 Sensitive Data Protection and Disposal ........................................ 22 5.2.5 Principles of Protection of Personal Data ...................................... 23 5.3 Computer Virus Protection ................................................................... 23 5.3.1 Anti-Virus Software ................................................................... 24 May 2007 i IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools 5.3.2 Legal and Authorized Use of Software and Hardware ..................... 24 5.3.3 Prevention from Doubtful File Resources ...................................... 24 5.3.4 User Education and Incident Handling .......................................... 25 5.4 Software Configuration and Change Control ........................................... 25 5.4.1 Disabling or Removing all Unnecessary Services and Components ... 25 5.4.2 Using Administrative Tools ......................................................... 25 5.4.3 Applying Recommended Security Fixes ........................................ 26 5.5 More Information ................................................................................ 28 6 NETWORK AND COMMUNICATION SECURITY ......................................... 29 6.1 Communication between Your School & External Networks ...................... 29 6.1.1 Remote Access ......................................................................... 29 6.1.2 Internet Access......................................................................... 30 6.2 LANs within Your School ...................................................................... 38 6.2.1 LANs of Same Security Level ...................................................... 38 6.2.2 LANs of Different Security Levels ................................................ 39 6.3 Protection against Email Spam and Malicious code .................................. 41 6.3.1 Email Spam .............................................................................. 41 6.3.2 Malicious Code .......................................................................... 42 6.4 Web Application Security ..................................................................... 43 6.4.1 Web Application Security Architecture ......................................... 43 6.4.2 Web Application Development Process ......................................... 45 6.5 More Information ................................................................................ 45 7 SECURITY AUDIT AND INCIDENT HANDLING.......................................... 47 7.1 Security Audit .................................................................................... 47 7.2 Incident Handling Procedures ............................................................... 48 7.2.1 Example - Handling Virus Infection.............................................. 49 7.2.2 Example - Handling Network Intrusion ......................................... 51 7.3 More Information ................................................................................ 54 8 USER AWARENESS AND EDUCATION ...................................................... 56 8.1 Education is the Most Important .......................................................... 56 8.2 Protection to Both Computers and Users ................................................ 56 8.2.1 Example - Users' Safety on the Internet ...................................... 56 8.2.2 Risks on the Internet ................................................................. 57 8.2.3 Education and Guidance............................................................. 57 8.3 Best Practices .................................................................................... 57 8.3.1 Ways for Education ................................................................... 58 8.3.2 Obligation and Responsibility ...................................................... 58 8.3.3 Promotion and Supervision ......................................................... 59 8.4 More Information ................................................................................ 59 9 IT SECURITY POLICY .............................................................................. 61 9.1 What is an IT Security Policy? .............................................................. 61 9.1.1 Formulation .............................................................................. 61 9.1.2 Systems Matching ..................................................................... 61 9.1.3 Education and Promotion ........................................................... 62 9.1.4 Audit and Review ...................................................................... 62 9.2 More Information ................................................................................ 62 10 CONCLUSION .......................................................................................... 63 May 2007 ii IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools May 2007 iii IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools 1 Why IT Security is Important to Your School? At present, most schools in the Hong Kong should have already installed their local area network (LAN) such as School Administration and Management Systems (SAMS), Teaching and Learning School Network, and for some schools the Multimedia Learning Center (MMLC). To enable better teaching and learning as well as broader information access, most schools have acquired Internet access services and some even have hosted their school Web pages at their Internet Service Provider (ISP). Some schools are also implemented new information technology (IT) projects like school intranet system to let teachers and students have interactive communications and collaboration. It is envisaged that the operation of schools will be adversely affected if their IT facilities do not function properly or data cannot be accessed. About This Document This document provides the basic IT security knowledge and concepts which would be applicable to the school environment. It generally describes the purposes or objectives that should be considered in defining IT security policy for schools, and the key concerns in each of the IT security control areas. This document serves to help schools to define their own IT security policy and standards to suit their own situation. This document is written for all school IT users including