Innovations in the 21st Century

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National Aeronautics and Space Administration Innovations in the 21st Century 2005 Annual Report to the Administrator by the NASA Inventions and Contributions BoardInnovations in the 21st Century Introduction and Background When NASA began to face the challenges placed upon it by Congress and the American people upon its creation in 1958, the Inventions and Contributions Board, also report and abstracted for your information. chartered by the Space Act, chronicled the Exceptional cases must have at least one scientifi c and technical achievements of innovator who has received at least 5,000 those who conquered the tasks. This effort for the contribution made in the creation of the is continuing unabated to the present day. new technology. Major cases involve payments over 2,000 to at least one of the innovators. As we learn more about our universe, we realize that the knowledge we have Since 1990, NASA has honored the creators gained merely scratches the surface of the of 154 Exceptional technologies, derived from unknown questions that remain. Each day, 22,892 inventions reported in the same period. NASA engineers and scientists document, in the form of invention disclosures, the Note that each of these thousands of ideas is a solutions that have been found in the unique and innovative solution to problems that quest to meet our mission goals. we have faced in exercising aeronautics and space activities and conducting research and Last year, 1,735 inventions, nearly fi ve development in virtually every fi eld of inquiry. per calendar day, were reported to NASA’s system for acquiring and protecting our NASA has spent about 200 billion in this intellectual property. As a vital aspect of same time frame on all our missions and that system, the ICB presented 854 unique supported hundreds of thousands of engineers new technologies (987 total) with Space and scientists all over the world in our Act awards last year. These included: endeavors. This degree of productivity has  131 patent applications, brought about a sea change in technology  253 software releases, during this same historical era.  400 NASA Tech Briefs publications, and  203 Board Action cases. This year’s inventions carry on the NASA tradition of innovation and spark the new Of the 203 Board Action cases, eight were millennium with fl ashes of light guiding our deemed to be Exceptional in status (as path into the future. measured and confi rmed by peer review and the Board) and 51 were rated as Major cases. Above: CEV rendezvous with The Exceptional cases are highlighted in this International Space Station. Challenges of the 21st Century Software now pervades nearly every system we build and has become the lynchpin for the While we continue to build upon the successes success of new missions. NASA’s Software of of earlier missions, the President has issued new the Year competition, the world’s largest award challenges for us to overcome in the coming years. for software excellence, is led by the ICB and First, we are expected to return to the Moon and cosponsored by the Offi ces of the NASA Chief develop long-term human habitats within a lunar Engineer, Chief Information Offi cer, and Safety colony. We are asked to prepare the way for manned and Mission Assurance. NASA invites teams from missions to Mars and to eventually create human all over the world to show their wares to prove habitats for long-duration stays on the Red Planet. that they have the “right stuff” in the software development arena, and that the products meet NASA is restructuring its assets in order to carry and exceed our standards for quality, effi ciency, out these new missions. The Space Shuttle is usability, impact, and innovation. Three of this being refurbished to address safety issues but year’s Exceptional awards were won by the is slated for retirement before FY 2011. Robotic technologies offered for the competition. and Earth observing satellite missions continue to be executed, effi ciently implementing new Materials have become enabling technology in technology solutions as a matter of course to making possible new missions and new scientifi c maintain cost and schedule constraints. discoveries. Four of this year’s Exceptional technologies come from the materials genre. The development of new systems, including the The winner of the NASA Government Invention of Constellation and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Year (also cosponsored by the ICB with the will build upon the knowledge, expertise, and NASA General Counsel) is the braided carbon design experience from the Shuttle and Apollo-era rope seal. This is the highest temperature seal technologies. We will need much, much more to known to exist, good to 3,000 ˚C. LARC RP46 provide safe manned missions of long duration. is the highest temperature hydrocarbon-based material in existence and the winner of the NASA Commercial Invention of the Year. These two are representative of the remarkable achievements in this fi eld made by NASA innovators. These and other inventions will allow NASA to “invent” the way to solve the problems we will face in 21st century missions. 