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Published Date:01-07-2017
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THE SHORT STORY A plot is two dogs and one bone. - Robert Newton Peck I think a short story is usually about one thing, and a novel about many. . . A short story is like a short visit to other people, a novel like a long journey with others. – M. E. Kerr “The king died and then the queen” is a story. “The king died and then the queen died of grief” is a plot. –- E. M. Forster A short story is, in some ways, like a photograph a captured moment of time that is crystalline, though sometimes mysterious, arresting, though perhaps delicate. But while a photo may or may not suggest consequences, a short story always does. In the story's moment of time something important, something irrevocable has occurred. The change may be subtle or obvious, but it is definite and definitive. Marilyn Singer A short story collection is the literary equivalent of a Whitman's Sampler. The reader pokes around to see what's interesting reads some stories the way you'd snap up the Truffle or Caramel, flips past others the way you’d put back the Bad Mint Cocoanut Swirl. A short story is bite-sized. Like good chocolate, it's intense. It's long enough to make you care about the characters but it resolves in a way that's satisfying, rather than seeming unfinished or overdone. – Sharyn November WHAT IS A SHORT STORY? It’s a piece of prose fiction, usually under 10,000 words, which can be read at one sitting. Artistically, a short story is intended to create an impression via character, conflict, theme, setting, symbols and point of view. Every detail contributes to this one impression a unity of effect. A short story is personal a part of the author and today is more concerned with character than action. SOME ELEMENTS OF THE SHORT STORY WHAT IS CHARACTERIZATION? Well, there is direct characterization, where the author comes right out and tells the reader what a certain character is like. . . “For he was a quiet man, not given to talking about himself and the things he had done.” Maurice Walsh. More effective is indirect characterization In this case, the author gives certain information and lets readers draw their own conclusions regarding the character of a person in the story 1. Character’s name, i.e. Hawthorne’s “Young Goodman Brown.” 2. Character’s appearance. 3. What the character says. 4. What the character thinks (where story is told in first person or third person omniscient). 5. What ot people think of the character. 6. How animals react to the character. 7. What the character does, i.e. how the character acts in a particular situation. WHAT IS IRONY? Irony is a literary technique by which, through characterization or plot, the writer indicates something opposite to what is stated 1. Rhetorical (verbal) irony saying the opposite of what is meant. Writer may use this method to reveal a character’s weaknesses, prejudices, etc. 2. Dramatic, tragic, or situational irony reader knows more about the situation than the character giving a second meaning for the reader. 3. Cosmic (fate) irony destiny controls one’s fate where one has little influence or significance a soldier returns from war and is killed in a car accident, etc. WHAT IS SYMBOLISM? A symbol is something that stands for something else. Such as: the cross standing for Christianity or the Star of David standing for Judaism. There are conventional symbols. In addition, there are natural symbols. Such as the sun standing for knowledge, shadows for distrust, etc. Symbols are much used in short stories. They may be people, objects, or the action itself to symbolize meaning such as death, love, grief. Often symbolism is personal to the author and may be hard to decipher. In these cases, the reader may need to know about the author’s background. Note: Don’t confuse symbol with metaphor. “Joe is a peacock” is a metaphor in which Joe is the subject and peacock is the vehicle. A symbol is based on the vehicle; that is, peacock could symbolize vanity. WHAT IS PLOT? Plot is the plan of action in the story. many modern short stories do not have well-defined plots. However, those that do generally follow a plot plan called Freytag’s Pyramid, such as this Climax point of highest tension Rising Action the compicating Falling Action incidents or obstacles to resolving how the problem conflict is resolved Explication beginning which introduces Denouement end of tale, setting and characters; describes basic resolution of all conflicts problem or conflict. The turning point is also important in a plot. It is the point in the plot at which the end is inevitable. It may or may not be the same as the climax. For example, in “Little Red Ridinghood,” the turning point is when Little Red speaks with the Wolf; the climax is when the Wolf impersonates Grandma. Some standard plot twists include the flashback, a surprise ending, an anti-climax, and may well take advantage of a plot device such as foreshadowing. A plot may also be built upon recurring parallel events or a circular plot. WHAT IS THE THEME? The theme is the meaning or purpose of the story. A theme should—  Be specific to the story.  