What’s the World’s Greatest Invention?

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UNIT Big Ideas Ac Ad d de e em m miiic P c P c P A A A At t hw hw hw A A A Ay ys Lesson A: Understanding a biographical text Identifying supporting ideas Lesson B: Ranking ideas in order of priority Lesson C: Supporting the main idea and giving details Writing a descriptive paragraph 2 Think and Discuss 1. Do you know any famous inventors? What did they invent? 2. What inventions are you using right now? Tiny silica balls, each one 120 nanometers (0.000000012 m) wide, kill cancer cells in a person’s body. Nanotechnology was invented in the late twentieth century and is used in many modern inventions. 21LESSo N A PREPARINg T o READ A Building Vocabulary. Find the words in blue in the reading passage on pages 25–26. Read the words around them and try to guess their meanings. Then write each word next to its definition. 1. (verb) have enough money to pay for something 2. (verb) gave the energy that something needed in order to work 3. (adjective) able to do tasks well without wasting time or energy 4. (noun) a form of energy that can be used for heating and lighting and to provide energy for machines 5. (noun) energy from the sun’s light and heat 6. (adjective) having the ability to invent and develop new and original ideas 7. (adverb) in the end, especially after a lot of problems 8. (noun) the act of making sure that something does not happen 9. (noun) the things people need for a job, hobby, or sport 10. (noun) a drawing that shows how to make something B Using Vocabulary. Answer the questions. Share your ideas with a partner. 1. Describe one way in which you are creative. 2. What equipment do you use for your job or for your hobby? 3. Solar power is one source of energy. What are some other ways to produce electricity? C Brainstorming. Make a list of things you use every day that require electricity. 1. 5. 2. 6. 3. 7. 4. 8. D Predicting. Read the title and look at the photos on pages 25–26. What do you think the reading is about? Write one sentence. Word Link The suffix -tion can turn some verbs into nouns, e.g., prevent / prevention, define / defini tion, act / action, create / creation, contribute / contribution. 24 UN i t 2READINg PREPARINg T o R EAD Malawi track 1-04 The of Power Creativity Creativity Creativity W W W William illiam illiam illiam K K K K Kam am KW KW KWamba amba amba amba lives in Malawi, Africa, wher lives in Malawi, Africa, wher lives in Malawi, Africa, where most people have to gr e most people have to gr e most people have to grow their own food and ow their own food and ow their own food and 1 have no electricity or running water. Only two percent of Malawians can afford electricity. With no electricity or running water, life is difficult. In 2001, when William was 14 years old, life in Malawi A 2 became even more difficult. There was a severe drought and most families, including William’s, couldn’t grow enough food. He explains, “Within five months all Malawians began to starve to death. My family ate one meal per day, at night.” Because of the drought, William’s family couldn’t afford to send him to school anymore. So one day William went to the library near his home. He wanted to continue his education. William found a science book called Using Energy. It included instructions for building a windmill. Windmills can B be very ef ef efficient ficient ficient sour sources of electricity ces of electricity, and they can bring water up fr , and they can bring water up from under om undergr ground. W ound. William didn’t illiam didn’t know much English, and he wasn’t able to understand most of the book, but it was full of pictures 3 and diagrams. Looking at the pictures, William thought he could build a windmill for his family. W Wiilllliia am u m us se ed d o olld b d biic cy yc clle p e pa ar rt ts s a an nd o d ot th he er t r th hr ro ow wn n- -a away way iit te em ms t s to b o bu uiilld h d hiis w s wiin nd dm miillll. . T Th he fi e fin na al w l wiin nd dm miilll w l wa as 1 s 16 f 6 fe ee et t ((5 m 5 me et te er rs s) t ) ta allll.. 