1001 Inventions and the Library of Secrets

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1001 INVENTIONS & AWESOME FACTS FROM MUSLIM CIVILIZATION FOR AGES 8-12 THIS GUIDE INCLUDES: HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES DISCUSSION TOPICS RESEARCH PROJECTS AND MORETABLE OF CONTENTS Classroom Companion Introduction 3 Create a Weather Almanac 24 Collect the Most Fascinating Facts 4 Exploring Architecture 26 35 Quizzily Questions 5 Creating Arabesque Art Activity 27 Garden Poetry Activity 17 Magic Carpet Stories 29 Constellation Mythology Report 18 Illustrating Sinbad’s Tales 29 Build Your Own Glider Activity 19 Build a Tent Frame Activity 30 Build a Pinhole Camera Activity 20 Model Windmill Activities 30 Numerical Challenges 22 Interview Show Group Project 31 Make a Rainbow Activity 23 Additional Research and Activities 32 ideas of earlier worldwide scholars and making breakthroughs MORE RESOURCES FROM THE FOUNDATION FOR SCIENCE, that helped pave the way for the European Renaissance. TECHNOLOGY, AND CIVILISATION: VIDEO AND WEBSITES “1001 Inventions and the Library of Secrets,” short feature film at All of the content in our books and resources has been www.1001inventions.com/libraryofsecrets researched and reviewed by a team of eminent historians of science. We strive to give the most accurate representation of www.MuslimHeritage.com (academic web portal; includes everything that we can, and we are committed to the continuous hundreds of articles and short reports related to Muslim heritage improvement of our work. We encourage feedback to help us with research, an interactive map, and a timeline) this process. E-mail us at info1001inventions.com. www.1001inventions.com/education (more teacher’s guides and 1001 INVENTIONS TEAM fun things for kids) Ahmed Salim (Producer); Rebecca Mileham (Editor); Yasir Kahf EDUCATIONAL POSTERS: Beautifully designed, these ten large (Producer) A1 size posters can be used in schools and can even form your FSTC RESEARCH TEAM own mini exhibition on Muslim Heritage. Includes the seven “Our Prof. Salim Al-Hassani; Prof. Mohammed El-Gomati; Ian Kendrick; Zones” posters plus an excellent “Our History Timeline” poster, the Margaret Morris; Prof. Rabie E. Abdel-Halim; Prof. Mohammed “Muslim Heritage World Map” poster, and the “Muslim Scholars” Abattouy; Dr. Salim Ayduz; Kaouthar Chatioui; Dr. Zohor Idrisi; poster. Order here: http://www.1001inventions.com/media/ Ayshah Ismail educational-posters NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC WASHINGTON, DC—EXPLORERS HALL, National Geographic Society, Kate Olesin (Editor); David M. Seager (Art Director); Clifford August 3, 2012–February 3, 2013 Wohl (Writer and Educational Consultant); Eighty2degrees CHECK OUT OTHER 1001 INVENTIONS EXHIBITIONS COMING TO A Design (Designer); Lori Epstein (Senior Illustrations Editor); CITY NEAR YOU SOON: http://www.1001inventions.com Hillary Moloney (Illustrations Assistant); Kathryn Robbins (Associate Designer) ABOUT THE FOUNDATION FOR SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND CIVILISATION The Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation is a British Copyright © 2012 Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation based, non-profit, non-religious, non-political organization. Published by the National Geographic Society. All rights reserved. Founded in the United Kingdom in 1999, FSTC works with Reproduction without written permission from the publisher leading academics around the world to engage with the public is prohibited. through research work, educational media, conferences and For information about special discounts for bulk purchases, events in order to highlight the shared cultural roots of science please contact National Geographic Books Special Sales: and technological inheritance of humanity. 1001 Inventions ngspecsalesngs.org was created by FSTC and launched in the United Kingdom in March 2006 to develop and deliver world class exhibitions For rights or permissions inquiries, please contact National and publications to further these aims. 1001 Inventions has Geographic Books Subsidiary Rights: ngbookrightsngs.org successfully educated millions of people around the world through its blockbuster global touring exhibition, books, For more information, please call 1-800-NGS LINE (647-5463), films, products, and educational resources. 