Lecture notes on Organisational Development

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Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 SYLLABUS Module I (6 hours) Introduction to organizational Development: Definition, growth and relevance, historyand evolution. Theories of planned change, general model of planned change, differenttypes of panned change and critique of planned change. OD practitioner role, competenciesand professional ethics. Module II (6 hours) OD process: Initiating OD relationship, contracting and diagnosing the problem. Diagnosingmodels, open systems, individual level group level and organizational level diagnosis;collection and analysis for diagnostic information, feeding back the diagnosed information. Module III ( 9 hours) Designing OD interventions: Human process interventions:- coaching, training and development, process consultation, third part intervention, and team building. Organizationconfrontation meeting, intergroup relations intervention, and large group intervention.involvement, work design, socio technical systems approach Module IV (9 hours) HR and Strategic interventions :HRM interventions:- performance management, goal setting, performance coaching, appraising and rewarding. Career planning, workforce diversity interventions, wellness and work-life balance,Strategic interventions: Competitive strategies, collaborative strategies, organizationaltransformation, culture change, self designing organizations, learning and knowledgemanagement. Module V (6 hours) Special applications of OD : OD in, health care organizations, family owned organizations,educational institutions, public sector organizations and future directions in OD. Module VI (8 hours) Introduction to organizational change: Nature of change, forces of change, reinventingKurt Levin, organizational routines and mental models, change need analysis, content ofchange, types and styles of change, building capability for change, providing leadership tochange, action research and dialogue, types of change, organizational vision, culturalchange, strategic planning, creating support systems and managing transition, processoriented strategies and competitor oriented strategies and customer oriented strategies. Module VII (6 hours) Appreciating change: External environment as drivers of change, business cycles, industrycycles, technology and strategic change, industry evolution and concentration , developing achange agenda. Cognition and organizational change, mental models, Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 1 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 Module I • Introduction to organizational Development: Definition, growth and relevance, history and evolution. • Theories of planned change, general model of planned change, different types of panned change and critique of planned change. OD practitioner role, competencies and professional ethics. Organization development (OD) is a deliberately planned, organization-wide effort to increase an organization's effectiveness and/or efficiency. OD theorists and practitioners define it in various ways. Its multiplicity of definition reflects the complexity of the discipline and is responsible for its lack of understanding. For example, Vasudevan has referred to OD being about promoting organizational readiness to meet changeand it has been said that OD is a systemic learning and development strategy intended to change the basics of beliefs, attitudes and relevance of values, and structure of the current organization to better absorb disruptive technologies, shrinking or exploding market opportunities and ensuing challenges and chaos. It is worth understanding what OD is not. It is not training, personal development, team development, HRD (human resource development), L&D (learning and development) or a part of HR although it is often mistakenly understood as some or all of these. OD interventions are about change so involve people - but OD also develops processes, systems and structures. The primary purpose of OD is to develop the organization, not to train or develop the staff. Objective of OD The objective of OD is: 1. To increase the level of inter-personal trust among employees. 2. To increase employees' level of satisfaction and commitment. 3. To confront problems instead of neglecting them. 4. To effectively manage conflict. 5. To increase cooperation among the employees. 6. To increase the organization's problem solving. 7. To put in place processes that will help improve the ongoing operation of the organization on a continuous basis. As objectives of organizational development are framed keeping in view specific situations, they vary from one situation to another. In other words, these programs are tailored to meet the requirements of a particular situation. But broadly speaking, all organizational development programs try to achieve the following objectives: Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 4 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 1. Making individuals in the organization aware of the vision of the organization. Organizational development helps in making employees align with the vision of the organization. 2. Encouraging employees to solve problems instead of avoiding them. 3. Strengthening inter-personnel trust, cooperation, and communication for the successful achievement of organizational goals. 4. Encouraging every individual to participate in the process of planning, thus making them feel responsible for the implementation of the plan. 5. Creating a work atmosphere in which employees are encouraged to work and participate enthusiastically. 6. Replacing formal lines of authority with personal knowledge and skill. 