Be universal.  Provide unity to the story.  Be an integral part of the story.  Present a new awareness of life. Themes are sometimes characterized as conflicts man vs. man, man vs. nature, man vs. himself, good vs. evil, etc. Themes can be more specifically stated grace under pressure, the desire for love, etc: WHAT IS POINT OF VIEW? The point of view is the relationship of the narrator and the story. Sometimes this is called the method of narration. Five Methods of Narration Advantages Disadvantages First-person major – main 1. illusion of storyteller 1. may give impression of character simply tells his speaking out loud conceit story (i.e. Huckleberry Finn) 2. excellent for use of verbal 2. reader cannot expect irony narrator to be unbiased 3. reader identifies with character more easily – “I” 4. authority of eye witness more real and immediate First-person minor – a 1. may describe main 1. his/her presence must minor character who character directly and/or all always be justified “happens to be there” (i. e., characters Dr. Watson in Conan Doyle’s stories) 2. suspense created by concealing main chracter’s thoughts Third-person omniscient 1. author can reveal 1. may result in lack of focus (all-knowing) – narrator thoughts of any or all and emphasis knows the thoughts of all the charactres’ thoughts characters in a story 2. not realistic 2. author can comment and explain significance 3. hamper reader from reaching own conclusions Third-person ordinary 1. flexible – allows main 1. limits reader’s knowledge (limited) –narrator tells only character to die at end of actioto what central what he perceives character experiences and 2. author can describe and observes comment on charactre 2. reader loses depth of 3. more objective – dramatic understanding based on – reader makes own character’s thoughts and judgments feelings Third-person central 1. effect of first person 1. may lack intimacy of first- character – narrator tells narration with no danger of person narration only what the central egotism by narrator character thinks, feels, does, etc. 2. allows reader to draw own conclusions regarding the other charactes WHAT IS TONE? The tone is how the writer feels about his/her characters and his/her plot. It may be light, romantic, sympathetic, ironic, pensive, and is usually described by adjectives. Tone is set by  Action (i.e., a brutal murder sets a morbid tone).  Choice of details in presenting facts.  Author’s style figurative language, diction, rhythm, sounds. A writer often uses shifts in tone from satirical to sympathetic, from light to serious, etc. to shock the reader and maintain interest in the story. WHAT IS THE STYLE? The style of a short story is the way in which the writer uses language. Here are some of the things which make up a writer’s style: Diction choice of words. For example, simple one-syllable words or elaborate sentences with more sophisticated words. Types of Sentences simple, compound, fragmented, complex, cumulative, compound-complex. Use of Poetic Language figurative language like simile, metaphor, alliteration, assonance, symbolism, rhythmic patterns, personification, etc. Theme Many writers employ the same basic theme, which may run through almost all the writer’s stories. Rhetorical Devices and Effects – antithesis balancing contrasting words or ideas against each other. apostrophe sudden shift to direct address (either to absent or present entity). rhetorical question one not to evoke a reply but to get more emphasis than a direct statement. chiasmus use of phrases syntactically parallel but with reversed elements. periphrasis circumlocution, roundabout expression using superfluous words. Your Literary Response Journal should convince me that you have read and thought carefully about each assigned short story. If your understanding of The story is “wrong,” yet your journal clearly proves that you read (or misread) LRJ The story, you may well receive full credit. Your grade is based on content – what you have to say, how well you say it, your thoughts and feelings about the story, and your explanation of the logic that led to your interpretation. Your grade is also based on following directions. I will not penalize you for grammar and usage errors but to receive credit, you MUST include the following in every LRJ: ✔ the short story’s title in quotation marks ✔ the author’s name ✔ a quotation from the storyintegrated with your own sentence, properly punctuated, and commented upon as necessary to show why you cited that particular passage. No Quote Lumps ✔ specific references to the short story ✔ careful thought After you’ve included the five MUSTs above, you may choose any of these MAYBEs to guide your response. You may even choose the same one every time. Consider the possibilities: 1 an analysis of a major character flat/round, static/dynamic, internal / external conflicts, dominant traits, significant actions, personal relationships… 2 a comparison / contrast of related characters protagonist / antagonist, foils, doubles, stereotypes, stock characters… 3 a discussion of the role(s) played by minor character(s) 4 an analysis of elements of plot (exposition, narrative hook, rising action, climax / turning point, falling action, resolution) or plot patterns 5 an analysis of the effect of the author’s chosen point of view 6 an analysis of the effect of setting time, place, circumstances 7 an explanation of symbolism in the story 8 a discussion of the validity and development of the theme(s) 9 a discussion of the title’s significance 10 a detailed response to a specific word, phrase, sentence, passage, or scene 11 a very limited or general comparison to another story, song, poem, movie… 12 a close analysis of the author’s style vocabulary, figurative language, imagery, sentence structure, dialogue / narration… 13 a re-telling of the story, adding an additional scene, or changing an element such as the ending, setting, point of view, tone… 14 a transformation of the story to another form, such as a poem, a letter, a play, a news story, a commercial, a cartoon, a soap opera, a fable… 15 an original poem developing in some way from the assigned story 16 a statement relating the story to your experience or ideas 17 an explanation of problems you had in understanding the story 18 your opinion of the story, good or bad, supported by specific references from the story Length: Approximately 1/2 to 1 page long for each LRJ Format: Blue or black ink, front side of the paper only Due: Beginning of the hour in the blue wire basket on my desk. NARRATIVE TYPES TYPE ONE: Interior Monologue The reader is taken inside the mind of a character. We read his or her thoughts listen in. Examples: ________________________________________________________________ TYPE TWO: Dramatic Monologue. The main character tells a story to another character. The reader “listens in.” Examples: ________________________________________________________________ TYPE THREE: Letter Narration Events are told through letters exchanged by the characters. Examples: ________________________________________________________________ TYPE FOUR: Diary Narration. Events are recorded in the diary of one of the characters. Examples: ________________________________________________________________ TYPE FIVE: Subjective Narration. The narrator is the main character and is telling the story to us in a time very close to the time the events happened. Examples: ________________________________________________________________ TYPE SIX: Detached Autobiography. The narrator again is one of the characters but this time he or she is telling the story much after it actually happened. The narrator is, therefore, not so involved and, perhaps, more objective. Examples: ________________________________________________________________ TYPE SEVEN: Memoir, or Observer Narration. The narrator tells a story about other characters. The narrator is a participant, an observer not the main character. Examples: ________________________________________________________________ TYPE EIGHT: Biography, or Anonymous Narration – Single-Character Point of View. The narrator tells about others without identifying himself or telling us how he knows what he knows. The narrator tells the story through the eyes of one character. Examples: ________________________________________________________________ TYPE NINE: Anonymous Narration – Dual-Character Point of View. Same as Type Eight, but the narrator presents the thoughts, feelings, and attitudes of TWO characters in the tale. Examples: ________________________________________________________________ TYPE TEN: Anonymous Narration – Multiple-Character Point of View. Same as Types Eight and Nine, but the narrator presents the thoughts, feelings and attitudes of a nummber of characters. Examples: ________________________________________________________________ TYPE ELEVEN: Anonymous Narration No Character Point of View. Purely description the narrator is not in the minds of the characters but describes actions and events only. Examples: ________________________________________________________________ POINT OF VIEW I He perched upon the surprisingly narrow wall. Looking down made him dizzy, but he had to look down if he were ever to return to his friends below. Friends, indeed They were the cause of his being here now in this dangerous position mocking, jeering, daring him. “Climb the wall,” they said. “Climb the wall, chicken” So he climbed, his feet feeling leaden, his hands slippery with sweat, his heart thunderously pounding in his ears. But he reached the top. The view He hadn’t realized In the distance he could see trees, like those in the park where mother used to take him. Trees and a far, blue horizon. But below, the distant earth and the white, upturned faces of his now silent friends. He slid both feet into the void and rested one on a slight protrusion