Eleanor Roosevelt Biography by William Jay Jacobs

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Before Reading Video link at thinkcentral.com Eleanor Roosevelt Biography by William Jay Jacobs What is your DUTY to others? There are probably times when you wish you didn’t owe anything to anyone. However, like most people, you have responsibilities to RI 1 Cite textual evidence to many different people. Family members, teachers, classmates, and support analysis of what the text says explicitly. RI 3 Analyze the the teams and other groups you belong to all need you in one way or interactions between individuals, another. In “Eleanor Roosevelt,” you’ll learn how a famous first lady’s events, and ideas in a text. RI 5 Analyze the structure an commitment to her duties changed history. author uses to organize a text. QUICKWRITE Make a list of your duties to others. Which of these do you think will most influence the adult you will become? Explore that question in a journal entry, considering career possibilities and other life choices you will be making. 784 784-785_NA_L07PE-u07s1-brElea.indd 784 1/8/11 3:27:36 AMMeet the Author text analysis: biography William Jay Jacobs A biography is the story of a person’s life told by another 1933–2004 person, a biographer. Biographers often reveal their personal opinions of their subject. However, they also balance their The Biographer As an author who opinions with facts and details that wrote more than 30 biographies, William Jay Jacobs said that he was • provide information about the person’s life “able to reach a very special audience: • reveal important aspects of his or her personality young people searching for models. . . .” • show us what others thought of the person A Strong Role Model Jacobs admired • explain the importance of his or her life and work Eleanor Roosevelt for her strength As you read “Eleanor Roosevelt,” think about the purpose of character. He noted, “The more I learned about Eleanor Roosevelt, the and characteristics of a biography about a historical figure. more I saw her as a woman of courage. She turned her pain to strength.” reading skill: identify chronological order A biography usually presents events in chronological order, or background to the the order in which they happened. Words and phrases such as biography then, next, within 18 months, meanwhile, by spring, and the first Hard Times Eleanor Roosevelt was few years may signal the order of events in this type of work. fi rst lady of the United States from A timeline can help you to summarize events or actions 1933 to 1945. Her husband, Franklin by presenting the important details of a written work at a D. Roosevelt, took offi ce during glance. As you read “Eleanor Roosevelt,” keep track of the the Great Depression, a worldwide order of events on a timeline like the one shown. economic crisis that lasted through most of the 1930s. Millions of October 11, 1884 Eleanor is 6. Americans were unemployed, penniless, and suffering. Eleanor’s father Eleanor Elliott and enters sanitarium. Roosevelt is born. Hall are born. Help on the Way To encourage recovery, the Roosevelt administration introduced programs —such as Social vocabulary in context Security and a minimum wage—that These headlines describe important moments in still provide relief today. Many of the Eleanor Roosevelt’s life. Use context clues to figure out First Lady’s ideas were incorporated the meaning of each boldfaced word. into her husband’s New Deal programs. 1. Woman from Prominent Family Leads by Example 2. First Lady Is Compassionate Toward Others 3. Impoverished Families Going Hungry in America A Au ut th ho or r 4. Migrant Workers Search for Jobs On Onli line ne 5. Roosevelt Feels Grave Obligation to Help G Go t o to o t th hink inkc ce ent ntr ra al l. .com. KE KEY YW WOR ORD: D: HML HML7 7-7 -785 85 6. Women Dominate at Home-Front Meeting 7. Wavering Members Convinced to Support War Effort 8. Country Brooding at Death of President Complete the activities in your Reader/Writer Notebook. 785 784-785_NA_L07PE-u07s1-brElea.indd 785 1/8/11 3:27:40 AMWilliam Jay Jacobs leanor Roosevelt was the wife of President Franklin Delano E Roosevelt. But Eleanor was much more than just a president’s What can you infer about wife, an echo of her husband’s career. Eleanor Roosevelt from Sad and lonely as a child, Eleanor was called “Granny” by her this 1957 photograph mother because of her seriousness. People teased her about her looks taken at her home? and called her the “ugly duckling.”