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Heritage Management Dr. V. J eyaraj - ,- _.1 _ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Museology is the science of running museums. Museums are the panorama of art and culture. We have a great Heritage. Museums are portraying and preserving intangible Heritage along with tangible Heritage materials. Museology now has emerged as a separate field like other sciences. Indian museums have started attracting visitors like other countries. Now importance is also given to mus.eums by government and public alike. There is awareness about the preservation of the past. As museums do preserve the past for the present and the future, the role of Curators or custodians has emerged as an essential one. There are about 100 museums in Tamilnadu itself and over 700 museums in India. The Central Government has many programmes to bridge the museums in this country. The Museums Association of India tries its level best to bring together museums and arranges camps, seminars etc., making the museums vibrant. Museums like the National Museum, New Delhi; Indian Museum, Kolkata; Chatrapati Sivaji Museum, Mumbai; National Museum of Natural History, New Delhi; Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad; Government Museum, Chennai etc., try to lead museums in this country as nodel agencies. Some State Museums are now being considered by the Government of India for their up-gradation on par with international museums. Universities have started teaching museology. Museums have started giving training to their staff. Museum marketing is taken in to consideration by most of the museums. For sustain ability many reforms have to be made in museums. Due to zero budgetting, the workload of museum personnel ha·s increased. Outsourcing the museum activities has become inevitable. Many museums have outsourced works such as hygienic, security, designing. The museum administrators have to find out the way for running the museums efficiently by providing all types of support so that the museum personnel will be able to execute the museological and museographical activities in the best way. What ever may be the method of administration, the museum personnel must have a thorough knowledge in museology. One should know the global museum scenario. There is a great need for source books in museology comprising all the modern techniques and methodologies. Even though I entered in to the museum field in 1978, I could start writing on museology only after my three months fellowship visit to the UK under the auspices of the Nehru Trust for Indian Collections at the Victoria and Albert Museum, New Delhi through the Charles Wallace Grant to study the Current Policies and Practices in UK Museums. My visit to France and Germany motivated me to write a book on museology. In 1996 there was an opportunity for me to start writing a book on museology-Heritage Management. I started writing articles also in various facets of museology. I wrote many books on conservation of museum objects and related subjects and were published by the department of museums. When I taught museology to the students of Madras Christian College, University of Madras, State Institute of Archaeology, Art History and Conservation, Tirupunithura, Kerala etc., I felt the need for a book on museology comprising various aspects of museology so that the book will be useful to the students of museology and museum .personnel as well. It got momentum when my well-wishers and friends asked me to bring out a book on museology. I had an opportunity to visit Melbourne, Australia in 2000 through the Getty Travel Grant and I visited many museums there and I discussed the museum problems with many of the Australian professionals. This made me to update my book with the current trends in museology. I could also include in this book aspects of museology then and there. This book now has got various aspects of museology in brief. My exposure and experience in the museum field are incorporated in this book. I thank God for all his providential help althrough. The Government of Tamilnadu allots funds for bringing new books and reprinting of old publications bf the museum. When I requested the Director of Museums, Mr. M. A. Siddique, LA.S., to consider my book for publication during 2004-2005, he considered my book for publication. I thank him for bringing out this publication and giving his foreword to this book. With out the spontaneous help of the authorities of various museums from India and aborad, I would not have accomplished this great task. I am thankful to the authorities of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London and British Museum, London for their help in providing information and photographs pertaining to them when I was in London during 1994. I am specially thankful to Dr. D.A. Swallow, the then Curator, Indian Section, V & A Museum, London and the present Director, Courtauld Institute, London for her encouragement. I thank all the museum authorities of the National Museum, New Delhi; National Museum of Natural History, New Delhi; Chatrapati Sivaji Museum, Mumbai; Museum of Mankind, Bhopal; Indian Museum, Kolkata; Allahabad Museum, Allahabad; Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad; Government Museum and Art Gallery, Chandigarh; Government Museum, Mathura and friends from other museums for helping me with information related to the museums and galleries mentioned in this book. I thank the former Commissioners, Directors, Deputy Directors, Assistant Directors, Curators and the present day Curators of this department Mr. P. Jawahar, Mr. M. Mohan, Mr. J. R. Asokan, Mr. R. Balasumbramanian, Mr. K. Sekar, Mrs. R. Santhi, Mrs. M. N. Pushpa, Mrs. A. Prema Deebarani from Chennai, Dr. C. Maheswaran, Messers. P. KasiJingam, C. Rajamohan, P. Sam Sathiaraj, Mr. N. Soundarapandian, G. Karunanidhi, S. Sravanan, A. Periasamy, G. Kalathi, N. Sundararajan, T. Packirisamy, J. Mullai Arasu, C. Govindarajan, P. Saravanakumar, Ms. S. Krishnammal, R. D. Thulasi Brinda, Ms. J. M. Gandhimathi for their good wishes and help in this regard. I miss Mr. K. Lakshiminarayanan, one of the former Assistant Directors of this museum, who is not here to see the book. I recollect the help rendered by all my friends and family members, Ms. Hephzibah, my wife, Ms. J. Christy Veda, my daughter and J. Abraham Durairaj, my son (who designed the wrapper) for their help in writing this book. I cannot forget my staff Mr. J. D.Jagannathan, Mr. B. Saravanan, Mr. B. Raja Balachandra Murugan, S. Sampath, Mr. J. Kumaran in the Chemical Conservation and Research Laboratory who were always helpful to me in writing this book. I thank the staff of the photographic unit, Messers S. Muthukrishnan, P. Girija Sankar and Technical Assistant, Mr. G. Ramesh for the help rendered in photography. I remember the help rendered by my research scholars Fr. A. Vijay Kiran, Ms. Divya Durga Prasad, Ms. Bessie Cecil for their assistance in my work. I am thankful to Mr. Sundaram and his staff for printing the book nicely on tim.e. h,,;r (V. Jeyaraj ) Chennai-600 008, 21-3-2005. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO MUSEOLOGY Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generation. What makes the world heritage exceptional is its universal application. World Heritage sites belong to all the people of the world, irrespective of the territory on which they are located. Heritage is the remnant of our fore fathers which is handed over to us or inherited by us. Art and craft are part of our heritage. Cultural materials are collected, preserved and displayed in the museums. Museology is the science of museums. The ICOM Training Unit in June 1971 defined Museology as Follows: Museology is museum science. It has to do with the study of history and background of museums, their role in society, specific systems for research, conservation education and organisation, relationship the physical environment, and the classification of different kinds of museums. Museography covers methods and practices in the operation of Museums, in all their various aspects. Museums deal with the materials of the past and the present. Culture and cultural heritage have a special significance today. India has a rich cultural heritage. As we have marched in to the 21"1 Century, it is going to judge us by not what we have preserved but what we have destroyed either negligently or deliberately. We have destroyed much because of our ignorance. Much awareness is being created by various organisations in the past in order to preserve our past to the posterity. On the global scenario, the UNESCO has set the mood over a decade ago by identifying World Heritage Monuments. Countries with lesser heritage than our own are involved with preserving and propagating their antiquity. And we, with the longest living tradition are still not firm on our legs. Every culture represents a unique and irreplaceable body of values as each people's traditions and forms of expression are its most effective means of demonstrating its presence into the world. The identity of a community is reflected in the legacy it leaves back in the entire evolutionary process and this evidence is in three distinct forms. They are: 1. Tangible forms (in the form of built-up heritage, art, craft, materials of science and technology) 2. Intangible form (in the form of traditions, customs and manners, folklore, culture, values, knowledge, skill, etc) 3. Expressive form (language, music, dance etc) All such tangible and intangible relics, which we call heritage, serve as tools and sources for an emphatic understanding of the past. Preservation of this heritage in all its connotations is, today, a significant aspect of a well thought out "Culture Management Policy". Museum "Museum" is a word derived from the Greek word "Mouseion", meaning the temple of muses i.e., nine goddesses associated with learning of epic, music, love poetry, oratory, Dr. V. Jeyaraj 1 Museology-Heritage Management Introduction to Museology history, tragedy, comedy, dance and astrology. There are various definitions of museum. For Greeks Mouseion is a place of contemplation, a philosophical institution, or a temple of the muses. th A museum is a place of philosophical discussions. In the late 18 Century, a museum was considered to be a building used for the storage and exhibition of historic and natural objects. Museum requires some original materials to communicate and not some secondary sources. A museum is a place where our total heritage is preserved, exhibited, researched upon and propagated with homage to the gods and goddesses of knowledge. A nation's past is reflected in a museum through its collections which are nothing but the silent witnesses of art, architecture, craftsmanship, etc., representing the rich cultural heritage of the past. A museum is a repository of knowledge about what we were. A museum being a repository of authentic objects is a special kind of institution. A museum is a mirror, which reflects the ancient cultural glory of a nation, and it is in the museum that today's man traces his yesterday and steers for a better tomorrow. A museum is a medium of communication, where it is able to exhibit the object itself unlike, cinema, television etc. A museum is a recreation centre, a place to learn, a collector's paradise, a research laboratory, a craftsman's Mecca, a world's fair of art. A museum is a cultural centre, which educates people about their cultural heritage. A descriptive definition of museum adopted by the Museum Association of India is as follows: Museum is a show window of knowledge. Promotes national integration. It is a mine of knowledge and source of recreation. It preserves the past for the future. It is a synonym of education and entertainment. It brings people together. It is a mirror of our traditions. Whether there is war or peace it preserves the cultural heritage. Heritage and development go hand in hand. According to the Association of American Museums, museums are permanent, non-profit 2 Dr. V. Jeyaraj Museology-Heritage Management Introduction to Museology places regularly open to the public that retain one or more professionally trained, paid staff members. Their purpose is to house and / or interpret collections of artistic, historic, or scientific importance, which they conserve, exhibit. and interpret for the education and enjoyment of the public. The definition adopted at the Annual General Meeting of the Museum Association was: 'A museum is an institution, which collects, documents, preserves, exhibits and interprets material evidence and associated information for the public benefit'. UNESCO definition of museum is as follows: A museum is a medium of life-long education through which an awareness of the social, economic and political aspects of scientific, technological and environmental development could be created. As per the Statutes (ICOM Statutes, Article 2, Para. I) adopted by the 11th General Assembly of ICOM (Copenhagen, 14th June 1974) and incorporating the amendments adopted by the th 14th General Assembly (London, 1-2 August 1983) and by the 15 General Assembly (Buenos Aires. 