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Published Date:25-10-2017
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CHAPTER 3 Individual Dimentions of Organizational Behaviour INTRODUCTION Study of human behaviour is very complex. It is affected by various environmental factors. It is based on various cultural factors in which an individual is brought up and various social systems in which he is working. Every individual behaves in a different manner, his behaviour is individualistic in nature, and therefore cannot be changed easily without any strong stimuli. There exists a cause and effect relationship in individual behaviour. For example if an organization pays good dividends to its employees, the productivity can be improved. This means that the increased productivity is an effect of receipt of handsome dividends by the workers. These are monetary in nature which is extrinsic value addition. People are more prone to change in behaviour due to intrinsic value addition like recognition or change in status. It is therefore necessary for the managers to identify “need” of individual employee and evolve such strategies that would give an employee an intrinsic value satisfaction so that the productivity is increased and individuals are satisfied with the job they have been assigned to. An individual may be satisfied with subsidized lunch the organization provides, while the other may be dissatisfied with the menu, preparation or the method or even timings of the lunch. Human activities are innumerable. It may be maintenance of machines, delegation of authority, or writing a report on appraisal system. In general it could be both mental and physical process. All the activities of human beings cannot be measured, what goes psychologically or inside the thought process of an individual cannot be observed. Individual behaviour cannot be easily predicted due to interplay of and implement. The job of a manager various variables, that are very complex to examine therefore is to predict the behaviour based on knowledge of individual his experience with him in an identical situation and behaviour pattern prevailing, based on the organizational culture. A manager at best can generalize a situation and should implement his managerial skills so that workers satisfaction level is increased. No two individuals are alike and they behave different in similar situations. In relation to work, individuals differ in the following respects. 1. Intrinsic/Extrinsic rewards: Intrinsic rewards are related to recognition that a worker gets in an organization. It is related to inner satisfaction of a person and46 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR not related to material wants. Extrinsic rewards are related to maintenance or hygiene factors which are related to increased monetary compensation. Intrinsic reward is related to change in right direction of human behaviour, which is permanent or long lasting. Monetary rewards prevent motivational level to come down however it does not help to increase. Workers differ in this respect and hence there is a difference of behaviour of workers in a particular situation, though the situation may be the same. 2. Compensation: Compensation is another factor, where most of the individuals have their own way of expression, while some workers would appreciate the mega- work the management is doing in running the organization and be satisfied with the reward or the compensation they are getting while the others may be unhappy and resort to various grievance. Foundation of Individual Behaviour Individual behaviour is influenced by various factors. We will study those personal factors, which has influence on productivity, job satisfaction, absenteeism and turnover. These are given in Figure 3.1 below: Personal Factors Biological and individual factors Emotional Intelligence Learned characteristics Physical attributes Personality Age Perception Gender Attitude Marital status Values Number of dependants Ability Tenure/experience Fig. 3.1. Personal factors having influence on productivity job satisfaction, turnover and absenteeism BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS Biological and Individual Factors There are certain factors which are inherited by an individual. A person inherits physical appearance, way of talking, analyzing, and taking initiative in a group. Physical attributes of a person are important in work enviornment. If a manager is able to identify these factors he will be able to deal with each of individual employees effectively. These factors are as under: (a) Age: Age is one of the important factors to generate productivity. The relationship between job and performance is an issue of increasing concern. Younger employees are expected to be more energetic, adventurous, ambitions and risk takers. On theINDIVIDUAL DIMENTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 47 other hand old people are considered to be more conservative, having slow speed of work and are less adaptable. Job performance and turnover declines with increasing age and therefore less job opportunities, hence there are less of resignation. Older people generally get higher wages, longer paid vacation and they stick on to the job because of pensionary benefits. However productivity is related to attitude and behaviour of employees irrespective of age factor. Speed, agility, strength and coordination reduces by age. Experience, the older employees enjoy is of a great significance, disadvantages caused due to declining age is off set by experience. (b) Gender: Traditionally some jobs were reserved for females like nursing jobs. Over a passage of time, there is no gender differenciation between male and female. We observe successful female entrepreneurs working around the world. In the Indian defence services, the women fighter pilots had done a wonderful job during Kargil operations. They can undergo physical and mental stress and display exemplary capabilities. There is no gender difference for skills that are required for problem solving, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability and learning ability. It has been established that women are more willing to conform to authority. Men are more aggressive and have a greater expectations from the organization. There is no difference in productivity and job satisfaction. Women absents more as compared to the men, this is because of the social responsibility and domestic problems. Women have to stay longer at home for child care, illness of dependants and the like. As far as turnover is concerned, there is no difference between men and women. (c) Religion: Religion and culture play an important role in determining various aspects of individual behaviour. There is a great impact on individual who have been brought up in ideal religious culture concerning moral, ethics and a code of conduct. Religion and culture determine individual attitude towards work and compensation. Employees having high religious value are generally found to be hard working, honest, dependable, sociable, who can fit in the organization well. They are productive, innovative and think well of the organization. (d) Marital Status: Marriage imposes increased responsibilities on an individual, therefore an individual desires to have a steady job. Married employees have fewer absences, lesser turnover and higher job satisfaction. Number of dependants is also a factor to be considered. There is no clear cut information about the impact of marital status on productivity absenteeism, turnover and job satisfaction. Since marriage increases the family commitment, an individual do not change organizations. Tenure Tenure is referred to as experience. The impact of experience on performance is an issue which is subject to a lot of