. . . Yet despite all of the disappointments, the bitterness, the misery she experienced, Eleanor Roosevelt refused to give up. Instead she turned her unhappiness and pain to strength. She devoted her life to helping 10 others. Today she is remembered as one of America’s greatest women. a a BIOGRAPHY Why might Jacobs have Eleanor was born in a fine townhouse in Manhattan. Her family chosen to begin with also owned an elegant mansion along the Hudson River, where they an overview of Mrs. spent weekends and summers. As a child Eleanor went to fashionable Roosevelt’s life? parties. A servant took care of her and taught her to speak French. Her mother, the beautiful Anna Hall Roosevelt, wore magnificent jewels and fine clothing. Her father, Elliott Roosevelt, had his own hunting lodge and liked to sail and to play tennis and polo. Elliott, who loved Eleanor dearly, was the younger brother of Theodore Roosevelt, who in 1901 became president of the United States. The Roosevelt family, 20 one of America’s oldest, wealthiest families, was respected and admired. 786 unit 7: biography and autobiography 786-797_NA_L07PE-u07s1-Eleano.indd 786 1/8/11 3:36:04 AM eleanor roosevelt 787 786-797_NA_L07PE-u07s1-Eleano.indd 787 1/8/11 3:36:11 AMTo the outside world it might have seemed that Eleanor had everything that any child could want—everything that could make her happy. But she was not happy. Instead her childhood was very sad. Almost from the day of her birth, October 11, 1884, people noticed that she was an unattractive child. As she grew older, she could not help but notice her mother’s extraordinary beauty, as well as the beauty of her aunts and cousins. Eleanor was plain looking, ordinary, even, as some called her, homely. For a time she had to wear a bulky brace on her back b CHRONOLOGICAL to straighten her crooked spine. b ORDER 30 When Eleanor was born, her parents had wanted a boy. They were Jacobs begins his scarcely able to hide their disappointment. Later, with the arrival of two use of chronological boys, Elliott and Hall, Eleanor watched her mother hold the boys on her order with Eleanor’s birth date. Start adding lap and lovingly stroke their hair, while for Eleanor there seemed only events to your timeline. coolness, distance. Feeling unwanted, Eleanor became shy and withdrawn. She also developed many fears. She was afraid of the dark, afraid of animals, afraid of other children, afraid of being scolded, afraid of strangers, afraid that people would not like her. She was a frightened, lonely little girl. The one joy in the early years of her life was her father, who always 40 seemed to care for her, love her. He used to dance with her, to pick her up and throw her into the air while she laughed and laughed. He called her “little golden hair” or “darling little Nell.” Then, when she was six, her father left. An alcoholic, he went to live 1 in a sanitarium in Virginia in an attempt to deal with his drinking problem. Eleanor missed him greatly. Next her mother became ill with painful headaches. Sometimes for hours at a time Eleanor would sit holding her mother’s head in her lap and stroking her forehead. Nothing else seemed to relieve the pain. At those times Eleanor often remembered how her mother had teased her 50 about her looks and called her “Granny.” But even at the age of seven Eleanor was glad to be helping someone, glad to be needed—and noticed. The next year, when Eleanor was eight, her mother, the beautiful c CHRONOLOGICAL 2 Anna, died. Afterward her brother Elliott suddenly caught diphtheria ORDER and he, too, died. Eleanor and her baby brother, Hall, were taken to live Reread lines 52–58. What words and phrases with their grandmother in Manhattan. in these paragraphs A few months later another tragedy struck. Elliott Roosevelt, Eleanor’s help you understand the father, also died. Within eighteen months Eleanor had lost her mother, order of events and the a brother, and her dear father. c passage of time? 1. sanitarium (sBnQG-târPC-Em): an institution for the care of people with a specific disease or with other health problems. 2. diphtheria (dGf-thîrPC-E): a serious infectious disease. 