Lecture notes Operating systems

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Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women OPERATING SYSTEMS Lecture Notes DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING SHRI VISHNU ENGINEERING COLLEGE FOR WOMEN (Approved by AICTE, Accredited by NBA, Affiliated to JNTU Kakinada) BHIMAVARAM – 534 202 Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 1 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women UNIT -1 COMPUTER SYSTEM AND OPERATING SYSTEM OVERVIEW OVER VIEW OF OPERATING SYSTEM What is an Operating System? A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware Operating system goals: Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier Make the computer system convenient to use Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner Computer System Structure Computer system can be divided into four components Hardware – provides basic computing resources CPU, memory, I/O devices Operating system Controls and coordinates use of hardware among various applications and users Application programs – define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users Word processors, compilers, web browsers, database systems, video games Users People, machines, other computers Four Components of a Computer System Operating System Definition OS is a resource allocator Manages all resources Decides between conflicting requests for efficient and fair resource use OS is a control program Controls execution of programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer No universally accepted definition Everything a vendor ships when you order an operating system” is good approximation But varies wildly Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 3 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women “The one program running at all times on the computer” is the kernel. Everything else is either a system program (ships with the operating system) or an application program Computer Startup bootstrap program is loaded at power-up or reboot Typically stored in ROM or EPROM, generally known as firmware Initializes all aspects of system Loads operating system kernel and starts execution Computer System Organization Computer-system operation One or more CPUs, device controllers connect through common bus providing access to shared memory Concurrent execution of CPUs and devices competing for memory cycles Computer-System Operation I/O devices and the CPU can execute concurrently Each device controller is in charge of a particular device type Each device controller has a local buffer CPU moves data from/to main memory to/from local buffers I/O is from the device to local buffer of controller Device controller informs CPU that it has finished its operation by causing An interrupt Common Functions of Interrupts Interrupt transfers control to the interrupt service routine generally, through the interrupt vector, which contains the addresses of all the service routines Interrupt architecture must save the address of the interrupted instruction Incoming interrupts are disabled while another interrupt is being processed to prevent a lost interruptnA trap is a software-generated interrupt caused either by an error or a user request An operating system is interrupt driven Interrupt Handling The operating system preserves the state of the CPU by storing registers and the program counter Determines which type of interrupt has occurred: polling Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 4 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women vectored interrupt system Separate segments of code determine what action should be taken for each type of interrupt Interrupt Timeline I/O Structure After I/O starts, control returns to user program only upon I/O completion Wait instruction idles the CPU until the next interrupt Wait loop (contention for memory access) At most one I/O request is outstanding at a time, no simultaneous I/O processing After I/O starts, control returns to user program without waiting for I/O completion System call – request to the operating system to allow user to wait for I/O completion Device-status table contains entry for each I/O device indicating its type, address, and state Operating system indexes into I/O device table to determine device status and to modify table entry to include interrupt Direct Memory Access Structure Used for high-speed I/O devices able to transmit information at close to memory speeds Device controller transfers blocks of data from buffer storage directly to main memory without CPU intervention Only one interrupt is generated per block, rather than the one interrupt per byte Storage Structure Main memory – only large storage media that the CPU can access directly Secondary storage – extension of main memory that provides large nonvolatile storage capacity Magnetic disks – rigid metal or glass platters covered with magnetic recording material Disk surface is logically divided into tracks, which are subdivided into sectors The disk controller determines the logical interaction between the device and the computer Storage Hierarchy Storage systems organized in hierarchy Speed Cost Volatility Caching – copying information into faster storage system; main memory can be viewed as a last cache for secondary storage Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 5 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women Caching Important principle, performed at many levels in a computer (in hardware, operating system, software) Information in use copied from slower to faster storage temporarily Faster storage (cache) checked first to determine if information is there If it is, information used directly from the cache (fast) If not, data copied to cache and used there Cache smaller than storage being cached Cache management important design problem Cache size and replacement policy Computer-System Architecture Most systems use a single general-purpose processor (PDAs through mainframes) Most systems have special-purpose processors as well Multiprocessors systems growing in use and importance Also known as parallel systems, tightly-coupled systems Advantages include 1.Increased throughput 2.Economy of scale 3.Increased reliability – graceful degradation or fault tolerance Two types 1.Asymmetric Multiprocessing 2.Symmetric Multiprocessing Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 6 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women How a Modern Computer Works Symmetric Multiprocessing Architecture A Dual-Core Design Clustered Systems Like multiprocessor systems, but multiple systems working together Usually sharing storage via a storage-area