1 1 R Ru un nnin ning g w wa at ter er iis w s wa at te er t r th ha at i t is b s br ro ou ug gh ht i t in nt to a b o a bu uiilld diin ng t g th hr ro ou ug gh p h piip pe es s.. 2 A drought is a long period of time with no rain. 3 Diagrams are drawings that show how something, e.g., a machine, works. BIg ID e as 25LESSo N A READINg When William went home and started building his windmill, a lot of people laughed at him, including his mother. They didn’t think he could do it, but William was confident. He saw the photo of the windmill in the book. That meant someone else was able to build it, so he knew he could build it, too. William was also C creative. He didn’t have the parts and equipment equipment equipment that that he saw in the book’s illustrations, and he couldn’t 4 buy them. So he looked for parts in junkyards. He 5 6 explains, “I found a tractor fan, a shock absorber, 7 7 7 and PVC pipes. Using a bicycle frame . . . , I built Using a bicycle frame . . . , I built my machine.” William changed and improved his design little by little. First, the windmill powered only one lightbulb. Eventually Eventually Eventually, it power , it powered four lights. Then ther ed four lights. Then there was e was D enough electricity for four lights and a radio. No one laughed at William after that, and people in his town started to come to his house to get power for their cell phones. Later, William built a second windmill. This one brought water up from underground. After that, William began to teach other people how to build windmills. He also continued to build more of them himself, including one at a primary school in Malawi. Because of his success with the windmills, William was able to go back to school. He also helped with other projects, including solar power, 8 clean water, and malaria prevention. He wrote a book about his life, The Boy Who Harnessed the E Wind: Creating Currents of Electricity and Hope. In addition, he uses his website, movingwindmills. org, to educate and give hope to people. His main message is this: “To the Africans, and the poor who 9 are struggling with your dreams . . . trust yourself 10 and believe. Whatever happens, don’t give up.” 4 A junkyard is a place where old machines are thrown away. 5 A tractor fan is a machine part that helps cool the engine in a tractor (a vehicle used on farms). 6 A shock absorber is a machine part that helps make a car run smoothly over uneven roads. 7 PVC pipes are tubes made from a plastic material (polyvinyl chloride). 8 Malaria is a disease spread by mosquitoes. 9 If someone is struggling, they are trying hard to do something because it is difficult. 10 If you don’t give up, you don’t stop trying to do something, especially something that is difficult. 26 UN i t 2READINg UNDERSTANDINg T h E READINg A Understanding the Gist. What is the main idea of the reading? Circle the best answer. Then compare with your prediction on page 24. 1. Windmills can create electricity and bring up water from under the ground. 2. In most parts of Malawi, there is no electricity or running water. 3. A young boy used his creativity to bring electricity to his village. B Identifying Key Details. Complete the sentences below with information from the reading. 1. In 2001, life became very challenging for William’s family because . . 2. William found instructions for a windmill in a book called 3. When he started to build his windmill, many people in his village . 4. He knew that he could build the windmill because . 5. After William built his first windmill, people came to his house to . 6. William’s second windmill was able to . C Critical Thinking: Making Connections. Complete the chart below. Fill in the missing problems and solutions. Problems William couldn’t William couldn’t The village needed Other people afford to go to read the book about more water. wanted to school. windmills because build windmills he didn’t know but didn’t much English. know how. Solutions William went to a junkyard. D Personalizing. Write answers to the questions. 1. Name a problem that you solved in your own life. How did you solve the problem? 2. Choose one of the inventions from page 22 or use your own idea. Describe the problem(s) that it solved. Invention: Problem(s) it solved: BIg ID e as 27LESSo N A DEv ELo PINg R EADINg Sk ILLS Reading Skill: Identifying Supporting Ideas Supporting ideas tell more about the main idea. They can do the following: describe give reasons give examples Look at the paragraph from the reading. What does each colored sentence do? When William went home and started building his windmill, a lot of people laughed at him, including his mother. They didn’t think he could do it, but William was confident. He saw the photo of the windmill in the book. That meant someone else was able to build it, so he knew he could build it, too. William was also creative. He didn’t have the parts and equipment that he saw in the book’s illustrations, and he couldn’t buy them. So he looked for parts in junkyards. He explains, “I found a tractor fan, shock absorber, and PVC pipes. Using a bicycle frame … , I built my machine.” The main idea of the paragraph is that William was confident and creative in building his windmill. The green sentences give