7. Creating an environment of trust so that employees willingly accept change. According to organizational development thinking, organization development provides managers with a vehicle for introducing change systematically by applying a broad selection of management techniques. This, in turn, leads to greater personal, group, and organizational effectiveness. Definition: OD is a top management supported, long range effort to improve an organisation’s problem-solving & renewal processes, Growth & Relevance: 3 major trends are shaping their relevance of OD in this drastically changing environment: 1. Globalization 2. Information Technology 3. Managerial Innovation History Kurt Lewin (1898–1947) is widely recognized as the founding father of OD, although he died 1 before the concept became current in the mid-1950s. From Lewin came the ideas of group dynamics and action research which underpin the basic OD process as well as providing its collaborative consultant/client ethos. Institutionally, Lewin founded the "Research Center for Group Dynamics" (RCGD) at MIT, which moved to Michigan after his death. RCGD colleagues were among those who founded the National Training Laboratories (NTL), from which the T- groups and group-based OD emerged. Kurt Lewin played a key role in the evolution of organization development as it is known today. As early as World War II, Lewin experimented with a collaborative change process (involving himself as consultant and a client group) based on a three-step process of planning, taking action, and measuring results. This was the forerunner of action research, an important element of OD, Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 5 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 which will be discussed later. Lewin then participated in the beginnings of laboratory training, or T-groups, and, after his death in 1947, his close associates helped to develop survey-research methods at the University of Michigan. These procedures became important parts of OD as developments in this field continued at the National Training Laboratories and in growing numbers of universities and private consulting firms across the country. Two of the leading universities offering doctoral level degrees in OD are Benedictine University and the Fielding Graduate University. Douglas McGregor and Richard Beckhard while "consulting together at General Mills in the 1950s, the two coined the term organization development (OD) to describe an innovative bottoms-up change effort that fit no traditional consulting categories" The failure of off-site laboratory training to live up to its early promise was one of the important forces stimulating the development of OD. Laboratory training is learning from a person's "here and now" experience as a member of an ongoing training group. Such groups usually meet without a specific agenda. Their purpose is for the members to learn about themselves from their spontaneous "here and now" responses to an ambiguous hypothetical situation. Problems of leadership, structure, status, communication, and self-serving behavior typically arise in such a group. The members have an opportunity to learn something about themselves and to practice 4 such skills as listening, observing others, and functioning as effective group members. As formerly practiced (and occasionally still practiced for special purposes), laboratory training was conducted in "stranger groups," or groups composed of individuals from different organizations, situations, and backgrounds. A major difficulty developed, however, in transferring knowledge gained from these "stranger labs" to the actual situation "back home". This required a transfer between two different cultures, the relatively safe and protected environment of the T-group (or training group) and the give-and-take of the organizational environment with its traditional values. This led the early pioneers in this type of learning to begin to apply it to "family groups" — that is, groups located within an organization. From this shift in the locale of the training site and the realization that culture was an important factor in influencing group members (along with some other developments in the behavioral sciences) emerged the concept of organization development. Theories of Planned change: Organizational Climate - the mood or unique “personality” of an organization which can be observed in the attitudes and beliefs about organizational practices create organizational climate and influence members’ collective behaviour. Climate features and characteristics may be associated with employee satisfaction, stress, service quality and outcomes and successful implementation of new programs. Climate features and characteristics include:  Leadership  Openness of Communication  Participative Management  Role Clarity  Conflict Resolution Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 6 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447  Leader Support  Leader Control Organizational Culture - Deeply seated norms, values and behaviours that members share. The five basic elements of culture in organizations include:  Assumptions  Values  Behavioral norms  Behavioral patterns  Artifacts General Model of Planned change One of the foundational definitions in the field of organizational development (aka OD) is planned change: “Organization Development is an effort planned, organization-wide, and managed from the top, to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization's 'processes,' using behavioral-science knowledge.” Richard Beckhard, “Organization development: Strategies and Models”, To understand the practice of OD, some of the key terms, embedded in Beckhard's formulation, include: Planned - carefully thought through; based on data; documented Effectiveness - as measured by actual organizational performance versus desired organizational performance Health - as measured by the organization's ability to respond, grow and adapt in its environmental context Intervention - the specific action(s) selected for implementation that are intended to bring about the envisioned change Processes - how work gets done in an organization; e.g. delivery of service, billing, repair, etc. Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 7 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 Steps in Planned Change Once managers and an organization commit to planned change, they need to create a logical step‐by step approach in order to accomplish the objectives. Planned change requires managers to follow an eight‐step process for successful implementations, which is illustrated in Figure 1. 1. Recognize the need for change. Recognition of the need for change may occur at the top management level or in peripheral parts of the organization. The change may be due to either internal or external forces. 