misconception and speculation. Work experience is considered to be a good indicator of employee productivity. There is a positive relationship between seniority and job performance and negative relationship between seniority and absenteeism. Employee turnover is negatively related to seniority. Research indicates that experience and satisfaction are positively related. Seniority and experience is a better indicator of job satisfaction than the age of a person.48 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Ability Ability is individuals’ capacity to perform various tasks in a job. Ability is made up of two sets of skills: (A) Intellectual skills or ability and (B) Physical skills or ability. We are not created equals. It does not mean we are inherently inferiors to others. Everyone has strengths and weaknesses in ability. What is important is to identify level of ability or skills and put it to optimum utilization to improve performance. (A) Intellectual ability: It is an ability of a person that is required to do mental activities. Higher IQ is not necessary to perform the job successfully. For any high job a general level of intelligence is adequate. Intellectual ability can be further divided into the following skills: (a) Number Aptitude: A person having number aptitude displays speed, accuracy and arithmetic inclination in the work. Such individuals can be best employed in accounts and sales tax departments. (b) Verbal Comprehension: It refers to ability to understand what is heard or read. It is relationship of words to each other. People having verbal comprehension can be best employed as plant managers. They would be ideal to draft corporate polices. (c) Perceptual Speed: It is an ability to identify visual similarities and differences. Such individuals can be gainfully employed for investigative jobs. (d) Inductive Reasoning: The ability is related to individual’s skill to identify logical sequence in a problem and later solve the same. Such individuals can be assigned the job in research and development departments / organizations. (e) Deductive Reasoning: The ability refers to use of logic and assess the implications of an arguments. People with this skill can ideally foot the bill as supervisors. (f) Spatial Visualisation: It is an ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in the space were changed. Interior decorators have this skill. (g) Memory: It is an ability to recall past experience. Sales persons depend upon this ability in performance of their job. (B) Physical Ability: Physical ability refers to strength factors which includes dynamic strength (muscles force), trunk strength (abdominal muscles), static strength (exertion of force against external object) and explosive strength. Other factors relate to body coordination, balance and stamina. It is the responsibility of the manager to identify physical skills in the individual and assign them suitable jobs commensurate with their ability. High importance of physical skills are given in police, railways, defence, revenue and agriculture fields where various skills are important. In industrial setting, it must be ensured that ability is co-related to the job requirements so that an optimum output is achieved. Emotions For many years wisdom of a person and his ability to perform was measured by IntelligenceINDIVIDUAL DIMENTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 49 Quotient (IQ). IQ was a measure for admission to schools, measurement of performance in studies, for seeking jobs and performance evaluation while on the job. However studies indicate that Emotional Intelligence (EI) is now considered as greater predictor of success than IQ. Wechsler and Robert Thornadike carried out work on non-cognitive aspects of intelligence like social intelligence. In 1990, Salovey and Mayer coined the term ‘Emotional intelligence’. They described emotional intelligence as “a form of social intelligence that involves the ability to moniter one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action”. Cognitive abilities are related to IQ of an individual and non-cognitive with emotions. It has been found that emotional and social skills actually help to improve cognitive functioning also. Emotional Intelligence at Work Optimism Martin Seligman developed a construct that he calls “learned optimism”. It refers to the causal attributions people make when confronted with failure or setbacks. Optimists tend to make specific, temporary, external causal attributions while pessimist make global, permanent, internal attributions. In research at Met Life, Seligman and his colleagues found that new salesman who were optimists sold 37 percent more insurance in their first two years than did pessimist. When the company hired a special group of individuals who scored high on optimism but failed the normal screening, they outsold the pessimist by 21 percent in their first year and 57 percent in the second. They even outsold the average agent by 27 percent. Optimism was a better predictor of students’ actual grades during the freshman year than high school grades. The ability to manage feelings and handle stress is another aspect of emotional intelligence that has been found to be important for success. A study of store managers in a retail chain found that the ability to handle stress predicted net profits, sales per squire foot, sales per employee and per dollar of inventory investment. A study carried out at Yale University by Sigdal and Barsade indicated that emotional intelligence has as much to do with knowing when and how to express emotions. Good feelings led to improved co-operation, fairness, and overall group performance. It has been established that most effective leaders in the US Navy were warmer, more outgoing, emotionally expressive, dramatic and sociable. Empathy is a particularly important aspect of emotional intelligence, and researchers have known for years that it contributes to occupational success. People who are best at identifying others’ emotions are move successful in their work as well as in their social life. (Reference: Cherniss Cary, Emotional Intelligence: What it is and Why it Matters, Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854). Emotional intelligence is important for success in work and in life. Goleman and Mayer, Salovey & Caruso have argued that by itself emotional intelligence probably is not a strong predictor of job performance. Rather it provides the bedrock for competencies that are. Goleman has tried to represent this idea by making a distinction between emotional intelligence and emotional competence. “Emotional competence refers to the personal and social skills that lead to superior performance in the world of work. The emotional competencies are linked to and based on emotional intelligence. A50 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR certain level of emotional intelligence is necessary to learn the emotional competencies”, for instance, the ability to recognize accurately what another person is feeling, enables one to develop a specific competency such as ‘influence’. Similarly, people who are better able to regulate their emotions will find it easier to develop a competency such as initiative or achievement drive. Ultimately it is these social and emotional competencies that we need to identify and measure, if we want to be able to predict performance. FRAMEWORK OF EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE A model of Emotional competencies is given below in Figure 3.1 below. Self Other Personal Competence Social Competence Self awareness Social Awareness Recognition Emotional self-awareness Empathy Accurate self-assessment Service orientation Self confidence Organizational awareness Self management Relationship management Self