1001 Inventions visit nationalgeographic.com or write to the following address: demonstrates that for a thousand years, from the 7th century National Geographic Society onward, exceptional scientific and technological advancements 1145 17th Street N.W. were made within Muslim civilization. Men and women of various Washington, D.C. 20036-4688 U.S.A. beliefs, languages, and backgrounds worked together and wrote hundreds of thousands of books, mainly in Arabic, building upon 2Classroom Companion Introduction 1001 INVENTIONS Packed with fascinating facts, 1001 Inventions & Awesome Facts from & AWESOME Muslim Civilization reveals ancient inventions, discoveries, and ideas FACTS that have shaped how we live today. From familiar mind games to FROM MUSLIM intriguing mosaic-patterned bowls and the elephant water clock, the CIVILIZATION book’s colorful pages celebrate advances made by men and women who lived in countries that were part of Muslim civilization from the 7th to the 17th centuries. The book is based on the belief that humankind can best move forward when people from all countries, cultures, and spiritual views work together. This title, along with an interactive exhibit, a book for adults, and rich online information, offers knowledge that demonstrates just how much today’s world has been influenced by the people of long ago. Each two-page themed spread is filled with facts that showcase the innovations by men and women of many faiths who lived during the Golden Age of Muslim civilization. Many of the facts lend themselves to further exploration through research projects, activities, web searches, and more. This guide provides questions, key Internet sites, and suggestions for such activities and creative programs. It also offers a wide range of approaches and options to utilize in the middle-school classroom. Whether the focus is science, social studies, or the arts, teachers can find ways to expand the curriculum with this book and this supplement. Each project is identified with the pages or subject in the book on which it is based, so students can work individually or in groups on several projects at the same time. 1001 Inventions & Awesome Facts from Muslim Civilization offers a variety of ways to excite students about science, history, and social studies. You may want to present the entire book to your whole class; you may use it for interstitial teaching, between subjects or in open time slots; you might have a few copies in your classroom for students to explore when they’ve completed other assignments either individually or in small groups; or, using the “The Golden Age of Muslim Civilization” section on pages 10–11, you might match 3a a a e e e S S S n n n a a a i i i p p p a a a s s s e e e S S S a a a d d d e e e C C C R R R A A A r r r a a a a a a r r r b b b t t t a a a i i i m m m u a u u a a S S S n n n P P P e e e n n n i i i n n n s s s u u u l l l a a a a a a e e e J J J S S S M M M e e e a a a d d d k k k i i i t t t c c c e e e r r r a a a v v v r r r a a a l l l n n n e e e B B B a a a a a a individual students with specific TH TH 7 TO 17 THE GOLDEN AGE OF MUSLIM CIVILIZATION CENTURIES subject pages based on their Welcome Welcome to the Golden Age of Mu to the Golden Age of Mu slim slim civili ciz va ili tion zat,ion during which , during which me m n and en and wom we om n of en of SELIMIYE SELIMIYE MECHANICAL MECHANICAL ASTROLABES ASTROLABES different faiths and cultures different faiths and cultures worw ke or d kt e o d gt eo ther gether to ctro c eat re ea thou te thou sands of i sands of i nven nv tions and entions and MOSQUE MOSQUE CLOCKS CLOCKS “Me“Me rriarr m” ia al m” -Astr al-Astr ulab u iy lab a iya discdi ov se cov rie es that chang ries that chang ed the ed the world world . Str . e St tching retching over th over th ree rcon ee con tine tn in te s,n ftrs om , from Spain and Spain and Mim Mim ar Sin ar an Sin becam an becam e e Al-JAl- azar Jazar i’s Eil’s ephan Elephan t t wasw sas kil le sk d il le atd m aa t ki m n ag ki ve ng r y very norno thern A rthern A fricfa th rica th rough the Middle Ea rough the