788 unit 7: biography and autobiography 786-797_NA_L07PE-u07s1-Eleano.indd 788 1/8/11 3:36:12 AMEleanor Roosevelt with her father, Elliott Roosevelt For the rest of her life Eleanor carried with her the letters that her 60 father had written to her from the sanitarium. In them he had told her to be brave, to become well educated, and to grow up into a woman he could be proud of, a woman who helped people who were suffering. Only ten years old when her father died, Eleanor decided even then RI 3 to live the kind of life he had described—a life that would have made d BIOGRAPHY him proud of her. d In a biography, the story of a person’s life, the ew things in life came easily for Eleanor, but the first few years after biographer includes F her father’s death proved exceptionally hard. Grandmother Hall’s facts and details that reveal important dark and gloomy townhouse had no place for children to play. The family aspects of a subject’s ate meals in silence. Every morning Eleanor and Hall were expected to personality. Often, a 70 take cold baths for their health. Eleanor had to work at better posture biographer gives details by walking with her arms behind her back, clamped over a walking stick. about a subject’s early life to show the major Instead of making new friends, Eleanor often sat alone in her room forces that shaped and read. For many months after her father’s death she pretended that what the person would he was still alive. She made him the hero of stories she wrote for school. become. Reread lines Sometimes, alone and unhappy, she just cried. 59–65. According to Jacobs, how did Eleanor’s Some of her few moments of happiness came from visiting her uncle, father influence her Theodore Roosevelt, in Oyster Bay, Long Island. A visit with Uncle Ted meant goals and values? playing games and romping outdoors with the many Roosevelt children. Once Uncle Ted threw her into the water to teach her how to swim, 80 but when she started to sink, he had to rescue her. Often he would read eleanor roosevelt 789 786-797_NA_L07PE-u07s1-Eleano.indd 789 1/8/11 3:36:12 AM3 to the children old Norse tales and poetry. It was at Sagamore Hill, Uncle Ted’s home, that Eleanor first learned how much fun it could be to read books aloud. For most of the time Eleanor’s life was grim. Although her parents had left plenty of money for her upbringing, she had only two dresses to wear to school. Once she spilled ink on one of them, and since the other was in the wash, she had to wear the 90 dress with large ink stains on it to school the next day. It was not that Grandmother Hall was stingy. Rather, she was old and often confused. Nor did she show much warmth or love for Eleanor and her brother. Usually she just neglected them. ust before Eleanor turned fifteen, J Grandmother Hall decided to send her to boarding school in England. The school she chose was Allenswood, a private academy for girls located on the outskirts of London. 100 It was at Allenswood that Eleanor, still thinking of herself as an “ugly duckling,” first dared to believe that one day she might be able to become a swan. At Allenswood she worked to toughen herself physically. Every day she did exercises in the morning and took a What mood does this cold shower. Although she did not like competitive team sports, as photograph of a teenage a matter of self-discipline she tried out for field hockey. Not only did Eleanor Roosevelt she make the team but, because she played so hard, also won the respect convey? of her teammates. 110 They called her by her family nickname, “Totty,” and showed their affection for her by putting books and flowers in her room, as was the custom at Allenswood. Never before had she experienced the pleasure of having schoolmates actually admire her rather than tease her. At Allenswood, too, she began to look after her health. She finally broke the habit of chewing her fingernails. She learned to eat nutritious foods, to get plenty of sleep, and to take a brisk walk every morning, no matter how miserable the weather. Under the guidance of the school’s headmistress, Mademoiselle Souvestre (or “Sou”), she learned to ask searching questions and think 120 for herself instead of just giving back on tests what teachers had said. 3. Norse (nôrs): coming from ancient Scandinavia, the area that is now Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. 790 unit 7: biography and autobiography 786-797_NA_L07PE-u07s1-Eleano.indd 790 1/8/11 3:36:15 AMShe also learned to speak French fluently, a skill she polished by traveling in France, living for a time with a French family. Mademoiselle Souvestre Language Coach arranged for her to have a new red dress. Wearing it, after all of the old, Etymology The worn dresses Grandmother Hall had given her, made her feel very proud. history of a word is Eleanor was growing up, and the joy of young womanhood had begun its etymology. Many to transform her personality. words we commonly use include affixes, or In 1902, nearly eighteen years old, she left Allenswood, not returning for word parts that are her fourth year there. Grandmother Hall insisted that, instead, she must be attached either to the introduced to society as a debutante—to go to dances and parties and begin beginning (prefix) or 130 to take her place in the social world with other wealthy young women. end (suffix) of base words to create new Away from Allenswood, Eleanor’s old uncertainty about her looks came words. These affixes back again. She saw herself as too tall, too thin, too plain. She worried often come from older about her buckteeth, which she thought made her look horselike. The languages. The Anglo- old teasing began again, especially on the part of Uncle Ted’s daughter, Saxon suffix -hood means “state, quality, “Princess” Alice Roosevelt, who seemed to take pleasure in making or group.” Reread lines Eleanor feel uncomfortable. 