2. Develop the goals of the change. Remember that before any action is taken, it is necessary to determine why the change is necessary. Both problems and opportunities must be evaluated. Then it is important to define the needed changes in terms of products, technology, structure, and culture. 3. Select a change agent. The change agent is the person who takes leadership responsibility to implement planned change. The change agent must be alert to things that need revamping, open to good ideas, and supportive of the implementation of those ideas into actual practice. 4. Diagnose the current climate. In this step, the change agent sets about gathering data about the climate of the organization in order to help employees prepare for change. Preparing people for change requires direct and forceful feedback about the negatives of the present situation, as compared to the desired future state, and sensitizing people to the forces of change that exist in their environment. 5. Select an implementation method. This step requires a decision on the best way to bring about the change. Managers can make themselves more sensitive to pressures for change by using networks of people and organizations with different perspectives and Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 8 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 views, visiting other organizations exposed to new ideas, and using external standards of performance, such as competitor's progress. 6. Develop a plan. This step involves actually putting together the plan, or the “what” information. This phase also determines the when, where, and how of the plan. The plan is like a road map. It notes specific events and activities that must be timed and integrated to produce the change. It also delegates responsibility for each of the goals and objectives. 7. Implement the plan. After all the questions have been answered, the plan is put into operation. Once a change has begun, initial excitement can dissipate in the face of everyday problems. Managers can maintain the momentum for change by providing resources, developing new competencies and skills, reinforcing new behaviors, and building a support system for those initiating the change. 8. Follow the plan and evaluate it. During this step, managers must compare the actual results to the goals established in Step 4. It is important to determine whether the goals were met; a complete follow‐up and evaluation of the results aids this determination. Change should produce positive results and not be undertaken for its own sake. General Model of Planned Change From the above picture, you can see that it has the following stages:  Entering and Contracting  Diagnosing  Planning and Implementing Change  Evaluating &Institutionalising Change Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 9 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 Entering and Contracting This first step helps management (and the OD practitioner in certain cases) make a decision to either proceed or not with an OD intervention, and indicates roughly how much resources, time and finances should be committed. The entering and contracting phase has the the following sub-stages:  Gathering initial data The OD practitioner and the customer would typically start with a discussion regarding the reason for considering OD in the first place. The OD practitioner would then collect some data to get a high level understanding of the organisation, the reasons for change, the presenting problem and from this make some very preliminary recommendations about possible ways to go forward. He could focus on a problem that has been presented, or on positive areas of enquiry.  The OD practitioner will present these initial findings to the customer, and they will jointly do some preliminary work with this data. From this first step, the OD relationship begins to be built. The OD practitioner will seek to build a collaborative relationship with the customer to ensure from this early stage that the relationship is one of the customer owning the intervention, and the consultant assisting and coaching through the process.  Based on the initial findings and the discussions with the customer, the OD practitioner will propose a model to be used, which will indicate the types and magnitude of change that could be expected, and propose an agreement of cooperation for working together going forward. At this point, the consultant will estimate the resources that he would need to commit, and the resources that he expects would be needed from the client. Resources can include finances, but probably the resource which is of the greatest concern is employee time.  The customer will review this proposal, there might be some negotiation and should they finally come to an agreement, a contract will be drawn up. The contract should be clear about rates, fees and terms and conditions. It should set out the rule of engagement – how the two parties will work together, as well as the principles that will guide potential termination. It should clarify the role that the OD practitioner will play, and the roles that different organisation members need to play in the process. Because of the amount of unknowns at this stage, it is impossible to know exactly how the process will play out, but the OD practitioner should make every effort to ensure that there are no surprises for the customer down the line.  