reasons why William was confident. The blue sentences give examples of how William was creative. And the purple sentences describe how he did it. A Analyzing. Read the information about seat belts below. Write the main idea of the paragraph and the three supporting details Main idea: Supporting detail 1: Supporting detail 2: Supporting detail 3: track 1-05 Many inventions change lives, but Nils Bohlin’s invention has probably helped to save more than a million lives so far. Bohlin invented a new type of seat belt that is in all cars made today. Before Bohlin’s invention, seat belts were buckled across the stomach (see picture). The buckles often caused injuries during high-speed accidents. Bohlin’s seat belt holds the upper buckle u and lower body safely in place, with a buckle at the side. B Identifying Supporting Details. Look back at the reading passage on pages 25–26. Find and underline one supporting detail that gives a reason, one that gives an example, and one that describes. 28 UN i t 2DEv ELo PINg R EADINg Sk ILLS vIEWIN g Solar Cooking Before Viewing absorb alternative d deve evello op piin ng g wo wor rlld d f fu ue el l A Matching. Here are some words you will hear in the video. Write each pollution purify word or phrase next to the correct definition. Use your dictionary to help you. 1. the process of making things such as air and water dirty 2. to take in something, such as gas, liquid, or heat 3. countries or parts of the world that generally have low standards of living 4. to make something clean by removing harmful or dangerous things from it 5. a different choice 6. things that provide heat or energy, such as oil, wood, or gasoline B Brainstorming. Many people in developing countries have to burn wood to cook their food. Why do you think this might be a problem? can cause air pollution While Viewing A Wa at tc ch t h th he v e viid de eo a o ab bo ou ut s t so olla ar c r co oo ok kiin ng g. D . Do oe es i s it m t me en nt tiio on a n an ny o y of t f th he t e th hiin ng gs s that you listed in exercise B a ab bo ov ve e? C ? Ciir rc clle a e an ny i y it te em ms t s th ha at a t ar re m e me en nt tiio on ne ed d.. B As you view the video, think about the answers to these questions. 1. How do solar stoves work? 2. Wh ha at c t ca an a p n a pe er rs so on d n do w o wiit th a s h a so olla ar s r st to ov ve e? W ? Wh ho c o ca an b n be en ne et f t f fifi r ro om t m th he em m? ? 3. How much does a solar stove cost and how long can it last? p Cooking in many african countries is done the traditional After Viewing way, over a wood fire. A Discuss answers to questions 1–3 above with a partner. B Critical Thinking: Synthesizing. In what ways are William Kamkwamba’s windmills and the solar cooker in the video similar? BIg ID e as 29LESSo N B PREPARINg T o READ A Building Vocabulary. Read the sentences below. Use the context to help you identify the part of speech (adjective, noun, verb) and meaning of each bold word. Write your answers. Check your answers in a dictionary. 1. Bottles are useful containers for water and other liquids. They make liquids easy to carry. Part of speech: Meaning: 2. Doctors have many different ways to detect diseases. For example, they can do blood tests or listen to your lungs to learn if you are sick. Part of speech: Meaning: 3. Solar power can benet fi people in the developing world by providing them with free electricity. Part of speech: Meaning: 4. Cell phones can make a noise to indicate that you are receiving a text message. Part of speech: Meaning: 5. There have already been several innovations in this century. Text messaging and the tablet computer are just two examples. Part of speech: Meaning: Word 6. The cell phone is a popular device for things such as communication and Internet Link browsing. For things such as document creation and movie watching, a computer is a The suffix better choice. -able can turn Part of speech: some verbs into adjectives, Meaning: e.g., renew / renewable, detect 7. The sun is a great source of r r re e en n ne e ew w wa a abl bl ble e e e en ne er rg gy b y be ec ca au us se w e we c e ca an n’ ’t u t us se u e up a p alll t l th he s e su un n’ ’s h s he ea at t / detectable, afford / affordable, and light. prevent / preventable. Part of speech: Meaning: 30 UN i t 2PREPARINg T o R EAD 8. Before refrigerators were invented, people could not store fresh meat. Instead, they had to store salted or dried meat. Part of speech: Meaning: 9. Morse code was invented in the 1930s. It is a system of communication that uses long and short sounds. Part of speech: Meaning: 10. The wheel is one of the most v v va a al l lu u ua a abl bl ble e e i in nv ve en nt tiio on ns o s of a f alll t l tiim me e. W . Wiit th ho ou ut i t it t, w , we w e wo ou ulld d probably have to walk or ride on the backs of animals to travel long distances. Part of speech: Meaning: B Using Vocabulary. Answer the questions in complete sentences. Then share your sentences with a partner. 