network (SAN) Provides a high-availability service which survives failures Asymmetric clustering has one machine in hot-standby mode Symmetric clustering has multiple nodes running applications, monitoring each other Some clusters are for high-performance computing (HPC) Applications must be written to use parallelization Operating System Structure Multiprogramming needed for efficiency Single user cannot keep CPU and I/O devices busy at all times Multiprogramming organizes jobs (code and data) so CPU always has one to Execute A subset of total jobs in system is kept in memory Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 7 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women One job selected and run via job scheduling When it has to wait (for I/O for example), OS switches to another job Timesharing (multitasking) is logical extension in which CPU switches jobs so frequently that users can interact with each job while it is running, creating interactive computing Response time should be 1 second Each user has at least one program executing in memory process If several jobs ready to run at the same time CPU scheduling If processes don’t fit in memory, swapping moves them in and out to run Virtual memory allows execution of processes not completely in memory Memory Layout for Multiprogrammed System Operating-System Operations Interrupt driven by hardware Software error or request creates exception or trap Division by zero, request for operating system service Other process problems include infinite loop, processes modifying each Other or the operating system Dual-mode operation allows OS to protect itself and other system components User mode and kernel mode Mode bit provided by hardware Provides ability to distinguish when system is running user code or kernel code Some instructions designated as privileged, only executable in kernel mode System call changes mode to kernel, return from call resets it to user Transition from User to Kernel Mode Timer to prevent infinite loop / process hogging resources Set interrupt after specific period Operating system decrements counter When counter zero generate an interrupt Set up before scheduling process to regain control or terminate program that exceeds allotted time Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 8 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women UNIT - 1 OPERATING SYSTEM FUNCTIONS Process Management A process is a program in execution. It is a unit of work within the system. Program is a passive entity, process is an active entity. Process needs resources to accomplish its task CPU, memory, I/O, files Initialization data Process termination requires reclaim of any reusable resources Single-threaded process has one program counter specifying location of next instruction to execute Process executes instructions sequentially, one at a time, until completion Multi-threaded process has one program counter per thread Typically system has many processes, some user, some operating system running concurrently on one or more CPUs Concurrency by multiplexing the CPUs among the processes / threads Process Management Activities The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with process management: Creating and deleting both user and system processes Suspending and resuming processes Providing mechanisms for process synchronization Providing mechanisms for process communication Providing mechanisms for deadlock handling Memory Management All data in memory before and after processing All instructions in memory in order to execute Memory management determines what is in memory when Optimizing CPU utilization and computer response to users Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 9 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women Memory management activities Keeping track of which parts of memory are currently being used and by whom Deciding which processes (or parts thereof) and data to move into and out of memory Allocating and deallocating memory space as needed Storage Management OS provides uniform, logical view of information storage Abstracts physical properties to logical storage unit - file Each medium is controlled by device (i.e., disk drive, tape drive) Varying properties include access speed, capacity, data-transfer rate, access method (sequential or random) File-System management Files usually organized into directories Access control on most systems to determine who can access what OS activities include Creating and deleting files and directories Primitives to manipulate files and dirs Mapping files onto secondary storage Backup files onto stable (non-volatile) storage media Mass-Storage Management Usually disks used to store data that does not fit in main memory or data that must be kept for a “long” period of time Proper management is of central importance Entire speed of computer operation hinges on disk subsystem and its algorithms MASS STORAGE activities Free-space management Storage allocation Disk scheduling Some storage need not be fast Tertiary storage includes optical storage, magnetic tape Still must be managed Varies between WORM (write-once, read-many-times) and RW (read-write) Performance of Various Levels of Storage Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 10 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women Migration of Integer A from Disk to Register Multitasking environments must be careful to use most recent value, no matter where it is stored in the storage hierarchy Multiprocessor environment must provide cache coherency in hardware such that all CPUs have the most recent value in their cache Distributed environment situation even more complex Several copies of a datum can exist I/O Subsystem One purpose of OS is to hide peculiarities of hardware devices from the user I/O subsystem responsible for Memory management of I/O including buffering (storing data temporarily while it is being transferred), caching (storing parts of data in faster storage for performance), spooling (the overlapping of output of one job with input of other jobs) General device-driver interface Drivers for specific hardware devices Protection and Security Protection – any mechanism for controlling access of processes or users to resources defined by the OS Security – defense of the system against internal and external attacks Huge range, including denial-of-service, worms, viruses, identity theft, theft of service Systems generally first distinguish among users, to determine who can do what User identities (user IDs, security IDs) include name and associated number, one per user User ID then associated with all files, processes of that user to determine