school IT management, technical staff as well as end-users. IT management, such as school heads, IT co-ordinators, school IT committee members, may find the information in this document useful in defining their high level IT security policy. The technical staff, such as LAN administrators and other technical support personnel, may base on this document to work out detailed IT security guidelines and standards to suit their own environment. Some information in this document may be useful for reference by the end users of students, teachers, and other staff or even parents who will access the IT facilities, with an aim to arouse their awareness on safe use of IT facilities. There are many potential causes of damage to computer systems which may be natural or human by nature. Such kinds of causes are usually called threats. For example: March 2007 1 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools  Natural Threats Catastrophic (e.g. fire and floods) and environmental threats (e.g. extreme temperature and humidity).  Human Threats There are two kinds of human threats and they are: Intentional Hacking (e.g. unauthorized access of network resources), spoofing (e.g. impersonate other users to access network resources), theft and willful destruction. Unintentional Equipment and power failure, human errors (e.g. unprotected password) and mis-managed systems (e.g. mis-configured equipment and unpatched software). Unfortunately, if threats occur, they may induce risk of losses to schools. Nowadays, more and more IT facilities are integrating into school networks, including teaching materials, students' homework, valuable information and data files which are stored in school systems. In order to protect them against threats and to reduce the risk of losses, it is important for schools to:  Arouse systems and networks' users, including students, teachers, school head, school staff and sometimes parents of the students to have awareness of IT security so that they can properly use IT facilities in schools; and  Define a set of policies and procedures for users to protect the computer systems, data, information, as well as hardware and software assets in schools. To facilitate schools achieving these goals, the chapters later in this document aim to:  Provide information about security basics; and  Indicate appropriate levels of security measures in different IT security controls in school environment. March 2007 2 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools 2 Security Basics IT security can be considered as "the state of being free from unacceptable risk in relation to IT". It covers technical, operational and managerial issues. For example, in addition to the proper configuration and administration of systems, workstations and servers, proper IT security also depends on the faithful observance of related policies and procedures, physical access controls as well as audit functions. 2.1 IT Security Objectives In previous chapter we mentioned that it is important for your school to effectively reduce the risk of losses to protect your school IT facilities against threats. In order to do so, it is advisable for you to adopt the following three IT security objectives:  Protection of sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure (i.e. Confidentiality);  Accuracy, completeness, consistency and timeliness of data (i.e. Integrity); and  Safeguarding of necessary resources and associated capability (i.e. Availability). Though the three security objectives are all necessary, depending on your school's circumstances and requirements, the emphasis of each security objective may vary among schools. The sections below provide detailed description on these three objectives. 2.1.1 Confidentiality When information is read or copied by unauthorized persons, it is considered as loss of confidentiality, such as a student makes a copy of the examination paper (soft-copy), from his/her school server without any authorization or permission from the teachers. You should assure that users could only access the information that they are authorized to. Your systems may therefore require appropriate settings such as access control or even data encryption (i.e. translation of data into a secret code) to protect the data. 2.1.2 Integrity When data are modified in unexpected ways, for example, a clerk amends a student's ID number wrongly in SAMS, or a character in a data file is altered due to disk failure, it would be considered as loss of data integrity. March 2007 3 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools You should ensure the accuracy, completeness and validity of data that no unauthorized change can be made, either accidentally or maliciously. 2.1.3 Availability Information must be available on a timely basis wherever it is needed to meet your school requirements or to avoid substantial losses. For example, if power failure unexpectedly occurs and the server(s) of Teaching and Learning School Network is set up without an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), the server(s) will not be properly shut down and cannot be resumed normally. This eventually makes the systems unstable/unavailable. Users like students and teachers will then be unable to use their systems or access the information. Uninterrupted access to information and system resources is a fundamental need of a network system. You should ensure that your school systems and networks provide full and normal functionality. 2.2 IT Security Controls So now you know the importance and objectives of IT security. While your school systems and networks may provide sorts of security features and options, you need to review your security needs and make appropriate security decisions and settings. To achieve your school's IT security objectives and requirements, you should take appropriate levels of security measures on different IT security controls. Some of the common IT security controls include:  Physical Security  Access Control  Data Security  Network and Communication Security  Security Audit and Incident Handling  User Awareness and Education Brief description on these security controls is introduced in the following sections. Details of security measures on each of these IT security controls are provided in later chapters in this document. 