3 Left: CEV Lunar mission. Innovations in the 21st Century Innovations, Solutions, introductions of new technology. Among the fi eld of new ideas, the emergence of and Opportunities nanotechnology, materials, software, actuators, The ICB’s peer review of the 854 unique and sensors dominate the scene. These technologies received this year came after “disruptive” technologies that are arriving internal reviews at host NASA Centers of the at NASA’s door may completely reshape the 1,735 new technology reports that came in landscape and redefi ne the boundaries of during FY 2005, as well as those of earlier knowledge in a number of fi elds. years. Over the past 47 years of our existence we have given over 90,000 cash awards to The 131 patent applications awarded this innovators, and we added 2,917 more awards year indicate a strong uptick from prior years. to that number this year. Over 6,500 U.S. patents have been awarded to NASA. That’s about one in a thousand that Each technology creates new opportunities for have ever been awarded since 1790 by the American industry to develop jobs, markets, U.S. Patent and Trademark Offi ce. and derivative technologies and ideas that may open new horizons. NASA has been The 253 software releases this year set a fortunate to publish openly so many ideas in its new NASA record. Given the extraordinary journal, NASA Tech Briefs. Since 1976, NASA standards we have set for quality, testing, Tech Briefs has been seen by over 190,000 and documentation, this level of performance subscribers and thousands of others who is nothing less than remarkable. Mission view the monthly publication in libraries and successes this year are testimony to the great corporate offi ces around the world. It is one of performance of our software developers. the most widely read publications by design The software NASA creates uses the latest and production engineers. technology and techniques available and extends knowledge through every software NASA Tech Briefs is also published in an package written to support science and electronic edition, and subscribers are engineering efforts. encouraged to download technology utilization packages for cases that are highlighted in both The Board is thrilled to see that NASA editions. Last year, 400 briefs were published continues to produce at record levels in and over 25,000 packages were downloaded both numbers and quality. The NASA ICB’s from the NASA Tech Briefs Web site. Space Act awards, while not the cause of this performance, refl ect a measure that can be The 203 Board Action cases reviewed by the relied upon as a metric of excellence. Board yielded many documented incidents of enabled mission successes and commercial Newest Ideas Disclosed The ICB also peer-reviewed a number of major cases this year, the most signifi cant of which are identifi ed below. Composition Of and System for the Diagnosis Improved Fiberoptic Cable Method For Making High and Monitoring of Coronary Delay Stabilizer And Cable Performance Resins for Artery Disease, Acute Measurement System Infusion and Transfer Coronary Syndromes, George F. Lutes, JPL Molding Processes Cardiomyopathy and NPO-19353-1 Other Cardiac Ailments John W. Connell, LaRC Paul M. Hergenrother, LaRC Todd T. Schlegel, JSC Perilog: Contextual Joseph G. Smith, Jr., LaRC Brian Arenare, Kelsey Seybold Search and Retrieval LAR-15834-1 MSC-23449-1 Software Tools Michael Wallace McGreevy, ARC Engine-Airframe Structural LMBTRK Software ARC-14512-1 System Analysis Tools Nicole J. Rappaport, JPL Essam Marouf, Kelly Carney, GRC San Jose State University Charles Lawrence, GRC Softc: A Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) NPO-40542-1 LEW-17767-1 Software Correlator Stephen T. Lowe, JPL PREDICTS Auto Adjustable Pin Tool for NPO-41072-1 Nicole J. Rappaport, JPL Friction Stir Welding NPO-40987-1 Jeff Ding, MSFC Loss of Control Peter Oelgoetz, The Boeing Inhibitor System Company/Rocketdyne Discovery of Magnetars: Ralph C. A’Harrah, NASA HQ MFS-30122-1 Neutron Stars with Extraordinarily Strong LAR-16566-1 Magnetic Fields Software for System for Jahannes Antonius van Paradijs Controlling a Magnetically Alternative Control Scheme Tod Strohmayer, GSFC Levitated Rotor Jeff Kommers, Massachusetts Ralph A’Harrah, NASA HQ Carlos R. Morrison, GRC Institute of Technology HQN-11305-1 Stefan Dieters, MSFC LEW-17293-2 Chryssa Kouveliotou, MSFC MFS-32279-1 5Innovations in the 21st Century Micrometeoroid Orbital CFL3D: A Compressible Thermal Imaging Debris (MMOD) Risk Navier-Stokes Flow Application (TIA) Assessment Solver for Aerospace K. Cramer, LaRC Applications Fred Hibbard, James L. Hyde, Barrios Lockheed-Martin Technology (Formerly LM) Robert T. Biedron, LaRC Russell Graves, Boeing Christopher L. Rumsey, LaRC LAR-16391-1 Dana Lear, ERC, Inc. James L. Thomas, LaRC (Formerly LM) Sherrie Krist, consultant Thomas G. Prior, Hamilton