1. What do you think is the most valuable innovation of the last 10 years? Why? 2. What are some examples of r r re e en n ne e ew w wa a abl bl ble e e e en ne er rg gy? y? 3. What devices do you use every day? 4. What kinds of things i i in n nd d dic ic icat at ate e e a p a pe er rs so on n’ ’s m s mo oo od d? ? 5. What system do you use for remembering your schedule? Strategy Use clues in titles, headings, C Predicting. Look at the photos, and read the title, subheads, and opening paragraph pictures, and of the reading passage on pages 32–33. What do you think is the purpose of each of captions to get the items described? Discuss your ideas with a partner. a quick sense of what you will Infant Warmer read. As you read in more Water Container detail, check whether your Portable Clay Cooler predictions were correct. Health Detector Solar Wi-Fi Light BIg ID e as 31LESSo N A READINg track 1-06 Big Ideas: Little Packages Can simple idea s change the world? They just might, one new idea at a time. Creative designers and scientists are working to invent A products for communities in developing countries. Some of their innovations might solve even the biggest problems—from health care to clean water. Infant Warmer Around 19 million low-birthweight babies are born every year in developing countries. These babies weigh less than 5.5 pounds (2.5 B kilograms) when they’re born. Low-birthweight babies are often 1 u un na ab blle t e to k o ke eep t ep th he eiir b r bo ody t dy te em mp pe er ra at tu ur re es s warm enough. Many get t to oo c o co olld a d an nd d d diie e. T . Th he E e Em mb br ra ac ce I e In nf fa an nt W t Wa ar rm me er h r he ellp ps k s ke eep ep t th he es se b e ba ab biie es w s wa ar rm m. D . De ev ve ello op pe er J r Ja an ne Ch e Che en s n sa ay ys s, “ , “O Ov ve er t r th he e n ne ex xt fi t fiv ve y e ye ea ar rs s, w , we h e ho op pe t e to s o sa av ve t e th he l e liiv ve es o s of a f allm mo os st a t a m milli illio on n b ba ab biie es s..” ” tt “ “W We h e ho op pe t e th ha at t t th he e embrace Infant Warmer represents a n ne ew t w tr re en nd f d fo or t r th he f e fu ut tu ur re o e of t f te ec ch hn no ollo og gy y,,” s ” say ays d s de ev ve ello op pe er r J Ja an ne C e Ch he en n. “ . “s imple, localized, affordable solutions that p Developers of the embrace h ha av ve t e th he p e po ot te en nt tiia al t l to m o ma ak ke a h e a hu ug ge s e so oc ciia al i l im mp pa ac ct t..” ” Infant Warmer (left to right): Naganand Murty, Linus Liang, Rahul Panicker, Jane Chen. Water Container I In p n po oo or a r ar re ea as s, p , pe eo op plle o e of ft te en h n ha av ve t e to w o wa allk s k se ev ve er ra al m l miille es t s to g o ge et c t clle ea an n w w wa a at t te e er r r. U . U . Us s su u ua a alllllly y y, w , w , wo o om m me e en a n a n an n nd c d c d ch h hiiillld d dr r re e en h n h n ha a av v ve t e t e to c o c o ca a ar r rr r ry h y h y he e ea a av v vy y y containers C o of w f wa at te er h r ho om me e e ev ve er ry d y da ay y, a , an nd i d it i t is d s diif ffific cu ullt w t wo or rk k. T . Th he Q D e Q Dr ru um h m ho olld ds s 1 13 g 3 ga allllo on ns ( s (a ab bo ou ut 5 t 50 l 0 liit te er rs s) i ) in a r n a ro olllliin ng c g co on nt ta aiin ne er r. W . Wiit th t h th hiis s iin nn no ov va at tiio on n, p , pe eo op plle c e ca an e n ea as siilly r y ro olll t l th he w e wa at te er o r on t n th he g e gr ro ou un nd. d. 1 Your body temperature i is h s ho ow h w ho ot o t or h r ho ow c w co olld yo d you ur b r bo od dy i y is s.. 32 UN i t 2READINg Portable Clay Cooler The pot-in-pot system is a good way to store food without using electricity. The user puts wet sand between two pots, one fitting D D 2 inside the other. The water evaporates and keeps food cool. That helps food stay fresh longer. For example, tomatoes can last weeks instead of just days. That way, people can buy more fresh fruits and vegetables at the market, and farmers can make more money. Health Detector Scientist Hayat Sindi’s device is the size of a postage stamp, and it costs just a penny. But it could save millions of lives. In many parts of the world, doctors and nurses work with no electricity or clean water. They have 3 to send health tests to labs and wait weeks E for results. But this little piece of paper could change that. It