4th Nov. 1986), A museum is a non-profit making permanent institution in the services of the society and of its development, and open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicate and exhibits for purposes of study, education and enjoyment, material evidence of people and their environment. History of Museums The earliest reference about a museum was at Ur, which was brought to light by the excavation at Ur. The conception of museum collection dates back to the 4th Century BC when Alexander used to send natural history specimens. selected by his scientific observers, accompanying him during his invasion of Asia. in 288 BC, that a centre of learning which was basically a library and an academy for advanced study with a remarkable collection of statues of thinkers, astronomical and surgical instruments, biological specimens, which was, for the first time, designated as a museum. Ptolemy I was responsible for founding rd the first museum in the world. When, in the 3 Century BC, he threw open to the public view, an institution housing four lakhs of inscribed terra cotta tablets for decipherment, study and research by the visiting scholars at Alexandra in Egypt. The Emperor, Hadrian, at his villa near Tivoli, the grounds of which covered some 7 square miles erected copies of some of the structures he had visited during his tours of the empire to form a precursor th of the idea of an open air museum. In the 15 Century, in Florence, the word museum was first used to describe the collection of Medici at the time of Lorenze, the Magnificent. In the modern sense, for the first time the collection bequeathed by the Grimani family was made available for visitors in 1523. This was the basis of the present archaeological museum in Venice. The first museum specifically for the public benefit in France was that in the Abbey of St. Vincent at Besancon. In 1625, biological and artefact collection by John Tradescant and his son at Lambeth, London was available for public. In 1683, the Ashmolean Museum, set up in Oxford University with the donation of the collection of Elias Ashmole Dr. V. Jeyaraj 3 Museology-Heritage Management Introduction to Museology and John Tradescant, was the first public museum in UK and in the world. It was a research institute. In 1714, Peter I established a museum for the public. It is now called as the Hermitage Museum. Sometimes in between 1740-1745, Pope Benedict XIV established the first Christian Museum in the Vatican City. It was in 1753 that the British Museum had originated with the notable collection of Sir Hans Sloane, the Royal Physician British Museum, London of Queen Anne and George I. In 1773, the Charleston Library Society established a museum in South Carolina in the United States. In Spain the Royal Museum of Praddo was opened to the public by the orders of Joseph Bonaparte in 1809. It was Frederick William II who passed orders for the creation of a public museum in 1810. The first museum in Australia, Macleay Museum, University of Sydney was established in 1874. In 1825, the first museum of Africa, The South African Museum, Cape was established. The Louvre was open to the public on a limited basis, but it was the French Revolution, in 1789, that made it truly a public facility. Beginning from 1785, i.e. from Charles Willson Peales museological and entrepreneurial activities in Philadelphia to the establishment of the National Museum in 1846, by an Act of the Senate of the United States, museum development in the United States was a public affair. James Smithson, the founder English donor ofthe Smithsonian Institution described his extension offunding as to increase and diffusion of knowledge among men. The significant growth of American museums had begun in the 1920's, had halted in the war and then made a rapid advance to the 5,000 mark. Hermitage in Leningrad in Russia is one of the largest museums in the world and specialises in arts. There are over 30000 museums in the whole world. There are over 5,500 museums in America. In the UK there were 900 museums and galleries in the UK in 1962. At present there are over 2,500 museums. History of Museums in the Indian Context In India, the seed of museum was sown in the ancient time in pre-historic cave paintings, alekhyagrihas (Ranga Mahal - Hall of paintings), chitrasalas (Paintings Gallery), devakulas, visvakarma mandirs and monasteries, that served the purpose of education and healthy entertainment. The great stupa at Bharhut with its inscriptions in the contemporary Brahmi for identification of schemes did exist as an open-air museum. Even today, temples, monasteries etc., function as museums in our couontry. The genesis of the present day museum goes back to the Front View of the Indian Museum, Kolkata foundation of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1784. For the first time, the Asiatic society 4 Dr. V. Jeyaraj Museology-Heritage Management Introduction to Museology of Bengal, by a historical decision in 1796 to open its collection to the public, established the Indian Museum, Kolkota III 1814 under the Curatorship of Dr. Nathaniel Wallich. This inspired the Madras Literary Society for opening a Museum of Economic Geology in Chennai in 1828 but was established in 1851 in Chennai and Edward Green Balfour took charge of the museum. Dr. Balfour wanted to start provincial museums at Bangalore, Bellary, Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Ooty, Secundrabad, Mangalore and Trichy. But only six provincial museums could be established. This period was a great incentive for other parts of the country to accelerate the museum movements slowly but steadily which resulted in establishment of Victoria Museum, Karachi in 1851, the Prince of Wales Museum in 1853 and Trivandrum Natural History Museum and Baroda Museum in 1857. The outburst of Indian Mutiny in 1857 left its impact on the growth of the cultural institutions. By the year 1857, there were twelve museums in India. The progress of the Indian Museum Movement was slowed down for a short while. In 1863, State Museums at Lucknow and Nagpur were opened. It was in 1864 that a museum was established in Lahore. Following these, six museums at Bangalore (1865), Faizabad (1867), Delhi Municipal Museum (1868), Calcutta Economic Museum (1872), Mathura Museum (1874), Raipur Museum (1875) and Srinagar Museum (1886) were opened. During the coronation year of Queen Victoria, 1887, many museums were established. During the viceroyalty of Lord Lytton that the Indian Treasure-trove Act was passed in th 1878. At the end of the 19 Century, there appeared a few more new museums at Trichur, Udaipur, Bhopal and Jaipur in 1887, Rajkot in 1888, Baroda and Begawada 1894, Bhavanagar th and Trichirapalli in 1893. In the middle of the 20 Century State Museum of Assam, Guwahati (1940), Central Museum, Arunachal Pradesh (1956), Punjab