Middle Ea st ts o Indon t to Indon esia and esia and Chin Chin a, Mu a, Mu slim slim civili ciz va ili tion zation famous famous in 16 in t h-cen 16th-cen tury tury Clock Clock is an is example an example of of accu arat ccue rat astr e a o str lab o es lab , co esm- , com- WINGED WINGED cont cont ribu rt ibu ed tt e o ad d to ad vanc vanc es in es in sciesnc cie enc , math e, math ema et ma icst , m icse , m dic ein die c,in te echn , techn olog oy l,o a gr ychi , artchi ect tu er ce t,ure, Turkey Tur key for for des ign desiign ng ing the the ingen ingen ious i ou mecha s mecha nica n lical plex plex gadge gadge ts fo ts r fo findin r findin g g and mo and mo re. Ch re.e Ch ck out the map eck out the map for hig for hig hligh hligh ts of things ts of things inve in nv te en d or di ted or di scov se cov red ered interests. W elcome P te o the Golden Age of Mu rhap slim cs iviliz att ion, during which her mee n and womi es n of a FLIGHT FLIGHT SELIMIYE MECHANICAL ASTROLABES talle ta r lle and r a w nd ider wi der dome dome d d devi dev cesi ce crs e a cted rea ted during during direct direct ions, io t ns, ell in tell g in time g time , , in this period. in this period. different faiths and cultures worked together to create thousands of inventions and ’Abbas ’Ab bas ibn iF bn irna Firna s s roofs roofs than than eve r eve befo r befo re. re. this golden age this golden age . . andan ob d s e ob rv sin er g v in the g t su he n sun MOSQUE CLOCKS “Merriam” al-Astrulabiya discoveries that changed the world. Stretching over three continents, from Spain and experiment experiment ed w ed it h w fl ityi h n flg ying Mimar Sinan became (page (page s 52–53 s 52–53 ) ) (pages (pages 38– 38 39– ) 39) andan star d star s. (p sa . ges (pa ges 24– 24 25– ) 25) Al-Jazari’s Elephant was skilled at making very northern Africa through the Middle East to Indonesia and China, Muslim civilization using a form of glider using a form of glider . . famous in 16th-century Clock is an example of accurate astrolabes, com- MAP KEY MAP KEY WINGED contributed to advances in science, mathematics, medicine, technology, architecture, (page (page s 30 s– 30 31) – 31) Turkey for designing the ingenious mechanical plex gadgets for finding HOUSE HOUSE FLIGHT Lands under Mus Lands under Mus lim contr lim contr ol at v ol at v arious arious and more. Check out the map for highlights of things invented or discovered EUR EUROPE OPE Balk Balk an an taller and wider domed devices created during directions, telling time, time ts f ime rom the 7th ce s from the 7th ce ntur ntu y onw ry onw ard ard future doctor in your class—he ’Abbas ibn Firnas OF WISDOM OF WISDOM in this period. PenPe inn su in la sula roofs than ever before. this golden age. and observing the sun Bosporus Bosporus Iberian Iberian experimented with flying In tI he n te he arle y arl 9ty h c 9t e h c ntu ent ryury Point of int Point of int ereser t est Edirne Edirne (pages 52–53) (pages 38–39) and stars. (pages 24–25) PenPe inn su in la sula Istanbul Istanbul using a form of glider. the tthe op tsop cies n ctiie sn tt s a ist ns a d nd Other c Other c ity ity MAP KEY Valencia Valencia Toledo Toledo Ana An toa litaolia (pages 30–31) scholars scholars from from many many Greec Gre eece HOUSE Córdob Córdob a a regions of the Mu regions of the Mu slimslim Lands under Muslim control at various Diyarb Diyarb akirakir EUR OPE Balkan Sicily Sicily times from the 7th century onward worw ld og rla d the gar the ed r at ed the at the OF WISDOM ATAT L ALNATNIT CI C Peninsula Granada Granada Alepp Ale o pp (no o w Ha (now Ha lab)lab) Bosporus or she might enjoy learning Iberian HouH se o ous f e o Wif sd W om isdom to st tud o sy tud , y, In the early 9th century Point of interest Edirne OCEAN OCEAN Crete Crete Cyprus Cyprus Mesopot Mesopot amia amia Peninsula ZH ZH ENG ENG HEH ’S E’S debd ae te b,a and te, and ma m ke a n k e e wnew Istanbul the top scientists and FezFez Other city Damascus Damascus Baghdad Baghdad Valencia Toledo discdi ov se cr ov ie e sr . (pages 32 ies. (pages 32 –33) – 33) WO W O O DEN ODEN An S atHIP oS liHIP aS S scholars from many Córdoba Greece Zheng Zheng He became He became Kufa Kufa PERPER SIASIA regions of the Muslim Sicily Diyarbakir adm adm