125–126, which include Eleanor, as always, did as she was told. She went to all of the parties the word womanhood. and dances. But she also began working with poor children at the In your own words, 4 tell what you think Rivington Street Settlement House on New York’s Lower East Side. womanhood means. 140 She taught the girls gymnastic exercises. She took children to museums and to musical performances. She tried to get the parents interested e BIOGRAPHY in politics in order to get better schools and cleaner, safer streets. e Reread lines 131–142. Note that Jacobs eanwhile Eleanor’s life reached a turning point. She fell in love chooses details that The young man was her fifth cousin, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. M reveal various aspects of Eleanor’s personality. Eleanor and Franklin had known each other since childhood. Franklin What are some of recalled how once he had carried her piggyback in the nursery. When she her strengths and was fourteen, he had danced with her at a party. Then, shortly after her weaknesses? return from Allenswood, they had met by chance on a train. They talked and almost at once realized how much they liked each other. 150 For a time they met secretly. Then they attended parties together. Franklin—tall, strong, handsome—saw her as a person he could trust. He knew that she would not try to dominate him. f f CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER But did he really love her? Would he always? She wrote to him, quoting Reread lines 143–152. a poem she knew: “Unless you can swear, ‘For life, for death’ . . . Oh, What words and phrases never call it loving” help you understand Franklin promised that his love was indeed “for life,” and Eleanor the order in which Eleanor and Franklin’s agreed to marry him. It was the autumn of 1903. He was twenty-one. relationship progressed? She was nineteen. On March 17, 1905, Eleanor and Franklin were married. “Uncle Ted,” dominate (dJmPE-nAtQ) 160 by then president of the United States, was there to “give the bride away.” v. to have control over 4. settlement house: a place in a poor, neglected neighborhood where services are provided for residents. eleanor roosevelt 791 786-797_NA_L07PE-u07s1-Eleano.indd 791 1/8/11 3:36:17 AMIt was sometimes said that the dynamic, energetic Theodore Roosevelt had to be “the bride at every wedding and the corpse at every funeral.” And it was certainly true that day. Wherever the president went, the guests followed at his heels. Before long Eleanor and Franklin found themselves standing all alone, deserted. Franklin seemed annoyed, but Eleanor didn’t mind. She had found the ceremony deeply moving. And she stood next to her husband in a glow of idealism—very serious, very grave, very much in love. grave (grAv) adj. solemn and dignified In May 1906 the couple’s first child was born. During the next nine years 170 Eleanor gave birth to five more babies, one of whom died in infancy. Still timid, shy, afraid of making mistakes, she found herself so busy that there was little time to think of her own drawbacks. Still, looking back later on the early years of her marriage, Eleanor knew that she should have been a stronger person, especially in the handling of Franklin’s mother, or, as they both called her, “Mammá.” Too often Mammá made the decisions about such things as where they would live, how their home would be furnished, how the children would be disciplined. Eleanor and Franklin let her pay for things they could not afford—extra servants, vacations, doctor bills, clothing. She offered, and they accepted. 