Government Museum (1959), Orissa State Museum (1963) and Manipur State Museum (1969) were established. th The dawn of the 20 Century was an era of awakening and great reforms. Because of the efforts of Lord Curzon many site museums were opened at important sites through the Archaeological Survey of India. Site museums at Saranath, Pagan, Taxila, Nalanda, Mohanjadora and Harappa (now in Pakistan) were established. Later site museums at Chamba, Jodhpur in 1909, Khajuraho and Gwalior in 1910 and Dacca (now in Bangladesh) in 1931 were opened. During the visit of the Prince of Wales to India in order to commemorate this occasion, the Prince of Wales Museum was opened. It was completed in 1914. In 1936, there were 105 museums in India. By the recommendation of Markham and Hargreaves, in 1946 all the museums under the Archaeological Survey of India were brought under the control of the Museum Branch of the Archaeological Survey of India. Now there are about 700 museums in India. Dr. V. Jeyaraj 5 Museology-Heritage Management Introduction to Museology History of Museums in Tamil Nadu It was about 1828, that the Madras Literary Society, an auxiliary of the Asiatic Society of London, started their campaign to start a museum of economic geology in Chennai. The society based its demand for a public museum in Chennai on the growing economic distress of the presidency, and need to develop the non-agricultural resources and also help the th people to find new means for the economic improvement. During 28 February 1844, Henry Chamier, a member of the Council recommended Madras Literary Society, to start a museum for the benefit of the scholars and students and to the court of directors of the East India Company. This Museum was organised during the year 1851, with about 1,100 geological objects with surgeon E.G. Balfour (1851-59) as the first officer-in-charge in the College of Fort St. George at College Road, Nungambakkam. Museum was thrown open to the public on April 29, 1851. Members of European Community as well as Indian donors like Rajas of Cochin and Travancore, the Nawab of Carnatic and several South Indian Zamindars, added to its collections. In 1854, the museum was moved to the Pantheon road, with Natural History Section with Zoological Garden, Geographical Geology, Economic Geology and Public Library. The museum herbarium was built up by Colonel Beddome's collection from the forest department. Captain Mitchell collected medals, illustrative of the history of Madras. In 1861, the contacts between the Chennai Museum and Robert Bruce Foote of the Geological Survey of India began. In 1865, the Tanjore Armoury was transferred to the Chennai Museum from the Arsenal, Fort St. George. Geology was the chief field of activity during Balfour's time. was so during the period of Dr. Bidie . Zoology . The collection of pottery from the ancient burials of the Nilgris, now known as the Break's collection, reached the museum in 1856, during Dr. Balfour's reign. The famous Whale's skeleton was added to the zoology section in June 1874 during Surgeon Major. M. C. th Furnell's period. The Governor opened the Library and the Centenary Hall on 16 March W76. The front building with its anthropological collections and the Museum Theatre were sanctioned in 1890. Gamble's collection of "Madras Botanical Specimens" was received in 1892. The Victoria Institute, Connemara Public Library and the Theatre were declared open by the then Governor, Sir Arthur th Havelock, on 5 December 1876. At the initiative of Dr. Edgar Thurston, Superintendent of the Chennai Museum, anthropology was made a subject of study Victoria Hall. Government Museum. Chennai for the M.A. Degree course in Madras University in 1895. During 1898-99, the Madras Herbarium was transferred to the Government Botanist 6 Dr. V. Jeyaraj Museology-Heritage Management Introduction to Museology at Coimbatore. During Dr. J. R. Henderson's period potteries from Adichanallur and Perumbair were added to the collection. The Forest Museum was started in Coimbatore in 1902. In 1903, the Aquarium was started at the Marina, Chennai. Dr. Frederic Henry Gravely, who was Superintendent of the Madras Central Museum from 1920-1940, was responsible to a great extent for building up the research activities of the great institution, and giving it a place among the great museums of the world. The Chemical Conservation and Research Laboratory in the museum owes its inception to his scientific vision and foresight. Dr. S. Paramasivan was the first Curator of the Laboratory who did yeoman service in the field of conservation. During Dr. Frederic Henry Gravely's period, His Excellency, the Governor opened the Archaeological Gallery in the ground floor of the new extension on 4th December 1939. Dr.A.Aiyappan was the first Indian to succeed the European officer. The Dowlaishwaram hoard of gold coins of Raja Raja Chola I and Kulothunka I, Natesa from Ponipumettupatti, Kathakali dancers, Relics from the Brahmagiri cist burial, stone tools of Peking Man, shadow play figures from Malabar and boomerang collections were noteworthy collections of this period. In 1941-42, murals of Ajantha, Sigiriya, Panamalai, Central Asia, along with some modern paintings were added to the museum and the new gallery at the Victoria Hall was called National Art Gallery, which was thrown open to the public in 1951, by the then honourable Prime Minister, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. In 1949, the Pudukkottai museum began to function as· an independent museum. Dr. S. T. Satyamurti, the then Zoology Curator, took over charge as the Superintendent from Dr. A. Ayyappan in 1958. During his period, the designation of the head of the museum changed from Superintendent to Director of Museums. In 1963, the new extension to the Natural History Gallery and new block of the Chemical Conservation and Research Laboratory were opened. During the year 1964, the Bronze Gallery was organised with Saivite and Vaishnavite bronzes along with Jain and Buddhist pieces. The Philately Gallery was started in 1966. The education section was started in 1971 in order to carry out educational activities in the museum and out-reach programmes. The Numismatic Gallery was established in 1976. Thiru. N. Harinarayana, a Conservation Chemist took over the charge as Director of Museums in 1978. In 1978, Coins Gallery, with models of coins belonging to various dynasties, commemorative medals and charts like Magna Carta were thrown open to the public. In 1980, the Design and Display Section was got sanctioned to take up display and exhibition work. The Contemporary Art Gallery was added as an annexe to the National Art