in the sheer plunge of the wall. He suddenly felt the ancient mortar crumble, felt no weight in his body, saw the top racing away from him. A smashing, numbing blow. “But the blue trees,” he thought. Then blackness. II We interrupt this program to bring you a special news bulletin. An unidentified person has just fallen from the top of a high wall at the corner of Vermont and Mediterranean Avenues. The walls in that vicinity are over fifty feet high. No report of the accident victim’s condition has been received. A large crowd has now gathered, and Police Chief Little urges all citizens to stay away from the scene of the accident, so as not to create a traffic problem. It has just been reported that the Royal Emergency Squad is on its way to the scene. Stay tuned to this station for further details. We now return you to your regularly scheduled program. III “We got there as quickly as possible, but it was too late. The crazy crowds held us up. They swarmed all over the place, vicious thrill seekers. They probably yelled at him to jump. We finally had to go round by way of Boardwalk to get there. Had to really push our way through. He lay there all crumpled up. Real bad case. We did all we could, especially Sergeant Blue. Good man. Tried everything we could, there on the spot. Plasma, morphine, respirator. Nothing helped. Just a young kid, really. Even had to fight the blasted crowd to take it away” IV Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. All the King’s horses and all the King’s men Couldn’t put Humpty Dumpty together again. MORALS FROM AESOP’S FABLES 1. Do not judge people’s usefulness by their 18. Think before you act. appearance. 19. You can’t please everyone. 2. Every problem has a different solution. 20. No one believes a liar even when he 3. If you want something done, do it tells the truth. yourself. 21. Be satisfied with what you have. 4. A man in love is easily deceived. 22. People don’t appreciate things they do 5. There is no point being stubborn just for not understand. the sake of it. 23. Slow and steady wins the race. 6. Some people pretend to despise the things they cannot have. 24. One swallow does not make a summer. 7. Actions speak louder than words. 25. Sometimes it is safer not to have an opinion. 8. Freedom is more important than comfort. 26. Where there’s a will there’s a way. 9. Familiarity breeds contempt. 27. Don’t believe everything you hear. 10. Don’t count your chickens before they 28, You can tell what people are like from are hatched. the friends they choose. 11. Pride comes before a fall. 29. Experience is a good teacher. 12. One good turn deserves another. 30. Vanity is expensive. 13. Don’t try to be something you are not.. 31. Spare the rod and spoil the child. 14, Look before you leap. 32. Pretending to be somethng you are not may get you ln trouble. 15. United we stand; divided we fall. 33. If you give an lnch, you may lose a 16. Be prepared. mile. 17. Plan ahead. Things to Do with a Short Story 1. Rewrite a passage from a story from as 16. Choose a character and tell what you many points of view as possible. would have done in his place, giving reasons for your decision. 2. Write a television script for one of the stories you have read. 17. Describe a character completely. Collect your data by filling in a chart with 3. Present an oral interpretation from one three columns headed “Detail from the of the stories you have read. Story,” “What Detail Reveals about the Character,” and “Method of Revealing 4. Convert one of the stories you have Character.” read to readers’ theatre, assemble a cast, and read it to the class. 18. After determining the theme of a particular story, attempt to prove that it is 5. Write a letter to a character in a story a valid or invalid world view. you have read, giving him advice. 19. Write a new ending for a story you 6. Put a character from a story you have have read. Consider what other changes read into a totally new setting of your must be made in the story to make your invention and tell (or show) how he would ending logical and how your ending react in those circumstances. would alter the overall meaning of the story. 7. Write your own short story. 20. Is there a character in any story you 8. Write a short story and tell the class how have read who is similar to someone you you did it, why you chose the various know in real life? Describe this person, characters, the setting, the particular point pointing out the similarities to the fictional of view, etc. character. 9. Compare two characters either from 21.Explain which character you are most the same story, one from each of two similar to. stories. 22. Assemble a collection of newspaper 10. Read several stories dealing with the clippings on which short stories might be same theme. Develop a creative way of based, explaining how you would demonstrating their relationship. develop them into a story. 11. Read as many short stories as you can 23. Illustrate a story you liked with and submit a list to the teacher, incl uding photographs, clippings from magazines, your personal reaction to each. or drawings. 