iral iof ral t of he tChines he Chines e e world gathered at the (now Ir (now Ir an)an) A A AT S S L A N T I C I I A A AL-IDRISI’S AL-IDRISI’S Cair C oairo Granada Aleppo (now Halab) fleeflee t, sa ti,ling sailing in the in the ear lear y ly House of Wisdom to study, WORLD MAP WORLD MAP OCEAN Crete Cyprus Mesopotamia about the Muslim d ZH e ENG vHe E’Slopments WINDMILLS WINDMILLS 1400s 1400s the tb he igge bigge st st debate, and make new SURGICAL SURGICAL Egypt Egypt Fez Long Long before before Chr i Chr stophe istophe r r Damascus Baghdad wooden wooden ships ships the the discoveries. (pages 32–33) WOODEN SHIPS FiveF ive hun hu dre nd d rye ed ar ye s ars INSTRUMENTS INSTRUMENTS Columbus Columbus set s set ail ,s Mus ail, Mus lim lim Zheng He became worwo ld had rld had ever ever seen seen . . Kufa befo br efo e w rin e dm winidm lls ills PERSIA As fA as r f ba ar ck a back a s the s t1he 0th 10th schola schola r Al-Id r Al-Id risi r crea isi crea tedted admiral of the Chinese appe appe ared ar in ed Europe in Europe , the , y they (page (page s 64–65 s 64–65 ) ) (now Iran) A S I A AL-IDRISI’S Cairo cenc tu en ry t,u d ro yc , d to or cs to in rs th in ethe an a an tla a st s la howi s showi ng Europe, ng Europe, fleet, sailing in the early werwe e ar e commo a commo n sigh n si t gh int in Mecca Mecca WORLD MAP MusMu lim slw im orw ld ow rld orw ke od rkw eid th with Asia, A s and ia, and Nort Nort h Afr h iAfr ca.ica. WINDMILLS 1400s the biggest ArAr a bai a b n i a n parts of parts of SURGICAL the tMus he Mus lim li wo mrld wo .rld. Egypt Long before Christopher in surgical instruments surg si u cr a g l it co ao l lts. o Some ols. Some look look (page (page s 62–63 s 62–63 ) ) wooden ships the (pages (pa ges 84– 84– 85) 85) Five hundred years Sea Sea INSTRUMENTS Columbus set sail, Muslim simi sliar m it lar o t t ho os te ho w se e we PAPA C IC F II C F I C world had ever seen. before windmills use u ts oe da to y.d (pages ay. (pages 46–47 46–47 ) ) As far back as the 10th scholar Al-Idrisi created India India (pages 64–65) OCEAN OCEAN appeared in Europe, they OLDE OLDE STST DIS DIS TILL TILL ATA ION TION century, doctors in the an atlas showing Europe, Mecca were a common sight in UN U IV NE IV RSI ERSI TYT Y Jabi Ja r i bi bn r iH ba nyya Han yyan Muslim world worked with Asia, and North Africa. Ar a b i a n parts of the Muslim world. Mocha Mocha Fatim Faa tim al- aF a ih l-rFiih finan ri finan cedced perfecte perfecte d the d td he ist d ilis lat til io lat n ion surgical tools. Some look (pages 62–63) SouSo thu C th h iC nh aina (pages 84–85) SeaSea Sea and techniques from as far and an sud ps eu rp vie sr ev d i ste hd e the proces proces s, wh s,i ch wh i ich s st is il lstill similar to those we PA C I F I C buildin buildin g of g of the t Al he - Al- used u sie nd t he in tc he rea ct rion eat ion of of use today. (pages 46–47) India OCEAN OLDEST DISTILLATION Qara Qw ar iy aiw ni m yin o m sque osque in Fi e n z,Fez, perfume, perfume, gaso gla in so el,ine, UNIVERSITY Jabir ibn Hayyan MorMo occo ro,cco 1,150 , 1,1y 50 ear ys ea ar gs oago AFRIC AFRICAA plaspl tic as st , ic an s,d a mo nd r mo e. re. Mindanao Mindanao Mocha Fatima al-Fihri financed perfected the distillation South China that t ha is t n o isw nt ohe w tw he orl w d’ os rld’s (page (pa s ge 20–21 s 20–21 ) ) Sea and supervised the process, which is still olde osld t e as ct t ia vc e tu ivn e iv u er nis vier ty. sity. CACA ME ME RARA COFFEE COFFEE back as the 10th century. building of the Al- used in the creation of (pages (pages 16–17 16–17 ) ) A 9tA h-ce 9th-ce ntur ny tu Ar b y y s Asin bys ia sin n ian OB OB SCS UR CUR A A Qarawiyin mosque in Fez, perfume, gasoline, saw sea aw t iea ngt i coffee ng coffee bean bean s s Ibn Ibn al-H al- aytham’s Haytham’s expe expe ri- ri- Borneo Borneo Morocco, 1,150 years ago AFRIC A plastics, and more. Mindanao ener egi ne zr egi d z his ed go his a ts go .ats. men me ts n wi ts t h wi litght h li ght in a in a that is now the world’s (pages 20–21) Dem Dem anda for nd t for he t b he ean bs eans dark da room rk room (“camer (“camer a a oldest active university. COFFEE made m a Mocha, in Yemen, de Mocha, in Yemen, CAMERA obscu obscu ra” r in a” Latin in Latin ) pave ) pave d d INDIAN OCEAN INDIAN OCEAN (pages 16–17) A 9th-century Abyssinian the t ch he ie ch f t ir ea f d ting rad ing por t. port. OBSCURA Budding architects will find the the way way for fo mo r d mo ern dern saw eating coffee beans (page (pa s ge 80– s 8 80– 1) 8 1 ) Ibn al-Haytham’s experi- Borneo camera camera s. (pages s. (pages 34–35 34–35 ) ) energized his goats. ments with light in a ATAT L ALNATNIT CI C Demand for the beans dark room (“camera made Mocha, in Yemen, obscura” in Latin) paved INDIAN OCEAN OCEAN OCEAN the chief trading port. the way for modern (pages 80–81) the information about the cameras. (pages 34–35) AT L A N T I C OCEAN 10 11 Suleymaniye Mosque a good fit. The Golden Age of Muslim Civilization At the start of this guide, there are suggestions for a number of activities related to the book. Following the interactive experiences, there are specific activities and projects that enhance and explore information presented on particular subjects. Presenting Students’ Favorite Facts COLLECT The facts identified for each of the subject areas in 1001 Inventions THE MOST & Awesome Facts from Muslim Civilization are fascinating to read FASCINATING and consider, but perhaps too numerous for students to learn and FACTS remember them all. Let each student decide what is most interesting to him or her. Students should keep a running list of “favorite” facts—facts that are most surprising or facts that they feel have had an important impact on history and the present day. Set a goal of 25 facts per student. As you come to the end of your classwork with 1001 Inventions, ask each student to select two facts and prepare a brief presentation to the class about why he or she found these particular bits of information so compelling. These facts can be placed on tags and hung up around the room or on a bulletin board. 4 n n n S S S e e e a a a G G G u u u l l l f f f o o o f f f A A A d d d e e e n n n35 Quizzily Questions TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE To keep track of how well students are absorbing and remembering what they are reading and studying in 1001 Inventions, have them answer factual questions such as those included here over the period you are working with the book. It’s fine for them to look up the answers; actually, that’s the point. The more they read and review the material, the more of it they will understand and make “their own.” FACTS ABOUT TOWNS (Pages 12–13) 1 Markets, homes, and bathhouses (called hammams) were neatly arranged around what building in Muslim towns? ANSWER: The mosque Kalyan Mosque, Bukhara, Uzbekistan FACTS ABOUT GARDENS (Pages 14–15) 2 Why were gardens important to Muslims? SAMPLE ANSWER: Gardens represented Paradise on Earth and were places to sit and think. Longwood Gardens, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 5FACTS ABOUT SCHOOLS (Pages 16–17) 3 Name the four kinds of schools in Muslim civilization. ANSWER: Regular (primary) schools, houses of readers (high schools or madrasas), houses of hadiths (religious schools), and medical schools. FACTS ABOUT FASHION (Pages 18–19) 4 Who was Ziryab? SAMPLE ANSWER: Ziryab was a 9th-century musician and stylist from Baghdad who came to Cordoba subsequently influencing trends throughout Europe and North Africa. FACTS ABOUT CHESS (Pages 22–23) 5 How long have people been playing chess? ANSWER: For more than 1,000 years Chessboard 6FACTS ABOUT THE MOON (Pages 26–27) 6 Why is the crescent moon important to scholars and followers of Islam? SAMPLE ANSWER: Ramadan and other months in the Islamic calendar begin on the crescent moon. Moon during lunar eclipse 7 What kind of calendar do Muslims use? ANSWER: Lunar, called Hijri FACTS ABOUT CONSTELLATIONS (Pages 28–29) 8 What groundbreaking observation did Abd al- Rahman al-Sufi record in 964, and what information about each of the constellations did he provide? SAMPLE ANSWER: He recorded the first star system outside of the Milky Way galaxy, recognized later as the Andromeda galaxy. He also recorded the size, color, and position of 48 constellations. 