Many efforts stop at this point, for a variety of reasons, such as a lack of available resources to be able to navigate the change, a incongruence between the values of the OD Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 10 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 practitioner and the organisation, or because an alternative method of addressing the presenting problem is found. Diagnosing The Diagnosing phase consists of gathering, analysing and feeding back data. The focus is on understanding the organisation’s problems, what the causes and the effects of those problems are, and / or understanding the positive elements of the organisation. What are the areas of strength on which the organisation can build? Diagnosing can happen at three levels. Organisational level, group level or individual level. Diagnosis becomes increasingly complex as we move from individual to organisational diagnosis. However, because of the integrated nature of an organisation, and the fact that the diagnosis of the larger levels are the inputs for the smaller ones, it is necessary to understand the higher levels, even when diagnosing at a lower level. So, for example, when diagnosing job design at an individual level, you need to understand how the design components of the team impacts on that job design, and how the design components of the organisation impacts on the team.At every level, we consider the design components of the organisation, and the alignment between the various design components, the inputs and the outputs. The analysis and feedback process is collaborative, ensuring continued use and ownership of the data and the results of the diagnosis, by the client. That means that although the OD practitioner would typically design the data analysis process to maximise involvement and skills transfer. The analysis process might include the consultant making some preliminary conclusions, but the real conclusions about the meaning of the data, which will be used to plan the interventions, should be done collaboratively with the client. Planning & Implementing Change Based on the diagnosis, the OD practitioner and organisational members now, together, design the interventions that would drive the change. The interventions should be based on the results of the diagnosis, and should be aimed at resolving the root causes of the problems, or at developing the most prominent strengths of the organisation. Criteria that can affect the way interventions are designed, are  the organisation’s readiness and capability for change,  the OD practitioner’s skills  and the organisation’s power distribution. Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 11 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 Evaluating and Institutionalising Change Finally, the change should be evaluated against two major criteria:  Was the implementation successful?  Did the implementation have the required results? If the answers to the above two questions are both positive, then it is time to institutionalise the change, through reinforcing knowledge and performance, and continuous reinforcement of the values that underlie the change until normative and value consensus has been reached. Theories of planned change: 1. Kurt Lewin’s change model Theory 2. Action oriented model theory 3. Positive model theory Critics of Planned Change:  Environmental parameters are highly dynamic in nature.  Organisation structure should be flexible enough to incorporate the changes.  Circumstances are unpredictable. The OD Practitioner The role of the OD practitioner is varied and dynamic. Descriptions include; helper, advisor, sounding board, navigator, coach, facilitator, designer, developer, leader, consultant, expert, partner, problem solver, diagnostician, process specialist and collaborator. These roles can be practiced as an employee within the organisation or as an external consultant. Whatever descriptor is used to describe the role, the truth is the OD practitioner role is varied and purposed with helping clients to improve the effectiveness of their organisation developing both business processes and people processes within the context of the organisation. OD practitioners are by their very practice humanistic and that makes their practice relational based, and puts the OD practitioner at the centre of change and development efforts; using ‘self’ as an instrument to drive change and help the organisation develop through each of the phases of the OD cycle; Diagnostic, Intervention and Evaluation. Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 12 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 The OD practitioner is responsible for bringing their whole self to the task in hand, and build their reputation as a trusted advisor with their clients. Not only must the practitioner be an advocate of development, but must focus on continuously improving and developing their own learning and understanding of their practice. Key Competencies & professional ethics of an OD Practitioner 1. Theoretical and Technical expertise which can be applied 2. Influencing Skills 3. Spot and energise engagement in others 4. Innovative, Creative and Critical thinking 5. Ability to tackle difficulties and problems with positivity 6. Self-Confident 7. Credible communicators 8. Interpersonal and Facilitation skills, with an ability to ‘stand back’ 9. Emotionally Tuned in 10. Ethical, value driven and acts with integrity Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 13 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 Module 2 • OD process: Initiating OD relationship, contracting and diagnosing the problem. Diagnosing models, open systems, individual level group level and organizational level diagnosis; • collection and analysis for diagnostic information, feeding back the diagnosed information. OD Process: The OD Process is based on the action research model which begins with an identified problem or need for change. The process proceeds through assessment, planning of an intervention, implementing the intervention, gathering data to evaluate the intervention, and determining if satisfactory progress has been made or if there is need for further intervention. The organizational Diagnostic phase is often integrated within an overall OD process, commonly called 'a consulting process'. An example of such a process is: Entry Diagnosis Action Planning Implementation Termination Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 14 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 The OD process begins when an organization recognizes that a problem exists which impacts the mission or health of the organization and change is desired. It can also begin when leadership has a vision of a better way and wants to improve the organization. An organization does not always have to be in trouble to implement organization development activities. Once the decision is made to change the situation, the next step is to assess the situation to fully understand it. This assessment can be conducted in many ways including documentation review, organizational sensing, focus