control Developing others Trustworthyness Influence Connsciousness Communication Regulation Adaptability Conflict management Achievement drive Leadership Initiative Change catalist Building bonds Teamwork and collaboration Fig. 3.1. Framework of emotional competencies The above model reflects recent statistical analysis by Richard Boyatzis that supported four domain as seen in the diagram above. These are Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social-Awareness, and Relationship Management (Boyatzis, Goleman, and Rhee, 2000). They administered the emotional competence inventory, a questionnaire designed to assess the twenty EI competencies to nearly six hundred corporate managers and professionals and engineering, management, and social work graduate students. Respondents were then asked to indicate the degree to which statements about EI-related behaviours- for instance, the ability to remain calm under pressure–were characteristic of themselves. Their ratings were then compared to ratings of those who worked with them. Three key clusters into which the twenty EI competencies were grouped emerged: Self Awareness, Self-management and Social awareness (which subsumes Empathy), along with relationship management, which, in the statistical analysis, subsumed the Social awareness cluster. While the analysis verifies that the competencies rest within each EI domain, it alsoINDIVIDUAL DIMENTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 51 suggests that the distinction between the Social awareness cluster and the Relationship management cluster may be more theoretical than empirical. Learned Characteristics 1. Personality: Personality is sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. It is a dynamic organization within an individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustments with his environment. It is the charm, positive attitude, smiling face, growth and the development of a person that adds to personality. Personality is greatly influence by the environment that a person has been brought up and the factors of heredity. (a) Environment: It refers to culture in which a person is raised. Culture establishes norms, values and attitude that are passed on to generations. Early conditions, norms in the family, friend and social groups and other influences that are formative of personality. (b) Heredity: Heredity is transmitted through genes that determine hormone balance and leads to physique formation which shapes personality. Heredity refers to those factors like physical stature, facial attractiveness, sex, temperament, muscle composition, reflects and energy level. Heredity is made up of biological factors. Traits like shyness, fear and distress are passed on to generations. Traits are characteristics of an individual when exhibited in large number of situations. More consistence and more frequent occurrences in diverse situations, the more predominant the trait in an individual are. Common traits found in a person are shyness, aggressive, submissive, laziness, ambitious, loyal and timid. Perception is the process by which information is interpreted in order to give meaning to the world around us. Different people perceive the same thing differently. It should be noted that we should evaluate each situation / individual carefully before forming an opinion. Perceptual errors should be avoided perception will be studied in greater details in the subsequent chapters. (c) Attitude: Attitude is a tendency to act/think in certain ways either favourably or unfavourably concerning objects, people or situation. For example, If I say I am satisfied with my job, what actually I am doing is expressing my attitude towards the job. An attitude is the way a person feels about a person, a place, a thing, a situation or an idea. Attitude could be positive or negative. Attitude can be measured either by observing the action of the individual or simply asking him the questions about how he would behave in a particular situation. (d) Values: Values are beliefs that guide actions and judgments across a variety of situations. Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct. Values are of two types, terminal value that are ultimate values like freedom, salvation, truth and non-violance. Instrumental values relate to means for achieving ends. It is a tool for acquiring terminal values. For example obedient, capable etc. Individual values are formed in the initial stages. They are influenced by the parents, teachers, friends and other social groups. Values vary from person to person. Values help in understanding the attitudes, and motivational level of the individuals. It helps to change52 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR the individual behavior. Values are of a great help to determine as to what is good and what is desirable. Values are so strong an instrument that it at times ulter rational decisions. An organization having right value system have greater chances of growth. DEVELOPING AN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR MODEL (OB MODEL) Objective of model development is to understand human behaviour, predict and control the same. The behavioural approach is used for controlling human behaviour as individuals and as a group, to measure organizational effectiveness. Development of OB model involves studying individual, group, organizational structure and systems that should be finely interwoven. The basics of OB model is an individual in an organization. Two or more individuals make a team or a group (work group). There are various systems and sub-systems in any organization like recruitment system or communication system under which an individual or group has to function. Study of OB relates to studying individual behaviour, group behaviour and various organizational systems. It has been observed that Individual behaves differently in different situations. For example an individual will be very enthusiastic on the sports ground, very sober while worshiping in the temple and gay during the dinner party. Though the individual is the same but changes his behaviour based on norms that has been associated with different situations. Two people often act differently in any one situation. For example, worker would display different type of behaviour under different patterns of leadership. His behaviour would be affected, to a large extent on the style of leadership. Individual level behaviour forms a base for group behaviour. It is a study which involves step by step approach, first studying individual behaviour, later group behaviour and in the end studying various organizational structures, which have impact on organization as a whole. Individual, groups and organization structure have a direct impact on the productivity of an organization. High productivity is directly related to high job satisfaction of the employees. While employee turnover and absenteeism is inversely proportionate to productivity and job satisfaction. More satisfied employee would be more productive. He would be absent on less occasions unless forced by the situation and would render dedicated service and display high degree of loyalty unless forced by domestic constraints. The health of the organization can fairly be judged by the absenteeism and employee turnover. Greater the absenteeism and turnover poorer is the productivity and dissatisfied employees. It is therefore fair to assume productivity, job satisfaction, employee turnover and absenteeism as dependent variables in the study of organizational behaviour. Some management scientists also include job stress, individual dissent and innovation as additional variables. It is stated that an individual or group of people who undergo high level of job stress would either absent themselves frequently or leave