7FACTS ON FLIGHT (Pages 30–31) 9 What two amazing feats in flight did ’Abbas ibn Firnas accomplish? SAMPLE ANSWER: He made the first recorded parachute jump and used the first known hang glider. Chinese red dragon kite FACTS ABOUT THE HOUSE OF WISDOM (Pages 32–33) 10 What is the Bayt al-hikma, and what does it tell us about Muslim civilization? SAMPLE ANSWER: The Bayt al-hikma was a place of learning in the Muslim world that had a massive library that included materials from throughout the known world as well as works by Muslim scholars. The House of Wisdom shows that the Muslim civilization valued learning and knowledge. VISION FACTS (Pages 34–35) 11 What are Ibn al-Haytham’s foundational contributions to the present-day understanding of vision? SAMPLE ANSWER: Ibn al-Haytham questioned earlier theories of vision and carried out detailed optical experiments that showed that we see because of light reflecting from objects, not emanating from our eyes. View through a camera lens with an open shutter 8NUMBER FACTS (Pages 36–37) 12 Al-Khwarizmi’s name is associated with which branch of mathematics? ANSWER: Algebra 13 Why were Arabic numerals also called ghubari numbers? SAMPLE ANSWER: Muslims once used dust (ghubar) boards to make calculations. FACTS ABOUT CLOCKS (Pages 38–39) 14 Why was timekeeping so essential to Muslims? SAMPLE ANSWER: They had to know when it was time to perform the five daily prayers. Modern clock mechanisms 9FACTS ABOUT GAMES (Pages 40–41) 15 Name three inventions of the Banu Musa brothers. SAMPLE ANSWER: Early robots, the on-off switch, and the gas mask FACTS ABOUT MEDICINE (Pages 44–45) 16 Name three medical specialties practiced in the countries and towns of Muslim civilization. SAMPLE ANSWER: Pediatrics, ophthalmology, and surgery FACTS ABOUT SURGERY (Pages 46–47) 17 Who is considered by Muslims as the “father of modern surgery”? Name three things he did to earn this title. SAMPLE ANSWER: Muslims consider Al-Zahrawi as the “father of modern surgery” because he created many surgical tools, including the scalpel; he used catgut to make internal stitches in patients; and he wrote a medical book that was translated into Latin so that European doctors could use it. 10FACTS ABOUT EARTH SCIENCE (Pages 48–49) 18 What are four areas of earth science in which scholars of Muslim civilization did pioneering work? SAMPLE ANSWER: Geology, meteorology, botany, and zoology Sand dunes of Erg Chebbi, in Morocco FACTS ABOUT ARCHITECTURE (Pages 52–53) 19 What are three hallmarks of Muslim civilization’s architecture? SAMPLE ANSWER: Domes, arches, and towers Inside of Suleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey FACTS ABOUT POTTERY (Pages 54–55) 20 What was the “luster” technique? SAMPLE ANSWER: The luster process made clay items look like they were made from precious metals. 11FACTS ABOUT ART AND DESIGN (Pages 56–57) 21 What is “arabesque” art? SAMPLE ANSWER: Arabesque art is a type of geometric art. FACTS ABOUT PENS AND PAPER (Pages 60–61) 22 How did people in Muslim civilization learn about papermaking? ANSWER: From captured Chinese soldiers FACTS ABOUT GEOGRAPHY (Pages 62–63) 23 Why would a map made during Muslim civilization look upside down to people today? SAMPLE ANSWER: Maps made during this time usually put the south on the top of the map and the north on the bottom, the opposite of how maps are created today. 1224 What were two of Piri Reis’s contributions to geography and navigation? SAMPLE ANSWER: Piri Reis created a very accurate “Map of the Americas” and a second map of the northwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean that included Newfoundland off the east coast of Canada. FACTS ABOUT EXPLORATION (Pages 64–65) 25 Whose famous journeys introduced the giraffe to China? ANSWER: Zheng He FACTS ABOUT TRADE AND MONEY (Pages 68–69) 26 What was the Silk Route? SAMPLE ANSWER: The Silk Route was a 7,000- mile-long trade route that connected China to markets in the Muslim world and Europe. 13FACTS ABOUT WAR AND WEAPONS (Pages 72–73) 27 Describe Sultan Mehmed II’s cannon. Where can it be seen today? SAMPLE ANSWER: The bronze cannon weighed 18 tons and had to be made in two pieces and screwed together. It was more than 17 feet long and more than two feet in diameter, and its barrel was almost 10 feet long. It can be seen today at the Fort Nelson Museum in Portsmouth, England. 