Gallery, where the contemporary paintings are kept on display. During 1987, Children's Museum was inaugurated by the then Governor, Thiru. P.C. Alexander. The gallery depicts various civilisations, models of plants, animals, and geological objects along with scientific models. The folk art gallery was established for the first time in India. The Chemical Conservation Gallery was established in 1997 for the Dr. V. Jeyaraj 7 Museology-Heritage Management Introduction to Museology first time in the history of museums in India. Today the Government Museum, Chennai consists of eleven sections and out of them nine sections are provided with galleries. The Government Museum, Chennai has been recognised as a research institution to conduct st research leading to Ph. D. Degree by the University of Madras in 1997. During the 151 Anniversary celebrations, galleries such as the Bronze Gallery, Numismatic Gallery and Conservation Gallery were refurbished. The Progress of Industries and Handicrafts of Tamilnadu Gallery was established as per the wish of the President of India. These galleries were dedicated to the nation by His Excellency, the President of India, Dr. A.P. J. Abdul Kalam. History of District Museums in Tamil Nadu India is a country, which consists of rural masses. Our cultural heritage is great and the village masses do not have a chance to see our artistic and cultural heritage in the museums. One must know his history to grow in a better way. In order to make our people know our history through visual means every body must visit the museums. It is difficult for everyone to come to the State head quarters and visit the museum. According to the policy of the Government of Tamil Nadu, every district must have a museum. The first district Museum at Pudukkottai was taken over in 1949 from the erstwhile Pudukkottai rulers. Government Museum, Salem was the first museum started after independence. The district collector, Thiru.A.M Swaminathan, lAS., started it in 1976 and was taken over by the Department of Museums in 1979. Then district museums at Madurai (1981), Tiruchi (1983), Vellore (1985), Erode (1987), Cuddalore (1988), Uthagamandalam (1989), Coimbatore (1990), Kanyakumari (1991), Thirunelveli (Palayamkottai) (1992), and Krishnagiri (1993) were established. After a long gap of four years the thirteenth district museum was established at Palani in 1997. Two Government Government Museum, Erode Museums were started at Sivaganga and Tiruvarur in 1998. District museums were started both in Nagapattinam and Kanchipuram in 1999. The museums at Karur and Ramanathapuram were established in 2000. The Government Museum, Virudhunagar was open to public in 2001. Now there are 20 district museums in Tamil Nadu under the Department of Museums. The State Department of Archaeology had sixteen archaeological museums till the closure of the museums at Korkai and Rameswaram in 2002. Tamil N adu has different types of museums. This State only has over hundred museums, galleries and memorials. They are run by government, universities, colleges, schools, trusts, societies etc. The college museum at Madras Christian College, Forest Museum at Coimbatore are some of the earliest museums in Tamil Nadu in the district level. \, 8 Dr. V. Jeyaraj Museology-Heritage Management Introduction to Museology Bibliography 1. Banerjee, N. R., Museum and Cultural Heritage in India, Agam Kala Prakashan, Delhi, 1990. 2. Centenary Souvenir (1851-1951), Madras Government Museum, 1951. 3. David Elvinson, Melvin Ember, Encyclopaedia of Cultural Anthropology, Vol. 3, New York, 1996. 4. Fuller, N., The Museum as a Vehicle for Community Empowerment: The Ak-chin Indian Community Ecomuseum Project, (Book) Museum and Communities, Ed. 1. Karp, C. Kreamer and S. Lavine, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., 1992. 5. Gary Edson and David Dean, The Handbook of Museums, Routledge, London and New York, 6. Geofrey D. Lewis, Museums in Britain: 1920 to the Present Day, Manual of Curatorship, Ed. John M. A. Thompson and others, Butterworths, 1984. 7. ICOM News Vol. 57, No.2, 2004. 8. ICOM Statutes and Code of Professional Ethics, Published by International Council of Museums, Paris, 1987. 9. Information Brochure (1996-97), National Museum Institute of History, Conservation and Museology, C/O National Museum, Janpath, New Delhi-lIOOll. 10. Markham, S. F., and Hargreaves, H., The Museums of India, London, 1936. 11. Michael Brawne, The New Museum Architecture and Display, Frederick A. Praeger Publishers, New York, 1965. 12. Museums Journal, Volume 66, Number 2, September 1966, London. 13. Nigam, M. L., Fundamentals of Museology, Deva Publications, 1985. 14. Poundurai, R., Museology, Tamil Traditional Centre, Thanjavur, 1991. 15. Shadashiv Gorakshkar, Marketing Heritage - Corporate Involvement, Journal of Indian Museums, Vol. LII, 1995-96. 16. Sharma, T. C., Museum in the Service of Mankind, Bulletin of the Assam State Museum, No. X, 1988. 18. Thompson, J. M. A., (Ed) Manual of Curatorship, Butterworths, London, 1984. Dr. V. Jeyaraj 9 CHAPTER II MUSEUM ARCHITECTURE Traditional Museum Buildings The chitrasalas, chitrasabhas, mandapas etc., in the olden days were considered as common meeting places. Even-though they were not acting as museums but were used as very important centres to preserve the art and culture. The monuments in which the chitrasabhas etc., were situated are very great examples of good architecture. Palaces, temples, mandapas etc., were chosen for setting up museums as they could attract the onlookers. Particularly the Pilgrim's Hall in the city Plymouth was a renaissance temple constructed by the Greeks in1824. Since there were a lot of changes in the architectural styles, Chatrapati Sivaji Museum, Mumbai the buildings for the museums also took many changes. Since there were many changes in the architecture of the buildings during the Victorian times, museums were established in Victorian buildings as they were massive and attractive to look at. For example buildings of the Louvre Museum at Paris, Indian Museum, Kolkata, Prince of Wales Museum (Chatrapati Sivaji Museum), Mumbai, Museums at Udaipur and Jaipur, Government Museum, Chennai, Victoria Memorial, Kolkata, Modem Art Gallery, New Delhi etc., are considered to be the best monuments in their locality. The best way to preserve such buildings is to declare them as national monuments . . These buildings are the offspring of the architectural styles of the Greek and the Roman architectures. Broad steps, colossal pillars, triangular frontages, frontages facing the streets, large arches, domes, circular buildings, wooden bridges, many pillars, ornamental and high ceilings, thick