12. Discuss a story that you liked (or 24. Don Wolfe has stated that “a short story disliked) with the teacher. Or with the is a study of two parts of the same hero, class. Or with another student. one part of him at war with another.” Demonstrate how this is true in stories you 13. Compare a story you liked to one you have read. disliked, explaining why. 25. Devise your own activity, subject to 14. Compose an imaginary encounter the teacher’s approval. between two characters from different stories. 15. Construct a collage to illustrate the theme of a story you enjoyed. THE SHORT STORY: Seminar Presentations Your group’s seminar presentation should be a coherent discussion that helps your classmates appreciate your chosen short story. Provide an extensive handout in note format, which will serve as a kind of “mini-Cliff Note,” giving literary and biographical information needed for a thorough under-standing of the story. Include all the topics on this assignment sheet in reproducible form (typed or printed in black ink). The very best handouts will be more than thorough perhaps even provocative. Your presentation should take from 20 to 30 minutes, but it should not be a mechanical rendering of information already on the handout. (Remember that as teachers, you will also be expected to evaluate your lesson and assess your classmates’ learning) 1. The Writer’s Background: How has the writer’s personal life affected this story? What literary influences are evident from the writer’s background or from the story itself? Do not tell everything you find, but rather sift through this information, interpreting and emphasizing what is truly relevant. 2. The Writer’s Other Works: Is this work typical for the writer? Are the themes in your story consistent with themes in other works by the writer? Has the writer used other literary forms in any way that might be significant or interesting? Show us the connections. 3. Précis of the Short Story: Following directions given in class, write a one-paragraph summary of the story. Do not draw conclusions or interpret in your synopsis. Be accurate and concise. Write in your own words, but avoid choppy sentences. Combine “baby” sentences when necessary for grace. 4. Technical Details about the Short Story: A. Setting: Describe the setting, as to both time and place. Is the setting integral to the story or independent? Analyze whether a change in setting would significantly alter the story. B. Characters: List and analyze the major characters. Discuss dominant traits and significant actions. Are they flat or round, static or dynamic? Examine whether character is revealed directly or indirectly. Explore character relationships if appropriate for your story. Identify protagonist and antagonist. Note any foils or doubles. C. Point of View: Who is the narrator? Is he reliable? What point of view is used? First or third- person? Limited or omniscient? Major or minor character perspective? Objective or subjective? Analyze how the writer’s choice of viewpoint influences the reader. D. Plot Structure: List and analyze the elements of plot (narrative hook, exposition, rising action, climax or turning point, falling action, and resolution). Does the story fit Freytag’s pyramid, or is it organized differently? Are the conflicts internal or external? Specifically, who vs. whom? Are the conflicts resolved? E. Theme: List several possible themes offered by your story rather than committing your group to one and one alone. Indicate whether theme is stated or implied. Remember theme must be a statement; no questions allowed 5. Significant Quotations: Cite sentences and/or passages which seem significant or which illustrate the writer’s style. Include the page number and be prepared to discuss what each quotation means, why you chose it, and how it is important to the story. Remember that dialogue and quotation are not the same thing. 6. Special Topics: What special line of inquiry interests your group? You might consider additional technical aspects, such as irony, satire, figurative language, or symbolism. Does this story take a stand about family relationships, sexual attitudes, racial discrimination, economics, politics, or religion? Might the Seven Deadly Sins or the Seven Cardinal Virtues be relevant? Or a discussion of sins of omission vs. sins of commission? You could discuss plot patterns, such as rite of passage, initiation, fall from innocence, or quest. Or examine motifs, such as death and rebirth or cycles of nature. You might apply Northrop Frye’s heroic types or Joseph Campbell’s plot paradigm. Or Sigmund Freud’s id, ego, and superego? Or Carl Jung’s archetypes? Perhaps there are contrasts that produce tension within the story: Reason vs. Emotion, Knowledge vs. Ignorance, Realism vs. Romanticism, Civilization vs. Savagery, Age vs. Youth, Male vs. Female? And on and on and on… THE SHORT STORY: Seminar Presentations Students ____________________________________ Block _____ Date _________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Short Story _____________________________________________________________ Handout ( pages) Oral Presentation _____ 1. Author’s Background ( 5) _____ 1. Lesson Plan & Organization (10) _____ 2. Author’s Other Works ( 5) _____ 2. Speaking Voice(s) (10) _____ 3. Précis (10) _____ 3. Teaches Story (15) _____ 4. Setting ( 5) _____ 4. Knowledge of Story (30) _____ 5. Characters (20) _____ 5. Answering Questions (10) _____ 6. Point of View ( 5) _____ 6. Your Turn to Grade: (25) _____ 7. Plot Structure (20) _____________________________ _____ 8. Theme ( 5) _____________________________ _____ 9. Quotes (15) _____________________________ _____ 10. Special Topic: (10) _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ POINTS POSSIBLE (100) _____________________________ _____ Handout On Time _____________________________ _____ Reproducible _____________________________ _____ Note Format _____ Spelling OK POINTS POSSIBLE (100) _____ Punctuation OK Oral Presentation ____ points + Handout ____ points ========================== TOTAL ____ points Letter Grade _____% Comments: ______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ SO YOU THINK IT’S EASY? Your Turn SETTING: Examine magazines to locate three pictures each quite different which could serve as the setting for a short story. Examine each picture and think about how you would describe it for a story setting. To develop your setting you would need to include descriptive details based on the sensory images sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and textures. Your description, however, should convey a mood, not just reproduce the scene photographically. Write at least one paragraph describing each of your scenes as if the paragraph were part of a short story. Mount each picture and its companion description on unlined paper. CHARACTERIZATION: Examine magazines to locate three pictures of people who could serve as characters in a short story. Your pictures should represent a variety of character types. Examine each picture to determine how the character’s appearance and actions reveal personality. Think about how you would present each character if he appeared in a short story. Write about each pictured character, experimenting with different points of view and different methods of revealing character. Be sure to use each of the following techniques for revealing character at least once (not necessarily once in each description): 1. Authorial Statement you explicitly reveal his personality. 2. Character’s Appearance his face, body, and clothing reveal his personality. 3. Character’s Actions what he does reveals his personality. 4. Character’s Thoughts what he thinks reveals his personality. 5. Character’s Words what he says reveals his personality. 6. Reactions to the Character what other characters say and think about him reveal his personality. You may need to write several paragraphs about each picture, but keep to the point. Concentrate on revealing character not constructing a full short story. Mount each picture and its companion paragraphs on unlined paper. DIALOGUE AND NARRATION: Examine newspapers, cartoon strip anthologies, and/or online resources to locate three short strips which include dialogue. You may choose from any general circulation strip, classic or contemporary – Archie, B. C., Beetle Bailey, Calvin and Hobbes, Cathy, Dilbert, Garfield, Hagar the Horrible, Katzenjammer Kids, Mary Worth, Peanuts, Wizard of Id, Zippy, Zits, and so on but be sure that each panel you select has at least two boxes (so, no single panel editorial cartoons). Then transform each strip into a scene as if it appeared in a short story. You will need to reproduce dialogue word for word, putting the words that appear in balloons in quotation marks in your narrative. You will also need to write original narration to reveal what’s happening in the pictures. Remember, when you write dialogue, you must begin a new paragraph every time the speaker changes. Mount each comic strip and its companion narration on unlined paper. Online Background and Resources Wikipedia Background on Comic Strips & Links National Cartoonists Society Free Online Strips (including Peanuts) Comic Strip Nation Comic Strip Project Stu’s Comic Strip Connection San Francisco Chronicle Comic gateway Yahoo Directory to Comic Strips Sample Graphics Sample Setting Picture Sample Character Picture Sample Comic Strip Quoting from a Short Story When you write about a short story or refer to a short story in a literary response journal or an essay, you will frequently need to quote from it. Below are some rules to follow when you refer to the title of a story or quote words from it. All the examples given in the rules are taken from the short story “Test” by Theodore Thomas. RULE 1: Whenever you mention the title of a short story, put quotation marks around it. Robert Proctor, the protagonist in “Test,” by Theodore Thomas, fails his driving test because he doesn’t