access control Group identifier (group ID) allows set of users to be defined and controls managed, then also associated with each process, file Privilege escalation allows user to change to effective ID with more rights DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS Computing Environments Traditional computer Blurring over time Office environment PCs connected to a network, terminals attached to mainframe or minicomputers providing batch and timesharing Now portals allowing networked and remote systems access to same resources Home networks Used to be single system, then modems Now firewalled, networked Client-Server Computing Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 11 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women Dumb terminals supplanted by smart PCs Many systems now servers, responding to requests generated by clients Compute-server provides an interface to client to request services (i.e. database) File-server provides interface for clients to store and retrieve files Peer-to-Peer Computing Another model of distributed system P2P does not distinguish clients and servers Instead all nodes are considered peers May each act as client, server or both Node must join P2P network Registers its service with central lookup service on network, or Broadcast request for service and respond to requests for service via discovery protocol Examples include Napster and Gnutella Web-Based Computing Web has become ubiquitous PCs most prevalent devices More devices becoming networked to allow web access New category of devices to manage web traffic among similar servers: load balancers Use of operating systems like Windows 95, client-side, have evolved into Linux and Windows XP, which can be clients and servers Open-Source Operating Systems Operating systems made available in source-code format rather than just binary closed-source Counter to the copy protection and Digital Rights Management (DRM) movement Started by Free Software Foundation (FSF), which has “copyleft” GNU Public License (GPL) Examples include GNU/Linux, BSD UNIX (including core of Mac OS X), and Sun Solaris Operating System Services One set of operating-system services provides functions that are helpful to the user: User interface - Almost all operating systems have a user interface (UI) Varies between Command-Line (CLI), Graphics User Interface (GUI), Batch Program execution - The system must be able to load a program into memory and to run that program, end execution, either normally or abnormally (indicating error) I/O operations - A running program may require I/O, which may involve a file or an I/O device Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 12 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women File-system manipulation - The file system is of particular interest. Obviously, programs need to read and write files and directories, create and delete them, search them, list file Information, permission management. A View of Operating System Services Operating System Services One set of operating-system services provides functions that are helpful to the user Communications – Processes may exchange information, on the same computer or between computers over a network Communications may be via shared memory or through message passing (packets moved by the OS) Error detection – OS needs to be constantly aware of possible errors May occur in the CPU and memory hardware, in I/O devices, in user program For each type of error, OS should take the appropriate action to ensure correct and consistent computing Debugging facilities can greatly enhance the user’s and programmer’s abilities to efficiently use the system Another set of OS functions exists for ensuring the efficient operation of the system itself via resource sharing Resource allocation - When multiple users or multiple jobs running concurrently, resources must be allocated to each of them Many types of resources - Some (such as CPU cycles, main memory, and file storage) may have special allocation code, others (such as I/O devices) may have general request and release code Accounting - To keep track of which users use how much and what kinds of computer resources Protection and security - The owners of information stored in a multiuser or networked computer system may want to control use of that information, concurrent processes should not interfere with each other Protection involves ensuring that all access to system resources is controlled Security of the system from outsiders requires user authentication, extends to defending external I/O devices from invalid access attempts If a system is to be protected and secure, precautions must be instituted throughout it. A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. User Operating System Interface - CLI Command Line Interface (CLI) or command interpreter allows direct command entry Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 13 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women Sometimes implemented in kernel, sometimes by systems program Sometimes multiple flavors implemented – shells Primarily fetches a command from user and executes it Sometimes commands built-in, sometimes just names of programs If the latter, adding new features doesn’t require shell modification User Operating System Interface - GUI User-friendly desktop metaphor interface Usually mouse, keyboard, and monitor Icons represent files, programs, actions, etc Various mouse buttons over objects in the interface cause various actions (provide information, options, execute function, open directory (known as a folder) Invented at Xerox PARC Many systems now include both CLI and GUI interfaces Microsoft Windows is GUI with CLI “command” shell Apple Mac OS X as “Aqua” GUI interface with UNIX kernel underneath and shells available Solaris is CLI with optional GUI interfaces (Java Desktop, KDE) Bourne Shell Command Interpreter Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 14 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women The Mac OS X GUI System Calls Programming interface to the services provided by the OS Typically written in a high-level language (C or C++) Mostly accessed by programs via a high-level Application Program Interface (API) rather than direct system call usenThree most common APIs are Win32 API for Windows, POSIX API for POSIX-based systems (including virtually all versions of UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS X), and Java API for the Java virtual machine (JVM) Why use APIs rather than system calls?