contains tiny holes that are filled with chemicals. These chemicals can detect health problems. A person places a single drop of blood on the paper. The chemicals in the paper change because of the blood and indicate w wh he et th he er o r or n r no ot t t th he p e pe er rs so on h n ha as a s an i n illlln ne es ss s. . s audi-born inventor, Hayat s indi, presenting her invention at the 2009 PopTech conference. s s o olla ar W r Wii- -F Fi L i Liig gh ht t T Th he S e St ta ar rS Siig gh ht s t sy ys st te em i m is a s an i n in nn no ov va at tiio on t n th ha at c t ca an n benet fi millions of people around the world. It a ab bs so or rb bs s s so olla ar e r en ne er rg gy d y du ur riin ng t g th he d e da ay t y to p o po ow we er s r st tr re ee et tlla am mp ps a s at n t niig gh ht t. T . Th he s e so olla ar p r pa an ne ells a s alls so p o po ow we er r F w wiir re elle es ss I s In nt te er rn ne et a t ac cc ce es ss s. T . Th he r e re es su ullt t: : renewable electricity for better street lighting and faster c co om mm mu un niic ca at tiio on n. T . Th hiis c s ca an b n be e e ex xt tr re em me elly y valuable in places where it is difficult to get electricity. 2 When a liquid e ev va apor porat ate es s, it changes to a gas as its temperature increases. 3 Labs a ar re l e la ab bo or ra at to or riie es, p s, plla ac ce es w s wh he er re s e sc ciie en nt tiifific r c re es se ea ar rc ch i h is d s do on ne e.. BIg ID e as 33LESSo N B UNDERSTANDINg T h E READINg A Understanding the Gist. Look back at your answers for exercise C on page 31. Were your predictions correct? B Identifying Key Details. Read the following sentences about the reading on pages 32–33. For each sentence, circle T (true), F (false), or NG (the information is not given in the passage). 1. The infant warmer was invented to help low-birthweight babies. T F NG 2. In poor areas, men and teenage boys usually carry water home. T F NG 3. The portable clay cooler will cause farmers to make less money T F NG because people won’t have to buy vegetables every day. 4. Hayat Sindi’s low-tech diagnostic device is made of paper. T F NG 5. Each solar W Each solar W Each solar Wi-Fi light can pr i-Fi light can provide electricity for 10 to 20 homes ovide electricity for 10 to 20 homes T F NG at a time. C Identifying Supporting Ideas. Find supporting details in the reading to answer each question below. 1. What is the reason that low-birthweight babies need infant warmers? 2. What can the Q Drum hold? 3. How does the portable clay cooler work? 4. What is one reason that people need Hayat Sindi’s diagnostic tool? 5. What is an example of how the solar Wi-Fi light can benet p fi eople? CT Focus To rank items in order, first D Critical Thinking: Ranking and Justifying. Which of the innovations from pages 32–33 decide on do you think is the most important? Which is the least important? Rank them 1–5, with 1 as your criteria for ranking, the most important. Then talk with a partner and explain your choices. e.g., how many people you Infant Warmer Portable Clay Cooler Solar Wi-Fi Light think will be able to afford Water Container Health Detector the item, or how many lives might be saved E Critical Thinking: Synthesizing. Discuss this question in small groups: How is the or improved. clay cooler described in the reading similar to, and different from, the solar cooker shown in the video? 34 UN i t 2LESSo N C Ex PLo RINg W RITTEN ENg LISh UNDERSTANDINg T h E READINg GOAL: I n this lesson, you are going to plan, write, revise, and edit a paragraph. Your topic is: Choose an innovation—one from this unit or one you have used yourself. Describe the need it filled and how it changed people’s lives. A Read the information in the box. Then use the simple past tense of the verbs in parentheses to complete the sentences (1–7). Language for Writing: Review of the s imple Past We use the simple past tense to talk about events that began and ended in the past. According to historians, a man named Ts’ai Lun iiinve nve nven n nt t te e ed d d p pa ap pe er i r in C n Ch hiin na a a ar ro ou un nd AD 1 d AD 10 05 5. . Before that time, people didn’t have inexpensive material to write on. People wrote on things such as silk and clay, which were expensive and inconvenient. To form the simple past tense of be: • use was or were to form affirmative statements. • use w w wa a as n s n s no o ot t t / / wasn’t or w w we e ere n re n re no o ot t t / / w w wer er eren en en’’’t t t t to f o fo or rm n m ne eg ga at tiiv ve s e st ta at te em me en nt ts s. . To form the simple past tense with other verbs: • add -e -e -ed d d t to t o th he e e en nd o d of m f mo os