groups, interviewing, or surveying. The assessment could be conducted by outside experts or by members of the organization. After the situation is assessed, defined, and understood, the next step is to plan an intervention. The type of change desired would determine the nature of the intervention. Interventions could include training and development, team interventions such as team building for management or employees or the establishment of change teams, structural interventions, or individual interventions. Once the intervention is planned, it is implemented. During and after the implementation of the intervention, relevant data is gathered. The data gathered would be determined by the change goals. For example, if the intervention were training and development for individual employees or for work groups, data to be gathered would measure changes in knowledge and competencies. This data is used to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. It is reported to the organization’s decision-makers. The decision-makers determine if the intervention met its goals. If the intervention met its goals, the process can end, which is depicted by the raising of the development bar. If it did not, the decision is made whether to continue the cycle and to plan and carry out another intervention or to end it. What is a Diagnosis Diagnosis is a systematic approach to understanding and describing the present state of the organization. The purpose is to specify the nature of the problem requiring solution to identify the underlying the forces, and to provide a basis for selective effective change strategies techniques. Diagnosis involves the systematic analysis of data regarding the organization structure and culture with the intention of discovering problems and areas for improvement. Critical Issues in Diagnosis  Simplicity  Visibility  Involvement  Primary Factors  Measure What’s Important  Sense of Urgency  The Process Diagnosis is a cyclical process involving gathering interpretation, identification of problem areas, and potential action program, Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 15 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 Steps Step 1- Tentative problems and identified Step 2 – Collect data Step 3 – Analyze data Step 4 – Feedback data Step 5 – Is more data needed Step 6 – Problems areas are identified Step 7- Is the client motiva ted to work on the problem Step 8 – Diagnosis and work on the problem Step 9 – Monitor and assess result Phases in Diagnosis Diagnostic studies typically include several distinct phases (Nadler, 1977). As the following description shows, diagnostic tasks, models, and methods shift within and between phases, as do relations between consultants, clients, and other members of the client organization: Entry: Clients and consultants explore expectations for the study; the client presents problems and challenges; the consultant assesses the likelihood of cooperation with various types of research and probable receptiveness to feedback; and the consul- tant makes a preliminary reconnaissance of organizational problems and strengths. Contracting: Consultants and clients negotiate and agree on the nature of the diagnosis and client-consultant relations. Study design: Methods, measurement procedures, sampling, analysis, and administrative procedures are planned. Collection & Analysis for Diagnosis: Data are gathered through interviews, observations, questionnaires, analysis of secondary data, group discussions, and workshops. Analysis: Consultants analyze the data and summarize findings; consultants (and sometimes clients) interpret them and prepare for feedback. Feeding back the info: Consultants present findings to clients and other members of the client organization; feedback may include explicit recommendations or more general findings to stimulate discussion, decision making, and action planning Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 16 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 Diagnostic Models In a study of OD practitioners, 70 % reported using a model to assist identifying problems.Diagnostic models may used to analyze the structure, culture, and behavior of the organization. The Analytical Model Used for interdepartmental issues Examines four characteristics of departments Degree of department structure Time orientation of members toward others Interpersonal member’s orientation toward goals The model’s objective is to help departments achieve integration. The Management Practice Model Six Basic Factors  Basic planning  General Business practices  Finance  Advertising and promotion  Market research  Personal  Asking a few basic questions in each area, it is possible to get an indication of where the client’s problems may be located. The Sociotechnical System Model Two systems contained in each organization:  Social system, which consists of interpersonal relationships.  Technical system, which consists of task, tools, and activities of organization.  The systems are interrelated. The diagnosis determines how the systems are interrelated and what types of feedback is required between the subsystems.  The Force Field- Analysis Model  Organizational behavioral is a balance between forces working in opposite directions.  Restraining forces act to keep organization stable.  Driving forces act to change organization.  When two forces are equal, the organization is in quasi-stationary state of equilibrium.  Analysis of forces determines which force to increase or decrease to bring about change. Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 17 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 Module 3  Designing OD interventions: Human process interventions:- coaching, training anddevelopment, process consultation, third part intervention, and team building. Organization  Techno structural interventions:- Structural design , downsizing, reengineering, employee involvement, work design, socio technical systems approach,confrontation meeting, intergroup relations intervention, and large group intervention. WHAT ARE EFFECTIVE OD INTERVENTIONS? The term “intervention” refers to a set of sequenced planned actions or events intended to help an organization increase its effectiveness. Interventions purposely disrupt the status quo; they are deliberate attempts to change an organization or subunit toward a different and more effective state. In OD, three major criteria define an effective intervention: (1) the extent to which it fits the needs of the organization; (2) the degree to which it is based on causal knowledge of intended outcomes; and (3) the extent to which it transfers change management competence to organization members. The first criterion concerns the extent to which the intervention is relevant to the organization and its members. Effective interventions are based on valid information about the organization’s functioning; they provide organization members with opportunities to make free and informed choices; and they gain members’ internal commitment to those choices. Organisational change programmes are typically designed to: 1. Change the way people behave at work in order to improve performance. 2. Implement a bold new strategy for turning the corporate vision into reality. 3. Rethink corporate structure and redesign jobs. 4. Integrate merged or acquired companies. 5. Re-engineer business processes. 6. Implement new IT systems.. 7. Increase the speed at which new products are developed and brought to market. Even though most change programmes are carefully planned often with the help of experienced consultants – between 70% and 90% of them fail to achieve the desired results. Why is the failure rate so high? The conventional approach to change has ten structural weaknesses -1 Top management clings to the old model of leadership. Senior managers continue to provide leadership in the form of solutions, instead of working to improve the organisation’scapacity to adapt. This improved adaptability can only be achieved if the leaders change themselves before seeking to change the rest of the organisation. Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 18 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 -2Change is imposed and driven by senior management. By and large the planners of the change programme (typically senior management assisted by consultants) have the best of intentions when they insist that people implement their plan without modification. The implementers, on the other hand, usually want to adapt the plan to fit their individual situations. This can lead to an escalating pattern where the more the planners seek compliance, the more the implementers do their own thing, or do nothing – ultimately resulting in the failure of the programme. -3 The change model is based on control and domination. Fearing the unpredictable, chaotic nature of change and the threat of its unwanted consequences, managers employ pseudo-scientific change management techniques in a vain attempt to control the process and create predictable and measurable outcomes. But although managers can control micro-level changes, such as introducing new corporate stationery, at the macro level too many of the variables are beyond human control. Major change can no more be managed than the weather can be managed. Indeed, many major change programmes are little more than ritual rain dances that satisfy man’s compelling need to take action in the face of a crisis. But whereas rain dances are harmless, many conventional change programmes have failure designed into them as they make no allowances for unanticipated developments. -4 Stakeholder involvement is narrow. Planners of conventional change programmes generally exclude the vast majority of internal stakeholders from the planning process. Also, they tend to ignore important external stakeholder groups such as suppliers, customers and the local community. The opportunity to create a more widely-shared vision of the future is therefore lost, and key stakeholders may fail to provide vitally-needed support 5 Awareness of current reality is limited. As a consequence of failing to involve from the outset everyone who will be affected by the change, a dangerously incomplete picture of current reality is created. This is compounded by the fact that certain issues will be considered taboo and therefore undiscussable. Wise strategic decisions are unlikely to be made when informed by such a limited information base. -6 The focus is on identifying and solving problems. Many models of organisational change are based on an elaboration of the problem solving model. Problem solving is about fi xing things that have gone wrong, and the results tend to be incremental improvements rather than “order of magnitude” changes. Even if an organisation were to nail every one of its problems, this would not be enough for it to achieve its strategic objectives. -7 The vision is shaped by an elite group of experts and senior managers. The boss outlines his or her vision through a presentation. (“I have shared my vision, so now we have a shared vision.”) Employees may buy into the vision but, after giving it more consideration, experience buyer’s remorse and as a consequence withdraw their support. Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 19 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 -8 Linear thinking is used. Linear thinking usually leads to ineffective change strategies, for two reasons. First, it produces a programme with a predetermined sequence of steps leading the organisation towards a fi xed goal. -9Change strategy is communicated by transmitting messages. The communication method is one where messages are transmitted from the bosses to “the troops”. The consequences are low commitment and missed opportunities. -10 Planning and implementation are sequential. Conventional strategic planning (plan then implement) requires the world to stand still while the planners do their work. Unfortunately the world keeps on turning and the planners never quite catch up. Types of OD Interventions Broadly OD interventions can be classified into: 1. Technology related interventions 2. Human process interventions Human Process Interventions: interventions focus on people within organizations and the processes through which they accomplish organizational goals. These processes include communication, problem solving, group decision making, and leadership. This type of intervention is deeply rooted in the history of OD and represents the earliest change programs