28 What did Muslim civilization call “the egg which moves itself and burns when it hits the target”? ANSWER: The torpedo FACTS ABOUT CASTLES AND KEEPS (Pages 74–75) 29 What is the advantage of a round tower over a square tower? SAMPLE ANSWER: An approaching enemy could be seen coming from any direction from a round tower, and there were no corners for an enemy to hide behind. Citadel in Aleppo (now Halab), Syria 14FACTS ABOUT COMMUNICATION (Pages 76–77) 30 Al-Kindi developed a way to break codes called “frequency analysis.” Using that method, what letter in English is the most frequently used? Describe how knowing that information can help break a code. SAMPLE ANSWER: The most common letter used is “e.” Once the symbol or substitute letter being used to represent the letter “e” is known, then the code breaker can work backward to figure out other letters in a word, like “be” or “we” or “me,” until all of the code is broken. FACTS ABOUT FARMS (Pages 78–79) 31 Name three new crops farmers grew as Muslim civilization developed agriculture. SAMPLE ANSWER: Rice, sugarcane, and saffron FACTS ABOUT COFFEE (Pages 80–81) 32 What port was the center of the coffee trade between the 15th and 17th centuries? ANSWER: Moccha 15WATER FACTS (Pages 82–83) 33 What are qanats? SAMPLE ANSWER: Qanats were tunnels that carried water long distances underground so that it wouldn’t evaporate. 34 What was Al-Jazari’s contribution to the delivery of water for irrigation and sanitation? SAMPLE ANSWER: Al-Jazari designed water- driven suction pumps that replaced animal power with water power and gears to improve irrigation and sanitation. WINDMILL FACTS (Pages 84–85) 35 In what country were windmills first developed, and why was this country especially suited to their use? SAMPLE ANSWER: Windmills were first developed in Persia. The country was especially suited to their use because steady winds blow across the region’s deserts. 16GARDEN POETRY ACTIVITY Facts About Gardens That Will Grow on You (Pages 14–15) Gardens were important to Muslim civilization. They served as a symbol of an earthly Paradise, they added beauty to mosques and to towns, they offered shade, they were a place to grow food, and they provided a quiet place for reflection. Gardens also inspired a form of poetry called rawdhiya. Arrange a class trip to a local botanical garden or nursery. Ask an expert at the garden or nursery to speak to students about the plants they are observing so they will be able to differentiate and better appreciate them. Students should take photographs or sketch the plants and flowers they learn about. Once back in the classroom, ask students to write a poem about one of the trees, shrubs, or flowers they saw. Encourage them to make the poems sensory, so that they convey to readers how the plant looks, feels, and smells, and how it made the poet observer feel. After the poems are completed, hold a poetry reading and perhaps create an online slide-show with the photos, sketches, and poems. Students also could compile the poems into an anthology that could stay in the classroom or be displayed in the school library for the larger student body. If possible, make copies of the anthology for each student to keep. Learn more about this culture’s love of gardens: “Islamic Aesthetics, Gardens and Nature.” FSTC Research Team, 2007. www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=654 “Abbasid Gardens in Baghdad and Samarra.” Qasim Al-Samarrai, 2002. www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=316 A. Watson, “Gardens of Islam,” in Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World; Cambridge University Press, 1983; pp. 117-8. www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=309 17CONSTELLATION MYTHOLOGY REPORT Stellar Facts About Constellations (Pages 28–29) Since ancient times the stars and other celestial bodies have fascinated humans. Many cultures named the groups of stars they saw and told mythical stories about the fixed star patterns of the night sky. These star patterns are called constellations. Muslim astronomers built observatories to study the stars, the moon, and the planets. The Muslim astronomer Al-Sufi wrote a book on these fixed stars that updated the Greek astronomer Ptolemy’s star catalog. For centuries, Al-Sufi’s