W. Kyle Anderson, Sunstrand (Formerly LM) University of Tennessee Eric L. Christiansen, JSC LAR-16717-1 Justin H. Kerr, JSC Jeanne L. Crews, JSC (retired) MSC-23774-1, 23899-1 Board Action NUMBER OF AWARD CASES FOR ALL CENTERS Patent Applications Software FY 2003-05 by Category of Award Tech Briefs TOTALS               Fiscal Year 2003 Fiscal Year 2004 Fiscal Year 2005   Exceptional Performance The eight highest awarded cases for FY 2005 are abstracted below and in the following pages. Wind Tunnel to Aircraft—Design to Overcome Buffeting Robert Moses, Anthony S. Pototzky, LaRC LAR-16515-1 Sustained and Enabling Contributions to fl ight conditions so that subscale buffet pressures Buffeting Loads Prediction Capability could be used for making aircraft predictions; 5) Incorporating the scaled values into mathematical The contribution is eight-fold: 1) Serving in an models of the aircraft’s structural airframe and advisory role to Lockheed Martin Aero (LMA) to aerodynamics; 6) Using the mathematical models implement a buffet mitigation plan for Joint Strike to predict horizontal and vertical tail buffeting for a Fighter X-35 (JSF) so not to repeat cost overruns number of fl ight conditions where past experiences experienced by F-22 due to tail buffet encountered with F-18 and F-22 suggest that buffet will occur; during fl ight clearance phase of program; 2) Defi ning 7) Validating the predictions against very limited test matrices and providing instrumentation to LMA fl ight data existing on F-22 and X-35; and 8) for measuring buffet on F-22 and JSF wind-tunnel Implementing the prediction capability at LMA models; 3) Participating in the buffet data reduction so that engineers there could assess, as early as during the wind-tunnel tests to guide real-time possible following each airframe design update, and proper assessment of the buffet investigation; the horizontal and vertical tail buffeting using new 4) Scaling wind-tunnel measurements to aircraft features added within existing software programs. Inset: Wind tunnel test on X-35 vertical stabilizer. Left: X-35 in fl ight. 7Innovations in the 21st Century Innovations in the 21st Century Method of Making Ion Thruster The Modern Ion Dished Grids, Hydroforming Apparatus, Rocket for Deep Methods of Constructing Dished Ion Space Exploration Thruster Grids to Provide Hole Array LEW-11694-1, 11694-2, Spacing Compensation, Anode for 11876-1, 12048-1 Ion Thruster Since 2002, a 30,352-hour ground laboratory mission, planned to launch in 2006, will be a Bruce A, Banks, GRC extended life test of the NASA Solar Electric three-year electric propulsion fl ight to visit two Propulsion Technology Readiness (NSTAR) ion large asteroids, Ceres and Vesta, to study the propulsion system has been completed, and origins of the solar system. Thus, this mission was the fl ight backup of the thruster used on will also use the patented hydroformed ion the successful Deep Space 1 mission. Recent optics and spall-resistant woven screen anode analysis of the life tested thruster indicates surfaces technology. In addition to the Dawn that the hydroformed ion optics and spall- mission, Project Prometheus has plans to resistant woven screen anode surfaces of the use the spall-resistant woven screen anode patents listed performed successfully for a surfaces on the large ion thrusters for the duration of operation of almost double that of Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter mission. Although the the Deep Space 1 mission. The successes of thrusters planned to be used for this mission these technologies demonstrated on the Deep are being developed, all thruster designs Space 1 mission and the extended life test of plan to use the spall-resistant woven screen Bruce A, Ban ks, GRC the Deep Space 1 backup thruster, as well as anode surface technology to retain thick the favorable post-life test analysis results, deposits of sputtered material that prevent have contributed to the confi dence that the the development of conductive fl akes. Without thruster technologies are appropriately reliable the use of this technology, spalled conductive and durable for use on three thrusters for fl akes could easily short the thrusters, causing the Dawn mission, which has been approved thruster and mission failure. by the Offi ce of Space Science. The Dawn Above: Deep Space 1 hardware before launch. Left: Close-up of ion rocket.Steve A. Chien, Daniel Q. Tran, Benjamin D. Cichy, Ashley G. Davies, Robert L. Sherwood, Rebecca Castano, Gregg R. Rabideau: JPL; Thomas Doggett, Ronald Greeley: Arizona State University; Seth Shulman: Honeywell; Darrell Boyer: Interface & Control Systems; Bruce D. Trout: Microtel; Smart Software Enhances Scientifi c Observations Stuart W. Frye: Mitretek Systems; Felipe Ip, Victor R. Baker, James M. Dohm: University of Arizona. NPO-41993-1 Cowinner The Autonomous Sciencecraft 2005 NASA Software of Experiment (ASE) Software the Year ASE enables science-driven autonomous spacecraft to increase its science return by two orders of magnitude. It