characterizing OD. Human process interventions derive mainly from the disciplines of psychology and social psychology and the applied fields of group dynamics and human relations. Practitioners applying these interventions generally value human fulfillment and expect that organizational effectiveness follows from improved functioning of people and organizational processes.Human process interventions related to interpersonal relationships and group dynamics. These include the following interventions: Coaching, Training & Development: Coaching, is a training or development process via which an individual is supported while achieving a specific personal or professional competence result or goal. The individual receiving coaching may be referred to as coachee. Occasionally, the term coaching may be applied to an informal relationship between two individuals where one has greater experience and expertise than the other and offers advice and guidance as the other goes through a learning process, but coaching differs from mentoring by focusing upon competence specifics, as opposed to general overall development. Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 20 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 The structures, models and methodologies of coaching are numerous, and may be designed to facilitate thinking or learning new behavior for personal growth or professional advancement. There are also forms of coaching that help the coachee improve a physical skill, like in a sport or performing art form. Some coaches use a style in which they ask questions and offer opportunities that will challenge the coachee to find answers from within him/herself. This facilitates the learner to discover answers and new ways of being based on their values, preferences and unique perspective. When coaching is aimed at facilitating psychological or emotional growth it should be differentiated from therapeutic and counseling disciplines, since clients of coaching, in most cases, are considered healthy (i.e. not sick). The purpose of the coaching is to help them move forward in whatever way they want to move, not to 'cure' them. In addition the therapist or counsellor may work from a position of authoritative doubt, but cannot claim the position of ignorance so vital for coaching, because of the assessment knowledge that underpins their work. Process consultation. This intervention focuses on interpersonal relations and social dynamics occurring in work groups. Typically, a process consultant helps group members diagnose group functioning and devise appropriate solutions to process problems, such as dysfunctional conflict, poor communication, and ineffective norms. The aim is to help members gain the skills and understanding necessary to identify and solve problems themselves. Third-party intervention. This change method is a form of process consultation aimed at dysfunctional interpersonal relations in organizations. Interpersonal conflict may derive from substantive issues, such as disputes over work methods, or from interpersonal issues, such as miscommunication. The third-party intervener helps people resolve conflicts through such methods as problem solving, bargaining, and conciliation. Team building This intervention helps work groups become more effective in accomplishing tasks. Like process consultation, team building helps members diagnose group processes and devise solutions to problems. It goes beyond group processes, however, to include examination of the group’s task, member roles, and strategies for performing tasks. The consultant also may function as a resource person offering expertise related to the group’s task. Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 21 Organisational Development & Change 12MBAHR447 1. Organization confrontation meeting. This change method mobilizes organization members to identify problems, set action targets, and begin working on problems. It is usually applied when organizations are experiencing stress and when management needs to organize resources for immediate problem solving. The intervention generally includes various groupings of employees in identifying and solving problems. The confrontation meeting is an intervention designed to mobilize the resources of the entire organization to identify problems, set priorities and action targets, and begin working on identified problems. Originally developed by Beckhard, the intervention can be used at any time but is particularly useful when the organization is in stress and when there is a gap between the top and the rest of the organization. 2. Intergroup relations. These interventions are designed to improve interactions among different groups or departments in organizations. The microcosm groupintervention involves a small group of people whose backgrounds closely match the organizational problems being addressed. This group addresses the problem and develops means to solve it. The intergroup conflict model typically involves a consultant helping two groups understand the causes of their conflict and choose appropriate solutions. It is very important for OD practitioners to diagnose and understand the inter group relations because 1 To achieve the goals of the group they must work with and through other groups. 2 Groups can create problems within the organization 3 The level of the organization effectiveness depend upon the quality of relationship between the groups 3. Large-group interventions. These interventions involve getting a broad variety of stakeholders into a large meeting to clarify important values, to develop new ways of working, to articulate a new vision for the organization, or to solve pressing organizational problems. Such meetings are powerful tools for creating awareness of organizational problems and opportunities and for specifying valued directions for future action. The range and purpose of Large Group Interventions There is now a comprehensive range of LGI’s, each coming with their own methodologies and processes. The main Large Group Interventions are listed in this article, with a brief summary of the purpose, methodology and optimum size of each, where applicable. It is possible, using some Dept of MBA, SJBIT Page 22

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