st v t ve er rb bs t s to f o fo or rm a m afffifir rm ma at tiiv ve s e st ta at te em me en nt ts s. . • use d d diiid n d n d no o ot t t / / di di didn dn dn’’’t t t w wiit th t h th he b e ba as se f e fo or rm o m of a m f a ma aiin v n ve er rb t b to f o fo or rm n m ne eg ga at tiiv ve s e st ta at te em me en nt ts s.. Some verbs have irregular past tense forms in affirmative statements: g g go o o—w —w —we e en n nt t t ha ha hav v ve e e— — —ha ha had d d make—made t t ta a ak k ke e e—t —t —to o oo o ok k k d d do— o— o—d d diiid d d build—built For more explanation and examples, see page 215. was E E Ex x xa a am m mp p pl l le: e: e: I In 2 n 20 00 01 1, t , th he er re e (be) a drought in Malawi and most people didn’t have (not / have) enough food. 1. Most people in William Kamkwamba’s village (not / have) electricity. 2. William (go) to the library. 3. He (find ) a book there called Using Energy. 4. William (use) the information in the book and he (build) a windmill. 5. When he (start), people (not / believe) that he could do it. 6. William (not / be) worried. He (be) confident. 7. After a while, he (be) successful. His windmill (make) electricity. B Applying. Write five sentences using the simple past tense. Describe things that people did not do 50 years ago, but that you do today. BIg ID e as 35LESSo N C Ex Ex PLo RINg W RITTEN ENg LISh C Brainstorming. Brainstorm a list of innovations that you think are important. Use ideas from this unit or your own ideas. D Journal Writing. Use your ideas from exercise C to write a response in your journal to the following question. Write for three minutes. W W Wh hiic ch i h in nn no ov va ati tio on ns c s ca au us se ed th d the b e big igg ge es st c t ch ha an ng ge es i s in p n pe eo op plle e’’s l s liiv ve es s? ? Writing Skill: Supporting the Main Idea and Giving Details Good paragraphs include supporting ideas that give information and details about the main idea. These sentences can give descriptions, reasons, or examples to help the reader clearly understand the main idea. E Identifying Supporting Ideas. Match each topic sentence with three supporting sentences. Write A A A o or r B for each one. Two sentences are extra. T T Topic Sentence A: opic Sentence A: About 900 million people need access to safe drinking water, and a simple invention may be the answer to this problem. T T Topic Sentence B: opic Sentence B: The solar-powered MightyLight is a safe and clean source of lighting that can provide light to millions of people around the world. a. The LifeStraw provides instant clean water, saving lives during disasters. b. Y Y Yo ou s u sh ho ou ulld d d dr riin nk a k ab bo ou ut e t eiig gh ht g t glla as ss se es o s of w f wa at te er a d r a da ay y.. c. The MightyLight is safer and cleaner than traditional kerosene lamps. d. Each straw purifies about 160 gallons of water. e. It’s easy to carry, and you can hang it on a wall or place it on a tabletop. f. Candles don’t provide much light. g. It also lasts longer—its LED technology is good for up to 30 years. h. Thousands of LifeStraws were donated to Haiti after the 2010 earthquake. F Now use the sentences in exercise E to write two paragraphs. 36 UN i t 2Ex PLo RINg W RITTEN ENg LISh WRITINg T ASk : Drafting A Planning. Follow the steps to make notes for your paragraph. Don’t write complete sentences. Pay attention to the content more than the grammar or spelling. Step 1: From your brainstorming notes on page 36, choose an innovation to write about. Step 2: Write a topic sentence that will introduce your paragraph. Step 3: Look at your brainstorming notes again. Complete the chart. Outline Topic: Choose an invention. What need did it fill, and how did it change people’s lives? Topic Sentence Supporting Idea What is one way that the innovation changed people’s lives? Detail(s) (one or two points) Supporting Idea What is another way that the innovation changed people’s lives? Detail(s) (one or two points) B Draft 1. Use your notes to write a first draft of your paragraph. BIg ID e as 37LESSo N C WRITINg T ASk : Revising C Analyzing. The paragraphs below are on the topic of an innovation. Which is the first draft? Which is the revision? a The car is one of the most important inventions in history. Before the car was invented, most people used horses to travel long distances, and they didn’t travel very quickly. For example, a person on a horse could travel an average of 50–60 miles in a day. People traveling by horse and carriage could go 20–30 miles in a day. Because it was difficult to travel far, most people stayed in their own towns and villages their whole lives. Families stayed in the same