2.2.1 Physical Security Physical security is the first line of security defense. It prevents direct access and/or intruders from circumventing IT security. The IT equipment in your school, such as servers, workstations, backup tapes, recovery diskettes, original software packages etc. should be kept in March 2007 4 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools a safe place against unauthorized access. In addition, you should define the school areas that are having different levels of physical security requirements. 2.2.2 Access Control Different users on different systems should have different rights on using the associated resources. Access controls are defined for and assigned to specific data files, resources and other system rights. Proper access control prevents unauthorized access to system and/or network resources. 2.2.3 Data Security The data in your school systems and networks are valuable asset. Therefore, with respect to the levels of security required, it is necessary to classify data into different classes and protect your systems against loss of data with corresponding measures. Some of the potential causes of data loss include:  Destructive viruses  Hard disk subsystem failure  Power failure  Software failure  Accidental or malicious use of deletion or modification commands  Natural disasters 2.2.4 Network and Communication Security There are many systems and LANs such as SAMS, Teaching and Learning School Network and/or MMLC at your school. Schools may have different security requirements on them. As there is a need to connect them together, the communication between these LANs should be carefully managed. Apart from the security within LANs in schools, careful planning is also required for communications to other networks like remote and Internet accesses to prevent possible outside intruders. School users accessing to these external networks or services should also be properly administered and monitored. 2.2.5 Security Audit and Incident Handling Security logging can trace and detect the occurrence of threats. Periodic monitoring and review of your school systems and networks can give early alarm for IT security incidents. March 2007 5 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools Moreover, having security controls in place cannot completely avoid the occurrence of threats. You should therefore prepare for security incidents and assure all users know whom to call when suspicious problem occurs. 2.2.6 User Awareness and Education User education is the most important factor for successful implementation of IT security in schools. All precautions will become ineffective if user awareness is not aroused. Through well-conceived and committed security training programs, users will be better prepared to avoid problems in the first place. 2.2.7 Other Security Concerns In addition to the above security controls, there may be some other security concerns unique in your school. When planning IT security, you need to take all these concerns into account. An example of these is systems and applications security. There may be various types of desktop and network operating systems (e.g. Microsoft Windows NT/2000/XP, Apple iMac, Linux, etc.) and custom-made applications installed in your school. They usually provide sorts of security utilities for ease of configuration. While on the other hand, they require special attention for proper association and cooperation. Your system administrators are therefore required to carefully manage all these systems and applications, with compliance to other security controls and measures adopted in your school. 2.3 Striving for Balance Before going into details we would like to stress that no IT system or network is ever totally fortified. Adopting security measures merely wants to reduce the risk of losses against threats. Though no IT system is 100% secure, you should be aware that systems with few security controls are generally more vulnerable than those have made many. You should therefore strive for a balance between the need for adequate security versus the desire to stay within limited resources. 2.4 More Information You may refer to the following documents to acquire more information on IT security: March 2007 6 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools Document Name and Link Source The Government of  與兒童上網安全相關的網址 HKSAR (HKSARG) (Useful Sites Relating to Internet Access Safety for - Education and Children) Manpower Bureau (EMB) http://www.edb.gov.hk/FileManager/TC/Content_2342/4a.htm  IT Security Guidelines HKSARG (OGCIO Documents on IT Security Policy and Guidelines Ref. - The Office of the G3) Government Chief Information Officer (OGCIO)  http://www.ogcio.gov.hk/en/infrastructure/methodology/securit y_policy/  Internet Gateway Security Guidelines HKSARG (OGCIO Documents on IT Security Policy and Guidelines Ref. - OGCIO G50)  http://www.ogcio.gov.hk/en/infrastructure/methodology/securit y_policy/  Legal Aspects of Computer Crimes and Information City University of Systems Security in Hong Kong Hong Kong March 2007 7 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools 3 Physical Security Physical security refers to the protection of sites, the IT equipment and the assets in the sites. It serves as the first line of defense to prevent unauthorized use of and access to the hardware, software and information by keeping them in physically secured areas. Physical security is fundamental to all security controls. Different areas in your school are generally having different levels of physical security requirements. You should therefore define different access permissions for different zones in your school areas (i.e. security zone assignment). Moreover, hardware, software and data storage media such as servers, workstations, backup tapes, recovery diskettes, original software packages etc. should be stored in a safe place against unauthorized access. 3.1 Security Zone Assignment For better security and easier management, you should define different access permissions for different zones within a school. Generally three different zones can be defined:  Public zone Open to all users, such as corridors where kiosk computers are located.  Protected zone Open to specific users, for example, staff rooms for teachers and school staff, and computer rooms for students accompanied with teachers.  