180 efore long, trouble developed in the relationship between Eleanor and Franklin. Serious, shy, easily embarrassed, Eleanor could not B brooding (brLPdGng) share Franklin’s interests in golf and tennis. He enjoyed light talk and adj. full of worry; flirting with women. She could not be lighthearted. So she stayed on troubled brood v. the sidelines. Instead of losing her temper, she bottled up her anger and g CHRONOLOGICAL did not talk to him at all. As he used to say, she “clammed up.” Her ORDER silence only made things worse, because it puzzled him. Faced with her The word meanwhile coldness, her brooding silence, he only grew angrier and more distant. indicates that Meanwhile Franklin’s career in politics advanced rapidly. In 1910 he something else happened at the same was elected to the New York State Senate. In 1913 President Wilson time. In what ways are 190 appointed him Assistant Secretary of the Navy—a powerful position the early years of their in the national government, which required the Roosevelts to move marriage different for to Washington, D.C. g Eleanor and Franklin? In 1917 the United States entered World War I as an active combatant. Like many socially prominent women, Eleanor threw herself into the war prominent (prJmPE-nEnt) adj. effort. Sometimes she worked fifteen and sixteen hours a day. She made well-known; widely sandwiches for soldiers passing through the nation’s capital. She knitted recognized sweaters. She used Franklin’s influence to get the Red Cross to build a 5 recreation room for soldiers who had been shell-shocked in combat. . . . In 1920 the Democratic Party chose Franklin as its candidate for 200 vice-president of the United States. Even though the Republicans won 5. shell-shocked: affected with a nervous or mental disorder resulting from the strain of battle. 792 unit 7: biography and autobiography 786-797_NA_L07PE-u07s1-Eleano.indd 792 1/8/11 3:36:17 AMthe election, Roosevelt became a well-known figure in national politics. All the time, Eleanor stood by his side, smiling, doing what was expected of her as a candidate’s wife. She did what was expected—and much more—in the summer of 1921 when disaster struck the Roosevelt family. While on vacation Franklin suddenly fell ill with infantile paralysis—polio—the horrible disease that each year used to kill or cripple thousands of children, and many adults as well. When Franklin became a victim of polio, nobody knew what caused the disease or how to cure it. 210 Franklin lived, but the lower part of his body remained paralyzed. For the rest of his life he never again had the use of his legs. He had to be lifted and carried from place to place. He had to wear heavy steel braces from his waist to the heels of his shoes. His mother, as well as many of his advisers, urged him to give up politics, to live the life of a country gentleman on the Roosevelt estate at Hyde Park, New York. This time, Eleanor, calm and strong, stood up for her ideas. She argued that he should not be treated like a sick person, tucked away in the country, inactive, just waiting for death to come. h BIOGRAPHY Franklin agreed. Slowly he recovered his health. His energy returned. Why was Franklin’s 220 In 1928 he was elected governor of New York. Then, just four years later, illness a turning point for Eleanor? he was elected president of the United States. h President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, April 17, 1938 eleanor roosevelt 793 786-797_NA_L07PE-u07s1-Eleano.indd 793 1/8/11 3:36:17 AMBy visiting places such as this school for underprivileged boys, Eleanor Roosevelt raised public awareness of social problems. Meanwhile Eleanor had changed. To keep Franklin in the public eye Language Coach while he was recovering, she had gotten involved in politics herself. It was, Idioms An idiom she thought, her “duty.” From childhood she had been taught “to do the is a phrase that has thing that has to be done, the way it has to be done, when it has to be done.” a meaning that is different from that of With the help of Franklin’s adviser Louis Howe, she made fund- its individual words. raising speeches for the Democratic Party all around New York State. The phrase in the public She helped in the work of the League of Women Voters, the Consumer’s eye means “frequently League, and the Foreign Policy Association. After becoming interested seen in public and in the media.” With that 230 in the problems of working women, she gave time to the Women’s Trade 6 meaning in mind, why Union League (WTUL). do you think Eleanor’s It was through the WTUL that she met a group of remarkable women— actions were so women doing exciting work that made a difference in the world. They important? taught Eleanor about life in the slums. They awakened her hopes that something could be done to improve the condition of the poor. She dropped out of the “fashionable” society of her wealthy friends and joined the world of reform—social change. For hours at a time Eleanor and her reformer friends talked with Franklin. They showed him the need for new laws: laws to get children 240 out of the factories and into schools; laws to cut down the long hours that women worked; laws to get fair wages for all workers. 