(Note that the system-call names used throughout this text are generic) Example of System Calls Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 15 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women Example of Standard API Consider the ReadFile() function in the Win32 API—a function for reading from a file A description of the parameters passed to ReadFile() HANDLE file—the file to be read LPVOID buffer—a buffer where the data will be read into and written from DWORD bytesToRead—the number of bytes to be read into the buffer LPDWORD bytesRead—the number of bytes read during the last read LPOVERLAPPED ovl—indicates if overlapped I/O is being used System Call Implementation Typically, a number associated with each system call System-call interface maintains a table indexed according to these Numbers The system call interface invokes intended system call in OS kernel and returns status of the system call and any return values The caller need know nothing about how the system call is implemented Just needs to obey API and understand what OS will do as a result call Most details of OS interface hidden from programmer by API Managed by run-time support library (set of functions built into libraries included with compiler) API – System Call – OS Relationship Standard C Library Example Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 16 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women System Call Parameter Passing Often, more information is required than simply identity of desired system call Exact type and amount of information vary according to OS and call Three general methods used to pass parameters to the OS Simplest: pass the parameters in registers  In some cases, may be more parameters than registers Parameters stored in a block, or table, in memory, and address of block passed as a parameter in a register This approach taken by Linux and Solaris Parameters placed, or pushed, onto the stack by the program and popped off the stack by the operating system Block and stack methods do not limit the number or length of parameters being passed Parameter Passing via Table Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 17 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women Types of System Calls Process control File management Device management Information maintenance Communications Protection Examples of Windows and Unix System Calls MS-DOS execution (a) At system startup (b) running a program Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 18 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women FreeBSD Running Multiple Programs System Programs System programs provide a convenient environment for program development and execution. The can be divided into: File manipulation Status information File modification Programming language support Program loading and execution Communications Application programs Most users’ view of the operation system is defined by system programs, not the actual system calls Provide a convenient environment for program development and execution Some of them are simply user interfaces to system calls; others are considerably more complex File management - Create, delete, copy, rename, print, dump, list, and generally manipulate files and directories Status information Some ask the system for info - date, time, amount of available memory, disk space, number of users Others provide detailed performance, logging, and debugging information Typically, these programs format and print the output to the terminal or other output devices Some systems implement a registry - used to store and retrieve configuration information File modification Text editors to create and modify files Special commands to search contents of files or perform transformations of the text Programming-language support - Compilers, assemblers, debuggers and interpreters sometimes provided Program loading and execution- Absolute loaders, relocatable loaders, linkage editors, and overlay- loaders, debugging systems for higher-level and machine language Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 19 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women Communications - Provide the mechanism for creating virtual connections among processes, users, and computer systems Allow users to send messages to one another’s screens, browse web pages, send electronic-mail messages, log in remotely, transfer files from one machine to another Operating System Design and Implementation Design and Implementation of OS not “solvable”, but some approaches have proven successful Internal structure of different Operating Systems can vary widely Start by defining goals and specifications Affected by choice of hardware, type of system User goals and System goals User goals – operating system should be convenient to use, easy to learn, reliable, safe, and fast System goals – operating system should be easy to design, implement, and maintain, as well as flexible, reliable, error-free, and efficient Important principle to separate Policy: What will be done? Mechanism: How to do it? Mechanisms determine how to do something, policies decide what will be done The separation of policy from mechanism is a very important principle, it allows maximum flexibility if policy decisions are to be changed later Simple Structure MS-DOS – written to provide the most functionality in the least space Not divided into modules Although MS-DOS has some structure, its interfaces and levels of Functionality are not well separated MS-DOS Layer Structure Layered Approach The operating system is divided into a number of layers (levels), each built on top of lower layers. The bottom layer (layer 0), is the hardware; the highest (layer N) is the user interface. With modularity, layers are selected such that each uses functions (operations) and services of only lower-level layers Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 20 Shri Vishnu Engineering College for Women Traditional UNIX System Structure UNIX UNIX – limited by hardware functionality, the original UNIX operating system had limited structuring. The UNIX OS consists of two separable parts Systems programs The kernel Consists of everything below the system-call interface and above the physical hardware Provides the file system, CPU scheduling, memory management, and other operating-system functions; a large number of functions for one level Layered Operating System Micro kernel System Structure Moves as much from the kernel into “user” space Communication takes place between user modules using message passing Benefits: Easier to extend a microkernel Easier to port the operating system to new architectures More reliable (less code is running in kernel mode) Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Page 21

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