walls, large windows etc., are the characteristics of this style. This type of buildings is not suitable for museums as the cost of maintenance is very high and they are prone to seepage and leakage thereby spoiling the objects displayed in them. Modern Museum Buildings Museums in the European countries are functioning in colossal buildings, which are the remnants of the early architecture. They are not considered to be good cultural centres but ancient monumental buildings. Since the available buildings were used to establish museums they were not able to satisfy all the requirements of a museum. Some or other requirements were not satisfied. In the modern days the museums are organised in buildings constructed for the purpose of museum. E.g. The British Museum, London, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Metropolitan Museum, New York, National Museum, New Delhi, Some buildings of the Government Museum, Chennai. The buildings of the Government Museum and Art Dr. V. Jeyaraj 10 Museum Architecture Museology-Heritage Management· Gallery, Chandigarh and the Sankar Kendra, Ahmedabad etc., have been designed according to their requirements, functional viewpoint and aesthetic appeal. One of the disturbing trends of museum architecture in the fifties and sixties have, however, been the near total exclusion of natural light which made the museum a closed box with artificial lighting. The tendency fortunately, has not followed in new museums that came up later, like the New Mexican Museum of Natural History, Albuquerque, the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, the Museum of Civilisation at Quebec City in Canada and the U. S. Holocaust Museum, Washington DC just to mention a few examples. Novel designs of museums such as the Guggenheim Museum in New York and Frank Lloyd ·Wright's innovative architectural designs are worth to mention when we talk about the modem architecture. The Raja Monsingh Museum, Baroda has been designed to take in natural light. In India, especially in Tamil Nadu, museums are established in every district head quarters in the available buildings. Most of the buildings are not suitable for museums. But, they have been meaningfully utilised. The Police Museum attached to the Police Training School at Ashok Nagar, Chennai was established in a hall in which the windows etc., were made as show cases and today it functions as a very good Police Museum. Front View of the Victoria and Albert Museum Traditions of Museum Buildings london Constructing a suitable building, which satisfies all the requirements of a modem museum, is not possible. But it is always good to see that maximum requirements are satisfied in such a building. Keeping in mind the available materials, the finance, type of the museum, type of objects to be collected, expansion to be made etc., the building should be constructed. Planning a Museum out of an Old Building One can make initial enquiries about planning proposals for the area, which may affect an existing and proposed museum. Site potentiality and the requirements of the museum should be clearly visualised. Professional advice from an architect and also advice from the chief fire officer, the building engineer and professional safety consultant in the case of using an old building for the museum, cost on water, electricity, tax; cost involved in the maintenance of a planned cycle of repairing and washing of the fabric, replacement of carpets, resurfacing the car parks; unforeseen problems such as damage to the building, addition to the buildings to accommodate the changing needs of the museum should be obtained. Dr. V. Jeyaraj 11 Museology-Heritage Management Museum Architecture Commissioning New Buildings In the commissioning of new buildings there are two parties to handle the work. One is the Curator along with the administration. The other is the engineering architect along with the contractor. Many museums have to go with the public works department of the respective governments for the construction of buildings for the museums. The curatorial part is very important for the success of the project. From time to time it does happen that museums are able to commission new buildings to make major works of adaptation to existing premises. While planning a building for the museum, depending upon the budget ceiling, the scope and the objectives of the museum should be clearly visualised. Curatorial objectives, area requirements, plant requirements, activities to be undertaken, administrative arrangements, financial constraints should be listed out. Programmes and scenarios for use of the site and premises such as selection of site or building, setting and communication, nature of users, state of site, land acquisition requirements, planning constraints, specific technical requirements in performance of building and environmental controls, general purposes, alternative options for realising them, general cost estimates etc., should be worked ·out. Basic programming such as detailed specifications and analysis of costs in the light of preferred option, preliminary time tabling of the operation, schedule of specific requirements, financing and costing of the project, remaining instructions, operational requirements to enable project to proceed etc., should be handled judiciously by the curatorial staff. Depending upon the cost involved, the works have to be carried out by floating the work through open tenders. The choice of the architect is another important factor in the construction of a building. There are museums, which called for open tenders for designs and the best designers, and architects had been chosen for the project. The architect has to consider the various points such as, site factors, geology of the site, structural problems posed, services available, preliminary assessment of the building cost, outline proposal leading to planning application etc., such as planning of main elements in the light of the preferred option, sketch designs, computer aided designs, firm estimate of the building costs, scheme designs such as calling for tenders and to execute the contract. In the case of government museums the Public Works Departments will carry out the work. Some times the special buildings division of the Public Works Department also takes up the work depending upon the quantum of the budget. Architectural Considerations After studying the requirements of a museum building carefully, functional analysis and planning on the basis of the utilities of the space should be done. The museum building should inter link both the public zone and the technical zone properly and creates good and smooth circulation within the building, without interfering with each other. Over and above 12 Dr. V. Jeyaraj Museology-Heritage Management Museum Architecture the zoning of the internal areas, it is also necessary to create some breathing places or relief areas and open space by providing water pools or greenery inside the building do break monotony and create pleasant environment. Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad has such provision in the galleries. Many museums keep pot crotons inside the galleries to break monotony. In the Assam State Museum, Guwahati the objects in the Sculpture Gallery are displayed both in the showcases and on open pedestals to break the monotony. As the museum buildings are for public utility and also serve as monumental buildings, great care is required in conceiving and designing of such buildings. Great care and thought are also needed for selection of building materials and construction techniques. It is always better to use materials, which will retard fire, insects etc. Apart from planning and designing of museum building Front View of Salar Jung Museum Hyderabad to serve the functions for which it is intended, it is necessary to take into consideration the modern requirements such as required type of finish on the floors, walls and ceiling for easy maintenance, thermal insulation and protection from climate. Building services such as lighting and ventilation, electrical installations, air­ conditioning, hydrants, closed circuit television, acoustical treatment, lifts, plumbing services and fire protection, should also be planned thoughtfully so that they do not interfere with functional spaces. In the form and contents museum buildings have to be designed after giving due consideration to art and aesthetics. They must be in harmony with the surroundings, national in character but in tune with the changing requirements imposed by developments in the field of science and technology. The new building constructed as additional building to the Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad is similar to the existing building in character and style. Structural Designs In earlier times the structures for museum building had to be evolved on the basis of the then known principles of structural designing which imposed certain restrictions in organisation of spaces in the building. The modern advancement in structural designing has made available greater possibility in the direction as well for achieving economy in cost of construction. Larger spaces can be provided resulting in great flexibility in planning and ease in making addition and alterations. Lighting and ventilation can be organised in a better way, surface treatment of required type can be ensured, provisions of services and utilities can be arranged at required places and, there fore, the quality of building can be improved. Advancements in construction technology supported by development in building materials and building products are being applied to museum architecture. One notable development is the planning; designing and construction of tall buildings and heavier structure instead of low rise buildings. The introduction of industrialised building methods and Dr. V. Jeyaraj 13 Museology-Heritage Management Museum Architecture prefabricated techniques of construction have resulted In speedier construction and architectural forms, modern in concept and design. While planning the construction of a museum building the following should be kept in mind: 1. The architecture of the building should be based on the type of objects available, the future development, easy for the reach of the public, transportation facilities etc. 2. The building architecture should be based on the number of visitors, number of staff of the museum and the changing trend in the future. 3. Since the visitors' facilities should be given importance, it should be kept in mind that provisions should be made for the future facilities to be provided. 4. It is always better to have a co-ordinated building in order to have better security and for the easy access for the visitors and staff. Components of a Good Building for a Museum A building is beautiful when it is functional and planned for convenience. The components of the building decide the good architecture suitable for a museum. Good museum architecture is also decided by walls, floors, ceilings, ventilation, relief areas etc., of the building. The treatment of walls, floors, ceilings, ventilation, relief areas etc., help to the gallery to have a good look. Walls Walls give protection to the objects in the gallery. If the walls are exposed to sun and rain, it is always better to treat the walls externally with suitable materials so that the walls will not transmit heat and moisture inside the galleries. If the windows and electrical fittings are 8 feet above the inner ground level, the wall space will be useful for display or background for exhibits. It is better to paint so that the walls can be kept clean and can be washed, if needed. Wall panelling will be useful for display. It is advisable to have wooden panels away from the wall. Floor The floor of a museum also is important. The floor should be such that it does not absorb dust and dirt and easily washable. The floor should not be slippery. The floor should be darker than the wall so that the light is not reflected on the exhibits. Materials, which cannot suck water from the ground, are good for flooring. Ceilings Ceilings playa very important role in the museum architecture. Lighting fixtures may be suspended from the ceilings and wiring cfl.n be concealed one. The ceiling should be plain and white so that it may reflect light. The roof should be leak proof. Dr. V. Jeyaraj 14 Museology-Heritage Management . Museum Architecture Ventilation Ventilation plays a very important role in the museum architecture. Especially in Indian condition (tropical condition), ventilation is important to minimise the relative humidity and temperature. Windows and ventilators should be provided in such a way that cross­ ventilation suiting the layout is possible. If possible, 24-hour air conditioning is good. In European countries windows are not necessary, which add beauty to the gallery. Doors and Windows The location of the doors and windows is very important in museums. The window should be above 8 feet so that they will not be a hindrance to the display. The doors should be larger in size so that big objects can be taken inside the galleries. They can be made out of wood or metal. They should be provided with locks. There should be emergency exits. They should facilitate free movement of air. Seating Arrangements Museum galleries must have