6. Women’s Trade Union League: an organization founded in 1903 to promote laws to protect the rights of women working in factories and to help establish labor unions for women. 794 unit 7: biography and autobiography 786-797_NA_L07PE-u07s1-Eleano.indd 794 1/8/11 3:36:21 AM y the time that Franklin was sworn in as president, the nation was facing its deepest depression. One out of every four Americans B was out of work, out of hope. At mealtimes people stood in lines in front of soup kitchens for something to eat. Mrs. Roosevelt herself knew of once-prosperous families who found themselves reduced to eating stale bread from thrift shops or traveling to parts of town where they were not known to beg for money from house to house. Eleanor worked in the charity kitchens, ladling out soup. She visited migrant (mFPgrEnt) adj. 250 slums. She crisscrossed the country learning about the suffering of coal moving from place miners, shipyard workers, migrant farm workers, students, housewives— to place Americans caught up in the paralysis of the Great Depression. Since Franklin himself remained crippled, she became his eyes and ears, informing compassionate him of what the American people were really thinking and feeling. (kEm-pBshPE-nGt) adj. Eleanor also was the president’s conscience, personally urging on him wanting to help those some of the most compassionate, forward-looking laws of his presidency, who suffer including, for example, the National Youth Administration (NYA), which provided money to allow impoverished young people to stay in school. impoverished 7 (Gm-pJvPEr-Gsht) adj. She lectured widely, wrote a regularly syndicated newspaper column, very poor impoverish v. 260 “My Day,” and spoke frequently on the radio. She fought for equal pay for women in industry. Like no other First Lady up to that time, she became a link between the president and the American public. Above all she fought against racial and religious prejudice. When Eleanor SOCIAL STUDIES CONNECTION learned that the DAR (Daughters of the American Revolution) would not allow the great black singer Marian Anderson to perform in their auditorium in Washington, D.C., she resigned from the organization. Then she arranged to have Miss Anderson sing in front of the Lincoln Memorial. Similarly, when she entered a hall where, as often happened in those days, blacks and whites were seated in separate sections, she made it 270 a point to sit with the blacks. Her example marked an important step in making the rights of blacks a matter of national priority. On December 7, 1941, Japanese forces launched a surprise attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, as well as on other At the Lincoln American installations in the Pacific. The United States entered World Memorial, Marian Anderson performed War II, fighting not only against Japan but against the brutal dictators in front of 75,000 who then controlled Germany and Italy. people. Later, in 1943, Eleanor helped the Red Cross raise money. She gave blood, sold war Anderson performed at bonds. But she also did the unexpected. In 1943, for example, she visited Constitution Hall, where she had been denied the barracks and hospitals on islands throughout the South Pacific. When opportunity to sing. 280 she visited a hospital, she stopped at every bed. To each soldier she said something special, something that a mother might say. Often, after she left, even battle-hardened men had tears in their eyes. Admiral Nimitz, 7. syndicated (sGnPdG-kAtQGd): sold to many newspapers for publication. eleanor roosevelt 795 786-797_NA_L07PE-u07s1-Eleano.indd 795 1/8/11 3:36:23 AMwho originally thought such visits would be a nuisance, became one of her strongest admirers. Nobody else, he said, had done so much to help raise the spirits of the men. i i BIOGRAPHY What does Admiral By spring 1945 the end of the war in Europe seemed near. Then, Nimitz’s change in on April 12, a phone call brought Eleanor the news that Franklin attitude suggest about Roosevelt, who had gone to Warm Springs, Georgia, for a rest, was dead. the quality of the First As Eleanor later declared, “I think that sometimes I acted as his Lady’s work? 290 conscience. I urged him to take the harder path when he would have preferred the easier way. In that sense, I acted on occasion as a spur, even though the spurring was not always wanted or welcome. “Of course,” said