the organization. Therefore the study of stress and dissent is integral to absenteeism and employee turnover and need not be studied separately. Innovation is a personal characteristic of an individual who is innovative by nature and likes a challenging job, which ultimately would lead to higher job satisfaction and a better quality of life and higher productivity. It is therefore the field that the study of innovation as dependent variable need not be undertaken separately as this would be covered under the personality traits of the individual that have an impact on organizational effectiveness. Most of the management experts have accepted only four independentINDIVIDUAL DIMENTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 53 variables i.e. productivity, job satisfaction, employee turnover and absenteeism. Let us briefly study these factors. Dependent Variables Productivity: When we decide to study productivity, actually what we want to know is the factors that would influence high productivity. The study reveals that it is effectiveness and efficiency of individual, groups and organizational structure that have a positive impact on productivity. It should therefore be an endeavour of any organization to introduce such management practices, which will enhance job satisfaction level of an individual group and organization as a whole. Productivity can be measured in terms of number of items produced by an organization or percentage of profit earned at the end of the production cycle or financial year. It can also be measured by output of production per hour. In case of service industry like hotels or hospitals, occupancy of suites in a hotel on daily basis and turnover of patients per day can express the productivity of the service organization. Job satisfaction: Job satisfaction can be explained as a general attitude towards one’s job. Job satisfaction is the difference between the amount of rewards workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive. It is a difference between material/ money gains in terms of wages, salary and expectations. Job satisfaction sphere can be enlarged to promotion, organizational policies and its implementation, wage structure as compared to the industry norms. Job satisfaction is important because it displays demonstrated relationship to performance and value preferences. Job satisfaction is an attitude rather than a behaviour. It is negatively related to absenteeism and employee turnover. Challenging jobs should be provided to the employees and total quality management of workers is undertaken. Higher management must take quality decisions, which has an equal bearing on quality production. Organizations should evolve such policies that would increase the satisfaction level of employees and must count on intrinsic value that employees believe in. Absenteeism: Absenteeism refers to individual absenting himself from the job or work place without any notice. While leave is also absenteeism but it is a forewarned phenomenon. In the work-setting, a supervisor is expected to be aware of individuals proceeding on leave in advance so that adequate measures are taken to hire individual in place of the person proceeding on leave. When an individual is not happy with his work, he generally absents himself. Apart from causing personal loss in terms of wages, it also causes great amount of inconvenience to the organization and hampers work schedule and productivity. If an organization works on a process manufacturing like bottling plant, the link of process is disturbed due to the individual being absent and a substitute is required to be hired at the last moment, who may not be skilled to do the job. If a large number of individuals are absent at any one time, the quality of product is reduced because of poor quality of individuals hired. Even a situation may arise to shut down a plant when absenteeism is at an optimum degree. It may be noted that absenteeism reduces work stress and fatigue of the workers. When they join on the duty, they are fresh and it has been noticed that the production level increases. It has also been observed that managers joining on duty after a long leave of absence, give quality decisions. It is therefore necessary that the individual working in any organization should be adequately motivated, their leave appropriately planned and suitable relief arranged when they proceed on leave of absence. An organization having54 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR zero percent of absenteeism is generally considered to be a high productive unit with a good morale of workers and high esprit de corps. Turnover: Turnover of employees could be voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary turnover takes place when an individual leaves an organization to join another, where he believes that there may be better prospects or opportunities for growth. Apart from the above, an individual may leave the organization purely on administrative grounds like new organization being close to the residence, availability of schools in the new area etc. Involuntary turnover refers to permanent withdrawal of an employee from the organization at the organization’s will. This turnover may be planned or unplanned. Persons leaving organization on retirement is a planned turnover because the management knows well in advance as to the date of retirement. The study of employee turnover is important because it relates to manpower planning of the organization. It is the prime function of a personnel manager to identify where and when the employee is leaving the organization and ensure the vacancies so caused are kept filled. Turnover has an adverse impact on productivity. High rate of turnover leads to increased cost on recruitment, selection and training the employees. It also causes disruption in production due to various posts remaining vacant over a long period of time. It should be borne in mind that employee turnover should be kept zero if possible apart from planned turnover. This would ensure smooth functioning of the organization, sticking to the production schedules that will ultimately have a possitive impact on sales revenue. Greater turnover leads to extra expenses in terms of time and efforts that could be avoided. Social scientists and management experts feel that employee turnover to some extent is good for the health of the organization. They feel that due to employee turnover, new opportunities are created to the individuals, certain amount of undesirable individuals can be replaced, new blood with higher skills, fresh ideas and motivated people can be inducted, who may have a vision and give a new look to the organization. Independent Variables The independent variables influencing the organizational behaviour are as under: (a) Individual Variables: Individual has value system which is exhibited by him through his personality. Apart from this he has preferences, attitude, ego and learning. All the variables influences the work environment. Managers do not have control over the individual behaviour. The knowledge of these factors is important as it has direct bearing on the organizational effectiveness and growth. These factors have a direct impact on productivity, job satisfaction, turnover and absenteeism. (b) Group Variables: Group variables are important factors influencing organizational behaviour. A group has a deciding impact on various events in the organization. The contribution of people in group is more than the sum total of individual contribution made to the organization. Study of group behaviour is carried out under several concepts like group dynamics, group decision making, power politics, leadership inter-group and intra-group behaviour, conflict management. All these variables are studied so that the