seating arrangements for those who visit the museum. The seating arrangements should be in such a way that the visitors can relax during their visit. The seating arrangements should be in such a way that they go along with the type of display in the gallery. They should not distract the visitors when they visit the gallery. Security Arrangements The building must have security arrangements such as fire extinguishers, water pipe lines for the supply of water in an emergency, water sprinklers, fire alarms, closed circuit television, smoke detectors, public address system, walkie talkie etc. They should be properly monitored by good supervisors. Lighting Museum galleries must have proper lighting arrangements, alarms, smoke and fire detectors, electricity arrangements, motor generators to use in the absence of electricity. Now-a-days there is a breakthrough in the lighting in museums. Fibre optics is the best to safeguard the museum collection. Dichroic halogen lamps have replaced the normal lights as they dissipate heat at the back of the light fittings. Direction of the Building Whenever new buildings are constructed the direction of the building should be decided. In the tropical country like India most of the months the sun's hot rays fall on the buildings. If the direction is North-South the sun's rays will not enter into the buildings. It is also better to have proper sunshades to avoid the slanting rays in some months. Public Area The public area is nothing but the area available for the public who enter the museum. Dr. V. Jeyaraj 15 Museology-Heritage Management Museum Architecture This includes reception, ticket counter, sitting spaces, waiting halls, lecture theatre, education rooms, public telephones, refreshments, shops, toilets, permanent exhibitions, special exhibitions, library, archives and records, documentation, study collections, research room, curatorial offices etc. Relief Area It is monotonous when one continuously looks at the galleries. Therefore, some break ups in lobbies, little garden, seating arrangements for relaxation may be provided. Leaflets may be kept so that visitors can get them and go through them when they relax. If possible there may be video corners where the visitors can learn while relax. Touch screen kiosks may be provided in such areas. Support Services Area In order to maintain and make available the museum's resources, space must be allocated to a range of support functions. General museum services include direction, administration, security, maintenance workshops, cleaning equipment stores, materials stores, mess rooms and welfare facilities. In support of the collections space must be found for conservation laboratories and studios, the reception of incoming material and facilities for staff involved in fieldwork, research and collecting activities. In support of the presentation of the collections must be workshops, photographic facilities, design studios, offices for editorial staff, publication storage, information and public relations activities. There should be separate entrance for the service area for the staff and a separate entrance for vehicles etc., to transport materials. Depending upon the size and kind of the museum the service area differs. The architecture of a museum should be suited to serve and convenient to use. The building should be functional and help visitors giving recreation. The building should be visitor friendly. In general the total area can be tentatively divided as follows: Permanent and special exhibitions : 30% Storage and archives : 25% Theatre and educational services 10% Relief area 5% Support services : 30% 100% Conservation Principles Conservation of buildings involves two categories. They are structural conservation and material conservation. The structural conservation involves conservation engineering. 16 Dr. V. Jeyaraj Museology-Heritage Management Museum Architecture N?rmally in India this is being undertaken by the Archaeological Survey of India. Recently the INTACH is also specialised in it. The Museums Department in Tamilnadu has launched many conservation projects. The Government Museum, Chennai is one of the members of the Committee formed by the Southern Railway in the project, Restoration of Heritage Buildings, Preservation of Heritage Towns etc. It has prepared many projects for the conservation of temples under the Hindu Religious and Endowment Board, Chennai etc. A Conservator has a big role in the chemical conservation of the structural monuments. The old materials have to be analysed, the new materials have to be studied and the fixtures like paintings, mural paintings and other materials should be treated chemically. Whatever may be the method of treatment, one should understand the existing problems, the methods of decay, the deteriorating agents, the preventive measures and the interventive measures in conservation. The Strategies for Preventive Conservation One must know the history of the building, the materials used, the defects, measures to be taken to safeguard the building or cultural materials. The strategies of preventive conservation are, 1. Know your collectionlbuilding 2. Know the enemies of the collectionlbuilding 3. Identify the enemies of the collectionlbuilding 4. Avoid the enemies of the collectionlbuilding 5. Block the enemies of the collectionlbuilding 6. Monitor the enemies of the collectionlbuilding and act 7. Communicate the problem and find a solution The preventive conservation is not the work of a Conservator or a Conservation Engineer. This is the duty of every body connected with the building or the collection. Everyone must understand ones own role in the conservation. General training in conservation is a must to take up this noble task of preserving our heritage. Keeping this in mind, the Government Museum, Chennai is giving training to those who are involved in the preservation of cultural heritage. General awareness programmes are conducted in the districts too to create conservation awareness. The Chemical Conservation and Research Laboratory has thrown open many fields for taking up the conservation projects and the culmination will be an award of Ph. D. Degree as the Laboratory has been recognised by the Madras University to conduct research leading to Ph. D. Degree. When the Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments Department of the Government of Tamilnadu was taking up cleaning of temples by sand blasting, the Department of Museums intervened and provided training to the Executive Officers of the department of Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments Dr. V. Jeyaraj 17

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