understand the rules. RULE 2: Whenever you quote an uncommon word or a longer phrase that appears in the story, put quotation marks around it and INTEGRATE the quoted material within your own sentence. Robert’s compassionate nature is revealed in his concern for what might have happened to the sleeping girl. He knows that, had the accident been real, she would have passed unknowingly “into the dark, heavy sleep of death.” RULE 3: Whenever you quote a phrase that uses only part of a longer sentence, indicate where words have been omitted by using AN ELLIPSIS. One of the most startling images in the story occurs in the last paragraph when the two men drag “Robert Proctor out the door…his rubber heels sliding along the two grooves worn into the floor.” RULE 4: Whenever you quote two or more whole lines from the story, do not use quotation marks unless they enclose dialogue. Instead, write the lines from the story on separate, indented lines within your paragraph. When several lines are cited, they should be especially significant. You should “set up” the quote by introducing it and justify such a long quote by explaining its importance afterwards “saying goodbye”). The theme of the story is revealed in the final interchange between Robert and the uniformed man. Robert says, “You can’t really mean this, I’m still dreaming aren’t I? This is still part of the test isn’t it?” The uniformed man said, “How do any of us know?” The author is saying that we never know when a seemingly simple action, like driving down a freeway, will have serious consequences. Our ability to make wise decisions may be tested at any time. ACTIVITIES: Use the assigned story. Answer on a separate page 1. Write a sentence that explains what this story is about. Use the title of the short story and the author in your sentence. 2. In another sentence, discuss the main character and point out how some specific words or phrases from the story help reveal the way the personality of the character. 3. In another sentence, point out a striking image in the story. Quote a phrase that uses only part of a longer sentence and indicate where words have been omitted by using an ellipsis correctly. 4. In a sentence that comments on your opinion about the theme of the story, quote a passage that is longer than two lines. Be sure to “set up” the quote and to “say goodbye” by explaining it afterwards. QUOTING APPROPRIATELY: “Shaving” by Leslie Norris Directions: Complete each of the following writing assignments by incorporating quotes from the story into your own sentences. Quote only PHRASES from the story. Do not quote an entire sentence. Each quote you use must fit into an original sentence of your own. If necessary to make your point clear, write sentences explaining the significance of the phrases you have quoted. For example: By the story’s end, we see Barry looking out a window that is full of the “dying sunlight.” Barry stands there, “knowing it would soon be gone.” At one level, Barry recognizes that his father is dying, in the same way that the sun is fading. At another level, Barry also realizes that his own youth and strength will fade in the future. 1. The two main characters in this story are at different stages of life. Examine the ways Barry is contrasted with his father. Write a paragraph contrasting the two, including appropriate quotes. 2. The act of shaving is important because it is the act by which Barry comes of age. In a sense, Barry undergoes a rite of passage and takes up his father’s authority. Write a paragraph explaining how Barry grows up during the story. 3. The act of shaving is also presented as a kind of ceremony. Write a paragraph proving that shaving is symbolic in this story. 4. What details in the last two paragraphs indicate that Barry accepts the fact that some day his own youth will be gone? Explain in a short paragraph. CITATION NOTES Each group will be assigned a thesis sentence and will take citation notes to support that thesis very specific evidence from the story a quotation, an action or event, a detail or description or example not your opinion 1. Before you begin making any citation notes, discuss the thesis sentence and re-state it in your own words. 2. Then decide how many component parts (or body paragraphs) are promised in the thesis sentence. Divide a piece of paper into columns for each component, and label each column with your key words. 3. As a group, go through the story and cite evidence to support each component. In the appropriate column, list your evidence for that paragraph examples, events, details, quotes, and so on. (page needed for quotations) 4. When your group finishes, you should have many, many more citation notes than you would ever be able to use in a five-paragraph essay. Later, each group member will select the best evidence to use in an individual essay. Example: The story told in “Chee’s Daughter” bears striking similarities to the Greek myth of Demeter and her child Persephone.

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