energies and skills are diverted towards goal achievent in the organization. (c) Structural Variables: Structural variables are related to command and control,INDIVIDUAL DIMENTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 55 reporting channels, specilisation, training and development, organization development and other variable pertaining to organizational make up, job design procurement and utilization of organizational resources. If organizational structure is flat, the people would be accountable and more responsible. Formal and informal organizations have its merits for contribution to the organization. TYPES OF MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The models of organizational behaviour are developed considering input, process and output. Input contains various independent variables. Processes involve interaction with other individuals, groups formally or informally and take into consideration organisatioin resources, managerial roles, leadership styles, motivational factors, level of conflicts, stress factors, channels of command and control, organisatioal development measures undertaken by the organization, prevailing organizational culture and hosts of other factors. These factors then culminate into output in the form of dependent variables discussed earlier. The models of organizational behaviour have been developed through the historical development of management thoughts discussed in chapter two of the book. In India, organizational behaviour models differ from organization to organization. Every organization adopts one or more models of behaviour. The different types or organizational behaviour models are discussed in succeeding paragraphs. Fuedal Model: Feudal Model treats employees inferior. The concept is based upon Theory X where actions, polices and procedures are considered superior to human beings. In fuedal model employees are treated sternly and hire and fire principle is applicable in the organization. A fear psychosis is created among the employees. These models have been practiced world over by various organizations where people have been laid off for cost cutting. Employee desires, value, emotions are not considered pragmatically by the organizers. People are treated as another resource for all purposes. Autocratic Model: Autocratic model is based on the concept that managers are superior. They have power to hire and fire any employees. Managers words are considered final. Autocratic model believes in power and authority of the manager. Employee have to obey the orders of the boss. Autocratic model proposes that minimum employee needs are met. It believes that higher salaries given to employees is sheer waste of resources as they spend money for unproductive needs. Individuals are controlled by the managers based on official authority and power attached to it. Employees are driven to work as this model assumes that nobody wants to work unless he is forced to do so. Managers are considered neutral born leaders who are obeyed and respected in all areas. The autocratic model is very commonly used in Indian organizations like, railways, defence organization, police organization, banks etc. Autocratic model has however proved to be partly in-effective because of introduction of human rights commission. This has reduced the scope to abiding by rules regulations and written instructions of an organization. Custodial Model: Custodial model imply that owners are custodian of resources in the organization and they are bound to look after the welfare of employees. It considers that assets of organization belong to industrialist, managers and employees in equal measures and that nobody has monopoly rights. Employees are given opportunities to bring their problems to the notice of the employer and it is the duty of the latter to solve the same. Redressal of grievance procedure exists in the organization. Employees depend56 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR on the organization for security and their welfare. The organizations provide wages and salary while employees are in service. They also provide pensionary benefits to the employees so that they can sustain their post retirement life comfortably. While in service employees get fair wages rather than subsistence wages. They depend on the organization rather than the boss. Employees devote themselves for the organizational development because they feel that the organization look after the employee welfare not only during service but also post service periods. Employees are interested in economic rewards and benefits. The model proposes passive involvement of employees and money as the only motivating factor. Direct cooperation of employees is not sought. Employee value, preferences, attitude, emotions and psychological motivational factors are not considered for organizational effectiveness. The model however is useful for organizational growth. Supportive Model: Employees are considered active workers who have their value, attitude, desire, and preferences. Leaders use attitude and value system of employees to motivate them. Supportive model believes that employees are active and with ideal environment and support, they can use their energies and skill for higher productivity of the organization. If employees are given oppourtunities they can increase their capacity to do a particular work. Owner has to provide and support various activities for individual, group and organizations. The employees should develop sense of belonging and feeling of participation in over all organizational growth. The model does not support the custodial model concept where money is considered as motivating factor. Employees get oppourtunities for recognition. They develop positive outlook towards work culture. Managers and workers participate together in the development of organization while achieving development of their own skills. Many organizations have developed as a result of adopting the supportive model. The model helps in the development of individuals, groups and organizations. It is more effective in developed countries. It has not been proved very effective in developing nations because of restrictive social and cultural environment. Supportive model is used in many organizations with modifications. Collegial Model: Collegial model refers to body of persons having common objective. The basis of the model is the partnership of the employees with owners. The emphasis is on team management between workers and owners. Employees are given responsible and trustworthy jobs. They are self-disciplined and self-motivated. Managers and workers have similar activities, work environment and understanding. Managerial cadre is not considered superior to the employees. They contribute jointly rather than bosses or leaders. They have to develop as a team with employees and impress upon quality and performance. Combined efforts contribute to the growth and performance of the organization. Human Value Model: The natural process of behaviour is Stimulus, Organism, Behaviour and Consequence. It is generally known as SOBC. Every organization should provide enough incentives in the form of intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli. Intrinsic stimulus is achieved by encouraging individuals by recognition, empowerment, delegation of authority, better inter-personal relations and cognitive behaviour in general. Extrinsic stimuli refers to economic incentives in the form of reward for the job done. It is monetary in nature and are exercised for influencing organism of employees. The aim of these incentives are to stimuli the employees in the desired direction so that productivity and growth is achieved. Organizations should identify best social, cultural, physical and tecnological stimuli so that