Eleanor, “I loved him, and I miss him.” After Franklin’s funeral, every day that Eleanor was home at Hyde Park, without fail, she placed flowers on his grave. Then she would stand very still beside him there. With Franklin dead, Eleanor Roosevelt might have dropped out of the public eye, might have been remembered in the history books only as a footnote to the president’s program of social reforms. Instead she 300 found new strengths within herself, new ways to live a useful, interesting life—and to help others. Now, moreover, her successes were her own, not the result of being the president’s wife. j j BIOGRAPHY Reread lines 297–302. What words and phrases n December 1945 President Harry S. Truman invited her to be one does Jacobs use that I of the American delegates going to London to begin the work of the give important details United Nations. Eleanor hesitated, but the president insisted. He said about Eleanor? that the nation needed her; it was her duty. After that, Eleanor agreed. In the beginning some of her fellow delegates from the United States considered her unqualified for the position, but after seeing her in action, they changed their minds. 310 It was Eleanor Roosevelt who, almost single-handedly, pushed through the United Nations General Assembly a resolution giving refugees from World War II the right not to return to their native lands if they did not wish to. The Russians angrily objected, but Eleanor’s reasoning convinced wavering delegates. In a passionate speech defending the rights of the wavering (wAPvEr-Gng) adj. hesitating between refugees she declared, “We must consider first the rights of man and two choices waver v. what makes men more free—not governments, but man” Next Mrs. Roosevelt helped draft the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights. The Soviets wanted the declaration to list the duties people owed to their countries. Again Eleanor insisted that the United 320 Nations should stand for individual freedom—the rights of people to free speech, freedom of religion, and such human needs as health care and education. In December 1948, with the Soviet Union and its allies refusing to vote, the Declaration of Human Rights won approval of the UN General Assembly by a vote of forty-eight to zero. 796 unit 7: biography and autobiography 786-797_NA_L07PE-u07s1-Eleano.indd 796 1/8/11 3:36:24 AMAs a delegate to the United Nations, Eleanor Roosevelt defended people’s rights and freedoms. Even after retiring from her post at the UN, Mrs. Roosevelt continued to travel. In places around the world she dined with presidents and kings. 8 But she also visited tenement slums in Bombay, India; factories in Yugoslavia; farms in Lebanon and Israel. k k CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER Everywhere she met people who were eager to greet her. Although Reread lines 330 as a child she had been brought up to be formal and distant, she had grown 303–328. Note the to feel at ease with people. They wanted to touch her, to hug her, to kiss her. accomplishments that Eleanor’s doctor had been telling her to slow down, but that was hard Mrs. Roosevelt achieved after her husband’s for her. She continued to write her newspaper column, “My Day,” and death. What words to appear on television. She still began working at seven-thirty in the and phrases help you morning and often continued until well past midnight. Not only did she figure out the order write and speak, she taught retarded children and raised money for health of the events? care of the poor. As author Clare Boothe Luce put it, “Mrs. Roosevelt has done more good deeds on a bigger scale for a longer time than any woman who 340 ever appeared on our public scene. No woman has ever so comforted the distressed or so distressed the comfortable.” Gradually, however, she was forced to withdraw from some of her activities, to spend more time at home. On November 7, 1962, at the age of seventy-eight, Eleanor died in her sleep. She was buried in the rose garden at Hyde Park, alongside l BIOGRAPHY her husband. Reread lines 338–350. Why might Jacobs quote Adlai Stevenson, the American ambassador to the United Nations, two famous people and remembered her as “the First Lady of the World,” as the person—male or their thoughts about female—most effective in working for the cause of human rights. As Stevenson Mrs. Roosevelt in these 350 declared, “She would rather light a candle than curse the darkness.” l last paragraphs? And perhaps, in sum, that is what the struggle for human rights is all about.  