Restricted zone Open to authorized persons only, for example, server room(s) for system administrators only. No matter how many security zones your school assigned, appropriate security measures should be adopted. For example, for protected zones like library and computer rooms, responsible persons like librarians and teachers should be present to monitor the use of IT facilities. Examples School A has major IT equipment such as servers and network switches storing in the server room. The system administrator of School A March 2007 8 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools therefore assigns the server room as Restricted Zone, in which only authorized persons are allowed to access. The system administrator also locks up its door and windows when the server room is unattended. Besides, other persons such as visitors or engineers from service contractors who wish to enter the Restricted Zone should be accompanied by system administrator(s). Their accesses should be properly registered in a logbook. 3.2 Hardware and Software Asset Protection Limit the access to critical system components to a small number of individuals would be crucial in protecting your school. Below are some examples of security measures for protecting your school's hardware and software assets. 3.2.1 Access Media All access media such as keys and access cards should be physically secured and handled only by authorized persons. 3.2.2 Server Room Protection Since the equipment in the server room, including the servers, network devices and other major IT equipment are usually required to operate round-the-clock, dedicated power supply circuit and UPS should be made available for the server room. Moreover, in order to keep the temperature and humidity at optimal level, the air conditioner(s) in the server room also has to operate on 24-hour-a-day basis. Furthermore, you should consider installing other security measures such as heat and smoke detectors, motion detectors, alarm systems and fire extinguishing equipment to further enhance the security. These items should be regularly checked to ensure their serviceability. 3.2.3 Floor-level Equipment Cabinet (FLEC) Protection Network devices such as switches and hubs should be secured in locked containers such as FLEC to prevent theft and unauthorized access. March 2007 9 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools 3.2.4 Power Damage Prevention You may consider using surge protectors to protect the hardware equipment, including servers, workstations, printers and scanners. 3.2.5 Mobile Devices Mobile computer equipment, such as notebook computers and projectors, should not be left unattended without proper security measures. For example, when notebook computers are not in use, they must be placed inside lockable cabinets (e.g. the notebook cabinet in server room, and/or the desk cabinet of the corresponding teacher in staff rooms). On the other hand, when mobile devices are in use, they should be safeguarded by responsible persons. 3.2.6 Storage Media You should define security measures for handling various storage media such as backup tapes, floppy disks and CD-ROM discs. Media with sensitive data should be locked in secure areas. 3.2.7 Software Copies and Backup Tapes The original and backup copies of software programs and data files should be kept secured. You should consider keeping the backup copies in a separate location with a safe distance from the original copies. This could minimize the possibility of total loss of the copies from damages arising from a disaster at your school site. 3.2.8 Property Marking and Inventory Taking Property marking and inventory taking are important measures to prevent physical loss. Property marking should be properly painted to all major hardware items such as system units, monitors, notebook computers, printers, scanners, projectors, removable storage devices etc. On the other hand, you should use a log book to record and maintain an IT equipment inventory list and perform periodic checking on the items, including the system configuration, software media and licenses, network devices, data backup tapes, etc. The logbook should also record the location as well as the status of the equipment such as "in use", "on loan", "repair", "discard", etc. If there are missing parts and/or difference you should investigate immediately. For establishing software inventory list, you may consider using software asset management (SAM) tools for the ease of information collection. March 2007 10 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools More Information For more information about physical security, see the following: Document Name and Link Source  IT Security Guidelines HKSARG (OGCIO Documents on IT Security Policy and Guidelines Ref. - OGCIO G3) http://www.ogcio.gov.hk/en/infrastructure/methodology/secu rity_policy/  Internet Gateway Security Guidelines HKSARG (OGCIO Documents on IT Security Policy and Guidelines Ref. - OGCIO G50) http://www.ogcio.gov.hk/en/infrastructure/methodology/secu rity_policy/ March 2007 11 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools 4 Access Control Different users would have different rights on using the network resources. Access controls are measures defined for and assigned to specific data files, network resources like printers as well as other system access rights like log-on hours. Proper access control prevents the unauthorized access of system and network resources. In controlling the access, authentication and authorization are usually adopted:  Authentication Authentication (sometimes it is simply called "user log-on") is the process of identifying a user, usually based on a user name and password.  Authorization Authorization is the process of granting user right to access system and network resources like printers and the data files in your school servers. Special care should be taken in protecting the password and access right assignment to prevent unauthorized access. Users must have their own identities, or user accounts, in order to access the resources in your school systems and networks. According to their roles in your school, different users may have different access rights. Therefore different rules may need to be set for different groups of users and computers. The following sections would provide more information on user accounts administration and their related security options. 