positive consequences in the form of behaviour is achieved. It must be understood that people work in the organization for achieving psychological satisfaction. They want toINDIVIDUAL DIMENTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 57 belong to a social group so that they are mentally at peace and that would lead to desired behaviour in the organization. Enviornment of the organization therefore must be condusive to work and quality of work life should be very rich. Contingency Model: Contingency model of organizational behaviour refers to complex variables that influence individual, group and organizational structures. Contingency model is designed to meet the contingent situations like management of conflict, handling of stress, achieving growth and managining the complexities caused due to changes in organization structures. In the contingency model relations between manager and employees are based on co-operation, trust and desire of well-being. Promotion to employees are assured. No distinction is made between specialist and non-specialist. It is also known as the hybrid model where long term employment is assured to the employees. Environmental Factors Environment has impact on individual’s behaviour. When a child is born, he is raised in a particular culture that establishes values, norms and attitude. These are passed on to subsequent generations. Early conditions have permanent impact on the child. Family norms and social group influences an individual to a great extent. First born child and later born child may display different attitude and approach to life. Environmental factors that have impact on individual behaviour are 1) General economic situation of the organization one is serving. An individual serving in government/ public sector undertaking has a job security. Those serving in private organization may be worried about retrenchment. 2) Wages is another issue. It will determine the social norms an individual is able to practice. 3) An individual who has employability is able to secure job in organization of own choosing. In the recent past software professionals shifted their jobs very frequently. Technical qualification is therefore an important factor that has impact on human behaviour. Monetary and psychological aspects play a decisive role in human behviour. 4) Political, social, legal and tecnological enviornment should be sound and condusive to work culture. Owners should analyse the situation and be vigilent about employee attitude, behaviour and pre-empt any dangerous behavioural situation. SUMMARY Individual behaviour is very complicated. An individual behaves differendly in various situations. It is necessary for a manager to identify “needs” of the individual and evolve such strategies that satisfy them. Based upon knowledge, skill and experience, a manager should be able to predict individual behaviour. Motivation of individual differes when intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are given to him. He reacts in a different way as it relates to compensation. Individual behaviour is founded on 1) biological and individual factors that include Physical attributes, age, gender, marital status, number of dependants and experience/tenure. 2) emotional intelligence of the individual and 3) learned characteristics that include personality, attitude, perception and value system of the person. Emotional intelligence is now considered as a measure of one’s feelings and application of social skill. Learned optimism is an ability of an individual to perform. There are two types of persons. They are either optimist or pessimist. An optimist makes specific, temporary natured exernal causal attributions while pessimist makes global, permanent external attributions. Goleman states that emotional intelligence is bedrock of individual58 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR competencies. He further clarifies that “emotional competency refers to personal and social skills that are based on emotional intelligence. These are futher clasified into self awareness, social awareness, self management and relationship management competencies”. Learned chareceristics include personality, culture, heridity, attitude and values. These have tremendous effect on job performance growth and job satisfaction. These characeristics and emotional intelligence factors that have a direct impact on productivity, Job satisfaction, absenteeism and turnover. The later are therefore called dependant variables. Various organizational models are fuedal model, autocratic model, supportive model, collegial model, human value model and lastly the contingency model. TEXT QUESTIONS Q. 1. Explain individual behaviour. What is its relationship with intrinsic and extrinsic rewards? Q. 2. What are various biological and individual factors that have impact on productivity, job satisfaction, absenteeism and turnover? Q. 3. Explain concept of emotional intelligence. Q. 4. What do you understand by learned optimism? Q. 5. Draw out a framework of emotional competence and explain individual behaviour? Q. 6. What are various learned characteristics of an individual. How these affect behaviour? Q. 7. What are various dependant variables. Explain each of them in detail? Q. 8. What are various OB models. Discuss? Q. 9. What enviornmental factors have influence on individual behaviour. Discuss? Case THE UNATTENDED ACCIDENT Mrs. S. Madhuri rd Vinod Khanna left Bombay for Surat on official work on 3 November, by 10.45 p.m. train. On the following day in Surat, Vinod received a phone call from a colleague in Bombay saying that his mother and his children had met with a car accident. He phoned back his sister in Bombay and got the details about the accident. As he felt concerned about the nature of injuries to his mother, he felt it advisable to return. He therefore, took the evening plane back to Bombay. Vinod Khanna stays in the housing colony of the company with his parents and his children. The company and its housing colony are situated at a place not easily accessible to the mainland city of Bombay. On the previous evening, when he was leaving for Surat, he had requisitioned the office car at 7.45 p.m. for commuting to the station. On the way to the station, he had picked up his mother and children from his sister’s house in the mainland city. After seeing him off at the railway station. His family members were returning to their company quarters by the same car. Half the way up, the car was hit by a truck. The driver received minor injuries. Vinod’s daughter got some bruises. His son’s jaw was badly hurtINDIVIDUAL DIMENTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 59 endangering one of his teeth. His mother was hurt on the face, her denture was thrown off and her ears started bleeding. The car was badly damaged. An RTO officer who was around directed the driver and Vinod’s relations to the nearest police station. From the police station the driver called the company’s Administrative Officer and informed him about the accident. Vinod’s son contacted his aunt who came and took care of the children and the mother. They were taken to a hospital where the children were treated and allowed to go, and the mother was hospitalized. th The next morning, that is on 4 November, Vinod’s sister called the company’s Administrative Officer and was informed as to where Vinod could be contacted. She also th called a colleague of Vinod and told him about the accident. On reaching his office on 5 November, Vinod complained to the Chief Executive about the neglect and lack of concern shown by the administration regarding the accident. The Administrative Officer had not taken any immediate action consequent to the driver’s phone call. Vinod also complained that while commuting to the office