place for generations. Now that we have cars, it only takes an hour to go 60 miles. Because it’s so easy to travel long distances, people can work 60 miles away from home if they want to. And they can live almost anywhere they want. Because of the car, people have many more opportunities to shape their lives than they used to. b The car is one of the most important inventions in history. The first real car factory opened in 1902. Before the car was invented, most people used horses to travel long distances, and they didn’t travel very quickly. For example, a person on a horse could travel an average of 50–60 miles in a day. People traveling by horse and carriage could go 20–30 miles in a day. A horse can go up to 40 miles per hour, but it gets tired after just a few miles. If the horse goes more slowly, it can travel for a longer period of time without getting tired. Now that we have cars, it only takes an hour to go 60 miles. Because it’s so easy to travel long distances, people can work 60 miles away from home if they want to. And they can live almost anywhere they want. Because of the car, people have many more opportunities to shape their lives than they used to. D Analyzing. Work with a partner. Compare the paragraphs above by answering the following questions about each one. a b 1. Does the paragraph have one main idea? Y N Y N 2. Does the topic sentence introduce the main idea? Y N Y N 3. Does the paragraph include 2–3 supporting ideas? Y N Y N 4. Does the paragraph include 1–2 details for each Y N Y N supporting idea? 5. Is there any information that doesn’t belong? Y N Y N 6. Does the paragraph use the past tense correctly? Y N Y N E Revising. Answer the questions in exercise D about your own paragraph. 38 UN i t 2WRITINg TASk: Revising WRITINg T ASk : Editing F Peer Evaluation. Exchange your draft with a partner and follow these steps: Step 1 Read your partner’s paragraph and tell him or her one thing that you liked about it. Step 2 Complete the chart below with information from your partner’s paragraph. Topic Sentence Supporting Idea What is one way that the innovation changed people’s lives? Detail(s) (one or two points) Supporting Idea What is another way that the innovation changed people’s lives? Detail(s) (one or two points) Step 3 Compare your chart with the chart your partner completed on page 37. Step 4 The two charts should be similar. If they aren’t, discuss how they differ. G Draft 2. Write a second draft of your paragraph. Use what you learned from the peer evaluation activity, and your answers to exercise E. Make any other necessary changes. H Editing Practice. Read the information in the box. Then find and correct one simple past tense mistake in each of the sentences (1–5). In sentences using the simple past tense, remember to: • use the correct past tense forms of be: was, wasn’t, were, and weren’t. • u se the correct verb endings; for most verbs, you add -ed to form the simple past tense, but some verbs have irregular past tense forms. • use the base form of the verb with did not / didn’t in negative statements. 1. 1. T Th he p e pe eo op plle i e in W n Wiilllliia am K m Ka am mk kw wa am mb ba a’ ’s v s viilllla ag ge w e wa as sn n’ ’t c t co on nfifid de en nt a t ab bo ou ut W t Wiilllliia am m’ ’s p s plla an n.. 2. When they were young, the Wright brothers haved a flying toy. 3. Alexander Graham Bell make the first telephone. 4. The first car didn’t went very fast. 5. Ts’ai Lun invented paper in the first century AD, but paper didn’t be widely available until many years later. BIg ID e as 39LESSo N C WRITINg T ASk : Editing I Editing Checklist. Use the checklist to find errors in your second draft. Editing Checklist Yes No 1. Are all the words spelled correctly? 2. Is the first word of every sentence capitalized? 3. Does every sentence end with the correct punctuation? 4. Do your subjects and verbs agree? 5. Did you use the simple present and simple past correctly? J Final Draft. Now use your Editing Checklist to write a third draft of your paragraph. Make any other necessary changes. UNIT QUIz p.22 1. According to a U.K. survey, the wheel is the world’s most . 2. Energy from the sun is called power. p.24 p.25 3. Windmills can create and bring up from under the ground. 4. Supporting sentences can , p.28 , and . p.29 5. A(n) uses power from the sun to heat food for eating. It is also called a(n) . 6. A new thing or method of doing something is called a(n) . p.30 7. Hayat Sindi’s health detector is as small as a(n) . p.33 p.39 8. We use the of a verb with d d diiid n d n d no o ot t t / / di di didn dn dn’’’t t t t to m o ma ak ke a p e a pa as st t tense negative statement. 40 UN i t 2