8. tenement (tDnPE-mEnt) slums: parts of a city where poor people live in crowded, shabby buildings. eleanor roosevelt 797 786-797_NA_L07PE-u07s1-Eleano.indd 797 1/8/11 3:36:24 AMAfter Reading Comprehension 1. Recall Tell how Eleanor felt about herself as a young girl. RI 1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly. RI 3 Analyze the 2. Summarize What are some examples of ways Mrs. Roosevelt helped society? interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text. 3. Clarify How did Mrs. Roosevelt act as her husband’s “eyes and ears” when RI 5 Analyze the structure an he was president? author uses to organize a text. Text Analysis 4. Examine Chronological Order Review the timeline you made. What period do you think contains the most important events in Eleanor Roosevelt’s life? 5. Make Inferences Reread the quotation by Clare Boothe Luce in lines 338– 341. Who were the “comfortable” people, and how did Mrs. Roosevelt “distress” them? 6. Analyze Cause and Effect Cause Effect Effect How do you think Eleanor’s Eleanor’s father told She worked childhood affected the choices her to help people with poor she made later in life? Create who were suffering. children. a chart to show the effects of these experiences, or causes. Eleanor was teased and made fun of. Some causes will have more than one effect. 7. Make Judgments Adlai Stevenson referred to Mrs. Roosevelt as the “First Lady of the World.” Do you agree with this statement? Explain. 8. Evaluate Biography Review the bulleted list at the top of page 785. In your opinion, did Jacobs achieve his purpose as a biographer? Provide examples from the text that support your opinion. Extension and Challenge 9. SOCIAL STUDIES CONNECTION In addition to arranging for Marian Anderson to sing at the Lincoln Memorial, Mrs. Roosevelt supported civil rights in other ways. Research to find two more examples of how the First Lady promoted women’s rights or racial equality. What is your DUTY to others? On page 794, Jacobs writes that Eleanor Roosevelt was taught “to do the thing that has to be done, the way it has to be done, when it has to be done.” Think about how this view had an impact on her life. Then reread the journal entry you wrote for page 784. Compare your generation’s attitude toward duty to Eleanor Roosevelt’s attitude. 798 unit 7: biography and autobiography 798-799_NA_L07PE-u07s1-arElea.indd 798 1/8/11 3:36:45 AMgrave brooding prominent Vocabulary in Context vocabulary practice Note the letter of the item you might associate with each boldfaced word. 1. prominent: (a) an unexplored cave, (b) a well-known lawyer, (c) a narrow valley 2. brooding: (a) an unhappy person, (b) a late-model car, (c) a small garden 3. migrant: (a) a successful business, (b) a bad headache, (c) a traveling worker 4. grave: (a) a loud party, (b) a serious illness, (c) a reunion between two brothers 5. impoverished: (a) a brick sidewalk, (b) a large grocery store, (c) a poor family 6. wavering: (a) a nosy neighbor, (b) a tough decision, (c) the beginning of winter 7. dominate: (a) a poorly planned event, (b) an undefeated team, (c) a serious drought 8. compassionate: (a) two children playing, (b) an angry crowd, (c) a kind nurse academic vocabulary in writing • demonstrate • goal • impact • link • undertake In a paragraph, link Eleanor Roosevelt’s childhood traits to those she displayed as an adult. Try to use one or more of the Academic Vocabulary words in your paragraph. vocabulary strategy: words with anglo-saxon roots L 4b Use common grade- Many word parts we use today come from the Anglo-Saxon language, an appropriate roots as clues to the meaning of a word. early form of English called Old English. For example, the word forecast is made up of the Anglo-Saxon word fore-, which means “in front, castaway before, ahead of time,” and cast, which means “to throw or calculate.” To understand the meaning of words with cast, you forecast can often use context clues and your knowledge of the root’s cast meaning. castoff downcast PRACTICE Choose a word from the web that best completes each podcast sentence. Use context clues or, if necessary, a dictionary. 1. After losing the big game, the team left the field. 2. The reality-show contestant felt like a when she was eliminated from the competition. Interactive 3. Because of the weather , we looked forward to a snow day. Vocabulary Go to thinkcentral.com. 4. On the deserted island, the had no contact with anyone. KEYWORD: HML7-799 5. In order to hear the concert, you must download the . eleanor roosevelt 799 798-799_NA_L07PE-u07s1-arElea.indd 799 1/8/11 3:36:47 AM dominate impoverished migrant wavering compassionate

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