that morning by the company’s bus. The Administrative Officer confirmed that he received the driver’s phone call at 11.30 p.m. He maintained that the driver had said that he had been slightly injured. Where after he had talked to the police sub-inspector on duty, who also informed him that the driver and Vinod’s son had received minor injuries; and that he would release the driver and the car immediately. The Administrative Officer further contended that the driver did not ask to be picked up also that he did not know that Vinod’s mother was also in the car and that she had been badly hurt. The driver submitted his report the next evening. The driver contended that after phoning the Administrative Officer from the police station, he went back to the car at the site of the accident and spent the night with his injuries untreated. He said since the police officer talked to the Administrative Officer in English, he did not know what conversation took place between them. In the morning, he phoned the transport incharge, whence he was picked up and the car towed to the company premises. The transport incharge, Mr. Kashyap maintained that the car and the driver were assigned for duty only upto the railway station and back. He said he also did not know that Vinod’s mother had been in the car until the driver filed his report. Nor, he said, th did he notice Vinod on the bus on the morning of 5 November. th On 6 November, the Chief Executive received a memorandum from the Employees Association of the company complaining about the inaction of the Administrative Officer concerning the accident. QUESTIONS Read the above case carefully and answer the following questions. Q. 1. Identify the human relations problems in the case. Q. 2. It is possible to deal with the problem through formal procedures? What are the likely consequences of dealing with it formally? Q. 3. What may be other methods of resolving the problem? Q. 4. What kind of behavioural change is required on the part of different functionaries involved?60 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR CHAPTER 4 Personality PERSONALITY Personality is a very complex and multidimensional construct of a human being. No common definition of personality has so far been arrived at. Every individual defines personality in different way which includes trait factors and physical appearance.” Personality is a dynamic organization within an individual of those psychological systems that determines his unique adjustment with the environment. It is a sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.” As far as physical aspect is concerned it relates to individual charm, attitude while dealing with others and smiling face can also be included into personality. Uma Sekaran states that one can examine personality in terms of a set of relatively stable characteristics and tendencies that determine our thoughts, feelings and behaviour and which have some continuity or consistency over time. Maddi (1980) defines personality thus: Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings, and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment. The above definitions indicate the commonality of characteristics and human tendencies amongst people who display consistency in their behaviour over time. Maddis definition suggests that people do change due to biological and social pressures. Thus by understanding certain dimensions of personality one can predict human behaviour to a great extent. Determinants of Personality Personality is determined by heredity, environment (culture) and situation under which an individual works. This is shown in diagrammatic form in Figure 4.1. Let us study these concepts. Heredity Heredity is transmitted through genes, which determine hormone balance, which later determine physique and subsequently the personality. Heredity refers to acquiring from parents certain biological, physical and psychological commonalities, which are further reflected in physical stature, facial attractiveness, sex, temperament, muscle composition and even reflect. They often decide energy level. These factors have a deciding influencePERSONALITY 61 Environment Heredity Personality Situation Fig. 4.1. Determinants of personality on how a person in an organization would display his reactions in a particular situation. Nature of health and psychological make up that an individual enjoys can be traced from the traits his parents possessed. Parents prominently pass on shyness, fear and distress to the next generation. In good organizations and particularly in defence services a detailed screening is carried out of the candidates based on the background of the parents as it relates to physique, psychological make up, disability and transferable disease as it has far reaching impact on the general health of the organization. Environment Every individual is born and brought up in a particular environment. Environment leaves an imprint on the personality of an individual. It is commonly seen that a doctors son preferring his father’s profession and a child of a soldier entering into Defence Services. More advanced the socio-economic conditions of the society more would the children be forward thinking. Environment should be viewed from the point of view of norms, ethics and value that are observed and the attitude displayed by the social group. These factors actually formulate the culture of the society from which the organizations draw their human resource requirements. The cultural background is important to evaluate personality. In childhood, parents, uncles, aunts and even neighbour’s behaviour is copied by a child. It is therefore necessary to display an ideal behaviour on the part of all the adults who come in direct contact with the children. Family moulds character of children through role models re-enforcements, rewards and punishments. Other influences like first born and later born child will have different personality traits. First-born child would generally be commanding. Female child would be more responsive and pass on sobering effect on younger brothers/sisters. It is therefore important to study early conditions under which the child has been brought up, norms followed in the family and the existence of cultural value system in the society. All these factors have a marked influence on the personality of an individual. Situation Individual has to interact with number of problems in a given situation, which does not remain constant. It is subject to change and hence fluid in nature. There is therefore a need to recognise the person-situation interaction. It can be social learning activity of personality. Thus personality is situational, the uniqueness of each situation and any62 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR measure of personality must be examined. Personalities therefore mean how people affect others, how they understand and view themselves, pattern of personality traits and person- situation interaction. For example individual modifies his behaviour based on situation. When an individual goes to temple he would be sober, generally put on plain clothes and bow. When the same individual goes for interview he would be armed with knowledge of the organization while in the club he would be merry making having a drink in his hand and meet friends and generally be in gay mood. Personality Traits Personality traits are the characteristics of an individual when exhibited in large number of situations. More predominant the traits in an individual are, more consistence the individual is and more frequent occurrences in diverse situations. There are thousands of 1 traits that have been identified. Cattell isolated 171 traits but concluded that they were superficial and lacking in descriptive power. What he sought was a