4.1 User Accounts Administration There are various users in your school systems and networks, including students, teachers, school head, school staff and system administrators. In some schools, it may include external service contractors and parents of the students. These users usually have their respective user accounts specific to their role, services required, or job level. Examples Teachers should have separate authorities from students when accessing computer information. On the other hand, administrators of a school network like Teaching and Learning School Network have special privilege March 2007 12 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools over other users in order to perform system administration and network management. For easy user administration and security settings, you should therefore identify the similarities among users and create roles associated with the groupings. Commonly there are two main classes of user accounts: general and special user accounts. 4.1.1 General User Accounts Each user may be provided with his/her own identity, or a user account, to access the school systems and/or networks. A user account at least consists of a user name and a password. Generally there are two types of user accounts in schools. They are network and local user accounts. Network user accounts are used for logging on to a network in order to access the network-wide resources, while local user accounts are used for logging on to a local computer and accessing the resources associated with that local computer only. Examples School A uses Microsoft Windows 2000 systems for her Teaching and Learning School Network. Windows 2000 domain user accounts (i.e. network user accounts) are used for the users to access the network-wide resources while Windows 2000 local user accounts are used for the users of standalone computers. In addition to different types of user accounts, user accounts can also be classified as personal user accounts or shared user accounts.  Personal User Accounts For personal user accounts, each of the users may have a unique identity in the system so that he/she can have the flexibility of personalizing his/her own user and data settings. Moreover, since each user has an individual identity, security permission of system resources can be customized for each user. Furthermore, user activities on the system can thus be traceable and accountable to the corresponding person. Pros - Security settings can be customized to an individual March 2007 13 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools - User activities can be traceable to the corresponding person Cons - Massive personal user accounts may increase workload for user accounts administration  Shared User Accounts For shared user accounts, a group of users will have the same identity in accessing the system. For example, when students are attending a computer course, they may use a shared account so that all user and data settings as well as security permission defined for that shared account can be applied to all students. However, you should note that activities performed using shared user accounts are difficult to trace. If shared user accounts are necessary, such accounts should only be granted with the minimum privileges that are sufficient for the account holders to carry out their work. Pros - The use of shared user accounts may simplify user administration Cons - Security settings are difficult to be customized to an individual - User activities are difficult to trace to the corresponding person Examples School A has kiosk computers in corridors for casual use. For easy operation a single shared user account is created for logging on to these kiosk computers. As these kiosk computers would be used and shared by many users, it will be hard to trace the activities of that shared user account. School A therefore decides to assign that shared user account with minimum access rights. 4.1.2 Special User Accounts Another class of accounts is the functional user account, or sometimes called a "special user account". Special user accounts are those accounts that are created to support some particular functions as opposed to a general user account issued to an individual person for normal daily operation. March 2007 14 IT in Education Project IT Security in Schools Examples Default User Accounts - Administrators and Power Users In Microsoft Windows 2000 or NT 4.0 systems the default "Administrator" user account as well as the user accounts in the "Administrators" and "Power Users" groups are examples of the special user accounts. It is critical to manage these accounts explicitly because they have a superset of privileges by default. Default User Accounts - Guests In Microsoft Windows 2000 or NT 4.0 there are some special user accounts like the default "Guest" user account and the "Guests" group. They require special configuration on security settings. Depending on your school requirements and for better security control sometimes these guest accounts should be disabled. Teachers who are also acting as System Administrator In your school some teachers would act as system administrator. They should be given two user accounts for different purposes: a personal user account for teaching purpose while a special user account with administrative privilege for system administration. For better security control, teachers concerned should use the two accounts accordingly. For example, when performing teaching duties such as preparing teaching materials or surfing the Internet for non-administrative purpose, they should use their non-privileged personal user account. On the other hand, for testing and/or troubleshooting purposes, it is common to change users' security options in an attempt to test or solve a particular function or problem. In each case it is important for schools to review the security configuration of user accounts that have established deviations. Examples User Accounts for External Parties / Temporary Purposes School A requires an external service contractor to help install and configure a new system to her Teaching and Learning School Network. The system administrator of the Teaching and Learning School Network creates a temporary user account with advanced privileges for the engineer of the service contractor. He disables it immediately after creation. March 2007 15

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