accomplishes this effi ciency by autonomously detecting and tracking dynamic scientifi c processes, and has been successfully used on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) mission. ASE is a new approach to space exploration: instead of relying on ground operations, a spacecraft can now respond autonomously to detected science events. Monitoring of volcanic activity and fl ooding from space is greatly improved using ASE, thereby impacting mankind as a whole. ASE is in development for use on the NASA/JPL Mars Odyssey mission, and is under consideration for numerous future NASA missions. This technology has been the subject of many journal articles and conference presentations. The value added to NASA has already reached millions of dollars and will undoubtedly increase as ASE is integrated into future missions. ASE is now the primary mission operations software for EO-1. It has fl own since January of 2004 and became fully operational in November of 2004. ASE is a product of the groundbreaking patented software system Above: Images from space of Mt. Etna in Sicily known as ASPEN. ASE is the cowinner of the 2005 during a recent eruption. EO-1 was automatically NASA Software of the Year competition. drawn to view the volcano by the presence of the heat signature from the lava fl ows. 9Innovations in the 21st Century NASA’s Low Toxicity RP46: Commercial Invention of High Temperature Extraordinary the Year PMR Polyimide (RP46) for 2004 Space Age Plastic LARC RP46 is under evaluation for LAR-14639-1 applications in reusable launch vehicles, space exploration systems, advanced aircraft RP46. From July of 2003 to July of 2004, engine components, and numerous other Unitech supplied more than 1,300 pounds Ruth Pater, LaRC aerospace and nonaerospace programs. The of the LARC RP46 polyimide resin materials NASA Exploration Initiative “High temperature to this manufacturer, representing more than composite adhesives for reduced mass 250,000 in commercial sales. The technology aeroshells” project selected RP46 over other has been selected for missile radomes and materials. The project’s goal is to incorporate structures via a confi dential agreement state-of-the-art materials into aeroshells with that precludes revealing their names, but decreased structural mass and increased acceptance of the LARC RP46 resin system payload for exploration activities. RP46 is has been widespread. LARC RP46 with carbon selected as the 2004 NASA Commercial fi ber reinforcement enhances the entire missile Invention of the Year. structure. Unitech anticipates that signifi cant production quantities of LARC RP46 will be An eastern U.S.-based fi rm is mass producing required to fi ll the demand for the material proprietary components manufactured from beginning in mid-2005. LARC RP46 resin provided by Unitech, LLC. The eastern U.S.-based company is a manufacturer ONERA, the French National Aerospace of high-performance mechanical products that Research Establishment, has been evaluating are used as original equipment and/or specifi ed the powder version of LARC RP46 since early as replacement parts by the manufacturers of 2002. They have also begun to test the liquid nearly every military and commercial aircraft version of the resin system. ONERA’s goal operating in the world today and a wide is to compare the properties of LARC RP46 variety of military, space, hydropower, and to a similar high temperature matrix resin select industrial applications. The product is for possible recommendation to all French currently used industry. Unitech, through its relationship on a commercial with California-based pre-pregger YLA, Inc, aircraft. It is one of has supplied composite prepreg samples 11 product items to ONERA. Unitech’s proactive marketing that the company efforts include promotion of LARC RP46 seeks to fabricate internationally via internet marketing, from LARC advertising, and trade shows. Unitech is an annual participant in the largest composite-based and a 50-ton Wabash heated platen press. These international exhibition, the JEC, that is held each additions, while reinforcing Unitech’s long-term spring in Paris. Worldwide interest in LARC RP46 commitment to the commercialization of LARC continues to expand with sample evaluation RP46, have allowed the company to establish programs beginning at Formula One Racing itself as the source for consistent, quantifi able, Car manufacturers such as Ferrari, Williams F1, reliable high temperature materials and technical Porsche, and Jaguar. Unitech is in the process support thereof. The aerospace and nonaerospace of obtaining an export license for LARC RP46. communities are rapidly moving to implement LARC Domestically, Unitech exhibits at Society for the RP46 as a low toxicity replacement material for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering current state-of-the art, high temperature resin. (SAMPE) each year and recently has been included Firms such as Boeing, Northrop Grumman, General in the various invitation-only, High Temple events Electric, Lockheed