book was the standard constellation handbook. While modern astronomers map constellations by the boundaries of a group of stars, early astronomers named them for the patterns they saw in them. Have students choose a constellation and write a report on the myths surrounding it. Students also should draw the constellation and tell where and when in the night sky it is likely to be seen. Other things they can report on are: The most prominent star in the constellation The type of star it is—its classification, temperature, etc. A listing of the 48 original constellations and more information can be found at: “Arabic Star Names: A Treasure of Knowledge Shared by the World.” FSTC Research Team, 2007. www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=833 Laffitte, Roland. “Our Arab Heritage in the Celestial Vault” . 2008. www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=934 Schmitz, Marion. “Star names: history.” International Astronomical Union, IAU Commission 5, 2004. http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/IAU/starnames.html “Arabic Star Names.” Jordanian Astronomical Society. www.icoproject.org/star.html 18BUILD YOUR OWN GLIDER ACTIVITY Soaring Facts on Flight (Pages 30–31) Perhaps the first person to attempt to construct a flying machine and take it into the air was Muslim scientist ’Abbas ibn Firnas in the 9th century in Cordoba, Spain. He gained knowledge of flight by studying birds. Today’s students have an advantage over him because they have seen gliders and airplanes in action. Have students create their own glider or paper airplane. They should experiment with different designs, sizes, and weight of paper, and they should try adding an external weight such as a paper clip to the nose or taping a straw to the centerfold to see the effect. For each Chinese red dragon kite change in the design they should record the results, noting which glider design: Stayed in the air longest Had the longest flight Had the straightest flight path Their findings can be entered into a chart like the one below. PAPER AIRPLANE DESIGN Design Design Design Design Design Design 1 2 3 4 5 6 Design description Time in air (seconds) Length of flight (feet or meters) Description of flight path Notes: 19BUILD A PINHOLE CAMERA ACTIVITY Eye-Popping Vision Facts (Pages 34–35) Much of what is known about the eye and vision was influenced by scientists in Muslim civilization beginning in the 9th century. Scientist and philosopher Al-Kindi improved earlier knowledge of optics, and Ibn al-Haytham revolutionized that science. Among other things, he experimented with a pinhole camera. Your students can create their own pinhole cameras—a simple camera without a lens and with a single small aperture. Light passes through the hole and projects an inverted image on the opposite side of the box. 1. The shoebox used in this activity should be 12 inches long by EACH STUDENT WILL NEED: 8 inches wide by 4 inches deep. Measure out a 5 inch by 10 Shoebox inch rectangle on the bottom of the box. Ruler 2. Using the ruler as a straight edge, carefully cut out the Sharpened pencil rectangle with the utility knife. Utility knife 3. Cut a piece of tissue or tracing paper larger than the cut-out Clear adhesive tape rectangle and tape it over the opening. Scissors 4. Draw a 2 inch by 2 inch square in the center of the box’s cover. 3 x 3-inch heavy-duty You can find the center of the cover by drawing two diagonal aluminum foil lines. The place where the lines intersect is the center. Cut White tissue paper or out the 2 inch by 2 inch square. tracing paper 5. Use the sharpened pencil to poke a small hole in the center of Flat (matte) black paint the piece of aluminum foil. (optional) 6. Tape the foil over the square in the cover. Make sure that the Plastic water bottle, foil is completely taped down on all four sides so that light any size will only pass through the hole. 7. As an option, paint the inside of the cover with the flat black paint. 8. Place the cover onto the bottom portion of the box and seal it with tape. 9. The pinhole camera will work best in a darkened room with a strong back light coming through a window. 10. Place an object such as a plastic water bottle on the windowsill. 20