reduced set of traits that would identify underlying pattern. The result was the identification of 16 personality factors, which he called the source, or primary traits. These and their opposites are given below :- 1 Reserved vs Outgoing 2 Less intelligent vs More intelligent 3 Affected by feelings vs. Emotionally stable 4 Submissive vs. Dominant 5 Serious vs. Happy go lucky 6 Timid vs. Venturesome 7 Expedient vs. Conscientious 8 Tough minded vs. Sensitive 9 Trusting vs. Suspicious 10 Practical vs. Imaginative 11 Forthright vs. Shrewd 12 Self assured vs. Apprehensive 13 Conservative vs. Experimenting 14 Group dependent vs. Self-sufficient 15 Uncontrolled vs. Controlled 16 Relaxed vs. Tense THE MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI) This is one of the most commonly used Personality test consisting of 100 questions. On the basis of the answers the individuals are classified into following categories (a) Visionary: A person who has been classified visionary based the MBTI results has an organised mind, has a great drive for new ideas and purpose. An individual is skeptical, critical and stubborn. He displays traits like working independently and has a high determination to achieve the desired goals, which are often challenging. (b) Organizer: A person having great organizational ability would be practical, realistic and believes in what he sees. Organizers are generally successful businesspersons,PERSONALITY 63 persons involved in basic engineering jobs, and persons who are involved in assembling resources to run the organizations. (c) Conceptulisers: Persons who take quick decisions, they are ingenious and good at many things. They are resourceful, problem solver and have a tendency to neglect work, which is of a routine nature. Locus of Control Major personality attributes which affects organizational behaviour is locus of control, that is the degree to which people believe that they are masters of their own fate. It is the concept, which determines whether an individuals control events or the events control the individuals and that they become only the pawns of situation. People have both internal locus of control and external locus of control, only the degree varies. (a) Internal Locus of Control. Persons having internal locus of control believe that they can manipulate events to their advantage and therefore they are capable of deciding their fate For example, a manager having dominant internal locus of control would be able to effectively control resources, decide events, which benefits him. He manipulates communications, resources, events, programmes in such away that enhances his position and he creates an aura around him that he is an indispensable person. Individual feels that he is decider of his own future and that no external events (power) can interfere with it. (b) External Locus of Control. Person having dominant external locus of control believe that what happen to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance. These types of people lack initiative, decision-making and do not even take calculated risk. They wait and see events take place and things happen. PERSONALITY ORIENTATION 1. Achievement Orientation Achievement orientation of an individual also indicates the personality of an individual. Every person possesses need to achieve (nAch) phenomenon in his personality. It could be high degree nAch or low degree. A person who possesses high nAch displays very dominant personality. He is generally very ambitious, hard working and fixes his goal at a very high level and strives to achieve the same. He is achievement oriented and undertakes a task which is neither easy, because easy task is generally attained by a common person nor a very challenging or tough task because there would be chances of failure of achieving the same. He therefore prefers to undertake task of intermediate nature so that its achievement would satisfy him to a large extent and he would feel that he is above than the normal individual. People having high nAch are found to be good organizers, efficient managers. Sports persons are generally high achievers as they strive to achieve that extra point or mark than his competitors. High nAch generally do well as sale persons as it calls for hard work and achieving higher targets of sales every time. 2. Authoritarianism Close to the personality trait that a person possesses who is achievement oriented is a person who believes in having a reasonably high authority in the organization Theory of64 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR authoritarianism is related with status and power. The theory states that there should be status and power difference between various people in the organization. While there would be some people who will have more power and authority hence more authoritative yet there would be people with low power and authority hence minimum degree of being authoritative. One would therefore find in an organization, people with low authority and high authority. Person who possesses high authoritarian is intellectually rigid, they display varied behaviour patterns. They are submissive with those who are superior (senior) to them and behave in an exploitative manner to those who are subordinates or below them. They resist change and display insensitivity while dealing with people. They are task oriented. 3. Theory of Machivellianism Niccolo Machivelli introduced theory of Machivellianism. The theory refers to degree to which an individual is pragmatic and maintains emotional distance with co-workers while accomplishing any task. A person who practices this theory believes in “end justifies means.” In any organization people can be classified as having high Machivellianism or low Machivellianism tendencies. A person having High Machivellianism (H Mach) generally displays variety of personality traits like manipulation, win more, persuade others to do a work while they do not get persuaded by others. They generally flourish in face-to-face situation where there are minimum rules and have enough space for maneuver. They have high bargaining skills and believe in giving substantial rewards to their subordinates on accomplishment of tasks. They are highly productive. Machivelli believed in one doctrine, that a work must be finished whatever be the means. 4. Self-Esteem Self-esteem refers to individuals’ degree of liking or disliking himself. People’s self-esteem has to do with their self-perceived competence and self-image. Most recent studies indicate that self-esteem plays an important moderating role in areas such as emotional and behavioural responses and stress of organizational members. As was recently noted, “Both research and every day experience confirm that employees with high self-esteem feel 2 unique, competent, secure, empowered and connected to the people around them (Luthans) . People having high degree of self-esteem take more risk in job selection and take up unconventional assignments while those possessing low self-esteem display dependency, seek approval from others for the decision they make, respect others and seek confirmation in beliefs. Managers with low self-esteem do not take unpopular stand, which may lead to displeasing others. 5. Self-Monitoring Self-monitoring is related to self-efficacy. It is situation specific. A person must always examine efficiency and attribute it to his behaviour with subordinates and improve upon it. This quality displays high degree of adaptability and high sensitivity of an individual. A person possessing self monitoring trait is likely to behave differently in different situation. 6. Risk Taking Risk taking trait is commonly seen in various entrepreneurs. They display rapid decision- making ability.

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