Martin, United Technologies, held throughout the year. High Temple seeks to and others have all conducted internally funded advance new, high technology, high performance research and development on the technology. materials such as LARC RP46 within the aerospace Emerging systems such as the next generation community. Unitech recently enhanced its reusable launch vehicle, F-22, Joint Strike Fighter, laboratory facilities with the addition of Differential and many other defense and commercial systems Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), a Thermogravimetric will contain components manufactured from LARC Analyzer (TGA), a High Performance Liquid RP46, which is NASA’s Commercial Invention of the Chromotography (HPLC), a high capacity Quincy Year for 2004. Precision Oven with temperature range to 538 ˚C Opposite top: Parts made from RP46. Opposite bottom: A fl ame test. Above left: A powder test. Above center: A fl uid test. 11 Above right: A characterization test.Innovations in the 21st Century 2004 NASA Government Invention of Rocket Motor Seals for Rocket the Year Joint Construction Engines Made Including Thermal Barrier from Carbon impact of the new thermal barrier technology. This unique, braided carbon-fi ber thermal Lockheed-Martin contracted Aerojet to LEW-16684-1 barrier is designed to withstand the extreme build the solid rocket motors for the Atlas V temperature environments in current and Enhanced Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). future solid rocket motors and other industrial In the spring of 2002, Aerojet experienced Bruce Steinetz, Patrick H. Dunlap, GRC equipment. The new, highly reliable thermal a major failure of their solid rocket motor barrier was developed for several critical during a qualifi cation test. In that test, hot nozzle joints on the Space Shuttle solid rocket combustion gas reached the nozzle-to-case motor. The thermal barrier is a revolutionary O-rings (prior to the addition of the thermal development that provides an elegant solution barriers), causing a major structural failure that to overcome a vexing problem of protecting resulted in the loss of the nozzle and aft dome temperature sensitive O-rings required to seal sections of the motor. Aerojet undertook an 60 atmospheres and over 3,000 ˚C combustion aggressive redesign effort to include the Glenn gases (see cover). The new thermal barrier Research Center (GRC) thermal barriers in the represents a signifi cant improvement over the joint design. They performed two successful current joint-fi ll approach which, on occasion, qualifi cation tests (October and December allows hot combustion gases to penetrate 2002) in which three Glenn thermal barriers through to nozzle joint O-rings. In the current blocked the searing hot 3000+ ˚C pressurized design, 1 out of 15 Space Shuttle solid rocket gases from reaching the temperature sensitive motors experiences hot gas effects on the Joint O-rings. These successful qualifi cation tests 6 wiper (sacrifi cial) O-rings. Also worrisome put the Lockheed-Martin/Aerojet team back is the fact that joints have experienced heat on schedule for meeting an aggressive launch effects on materials between the room schedule. The GRC thermal barriers have temperature vulcanized (RTV) rubber and since enabled successful fl ights on two Atlas V the O-rings, and in two cases O-rings have commercial launches. The thermal barrier and experienced heat effects. These conditions nozzle joint construction approach presented is lead to extensive reviews of the post-fl ight mission-critical to the Atlas V Launch Vehicle. conditions as part of the effort to monitor This is selected as the 2004 NASA Government fl ight safety. This important new technology Invention of the Year. promotes Shuttle and astronaut safety and enables solid rocket motor joint assembly in one-sixth the time of previous approaches with Above: Arcjet testing of the ultra-high temperature rope seals invented by Steinetz and Dunlap for use on solid much higher degrees of reproducibility. Another rocket boosters (SRBs). The braided carbon fi ber seals recent success story further illustrates the hold back gasses at 60 atmospheres and over 3000 ˚C.Ultra-High Temperature Adhesives and Epoxies Brian Jensen, LaRC LAR-15449-2 Method to Prepare Processable Polyimides considered to be state-of-the-art in adhesive with Reactive Endgroups Using 1,3-Bis chemistries. Composites have been prepared and (3-Aminophenoxy) Benzene evaluated and their performance exceeds that of bismaleimides, which are considered to be state- This invention is for a new class of high of-the-art in high temperature resistant composites performance, high temperature resistant adhesives that are readily processable. The use of these and composite matrix materials that are easily materials will continue to expand as their unique processed into useful structures. They have an combination of properties is recognized by industry. exceptional combination of high mechanical properties, high use temperatures, and ease of processing that make them unique, novel, and Left: Panels made using advantageous for many aerospace, as well as the Jensen adhesives for nonaerospace, applications. New chemistries a Boeing aircraft. were discovered that provided novel polymeric materials with reactive endgroups (including ethynyl, phenylethynyl, nadic, and maleimide) that provide a unique combination of mechanical and thermal properties and ease of processing into useful structure. The phenylethynyl terminated materials have been evaluated as adhesives and the strengths produced exceed those of the best epoxies available (56,000 kPa tensile shear strength vs 42,000 kPa for epoxies), which are 13Innovations in the 21st Century Cowinner 2005 NASA Land Information standard conforming interfaces and data Using the Software of System Software the Year structures to interface and interoperate with Land to Make (LIS) V4.0 other Earth system models. Developed with Better Weather support from the Earth Science Technology Predictions The Land Information System software (http:// Offi ce (ESTO) Computational Technologies, LIS is a high performance has helped advance the Earth-Sun division’s GSC-14997-1 land surface modeling and data assimilation software engineering principles and practices system. It integrates parallel and distributed while promoting portability, interoperability, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, computing technologies with modern land and scalability. LIS is being used on the James V. Geiger, Jr., Susan surface modeling capabilities, and establishes science teams for the currently orbiting P. Olden, Luther Lighty; a framework for easy interchange of other Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment GSFC; Paul R. Houser; George Mason University; land surface models. The software includes (GRACE), the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Sujay V. Kumar, Yudong an ensemble of land surface models and Mission (TRMM), and the EOS-Aqua Advanced Tian; UMBC-GEST. can be run regionally or globally on grids Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR- with horizontal resolutions ranging from E). It is also being prototyped as the software 2.5 degrees to 1 km. The software may infrastructure to produce level-4 products from execute serially or in parallel on various high the ESSP-3 mission Hydros, to be launched in performance computing platforms. In addition, 2010. LIS is the cowinner of the 2005 NASA the software developed has well-defi ned, Software of the Year competition. Left: Top layer soil moisture during Hurricane Katrina. Inset: Land surface rainfall rate during Hurricane Katrina.Designing More Effi cient Turbomachines Daniel J. Dorney; MSFC; Douglas Sondak; Boston University. MFS-31622-1 CORSAIR Three-Dimensional of all turbine geometries at Marshall Space Unsteady Viscous Flow Analysis Flight Center (MSFC). The code was used to identify vortex shedding as the aerodynamic A fl exible code called CORSAIR has been mechanism causing cracks on the fi rst-stage developed for predicting the fl ows in rotating vane of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbomachinery components. The code low pressure oxidizer turbine, as well in the includes modeling that enables its application investigation of cracks in the fl ow liner upstream to jet-engine, rocket-engine, and air-handling. of the SSME low pressure fuel pump inducer. The CORSAIR code has been applied to both The CORSAIR code has helped incorporate new designs and anomaly the effects of unsteadiness investigations. The code was and three-dimensionality into applied to the design and the initial design phase of analysis of the FASTRAC, pumps and turbines. This has Cobra, RS-83 and RS-84 enabled designs with improved turbine geometries, and effi ciency and durability, and is currently being used in has reduced the need for the design and analysis costly redesigns. Left: Simulation of unsteady fl ow inside a turbine. 15Innovations in the 21st Century IDENTIFICATION OF AWARDS LIAISON OFFICERS Telephone Name Center E-Mail Address Number Ames Research Center Betsy Robinson Mail 202A-3 650-604-3360 Moffett Field, CA 94035 Dryden Flight Research Center Gregory Poteat P.O. Box 273, M/S 4840E 661-276-3872 Edwards CA 93523-0273 Goddard Space Flight Center Dale Hithon Mail Code 504 301-286-2691 Greenbelt, MD 20771 Jet Propulsion Laboratory Dr. Christopher H M/S: 202-233 818 393-4904 Jaggers 4800 Oak Grove Dr. Pasadena, CA 91103 NASA Management Offi ce Jet Propulsion Laboratory Jun Rosca Mail Code 180-800 818-354-4862 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena, CA 91103 Johnson Space Center Teresa Gomez Mail Code AHX 281-483-9588 Houston, TX 77058 Kennedy Space Center Carol Dunn Mail Stop: CC-A 321-867-6351 Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899 Langley Research Center Building 1212 Jesse C. Midgett 757-864-3936 Room: 128 Mail Stop 218 Hampton, VA 23681-2199 Glenn Research Center Bldg. 4, Rm. 106, Laurie Stauber Mail Stop 4-2 216-433-2820 21000 Brookpark Road Cleveland, OH 44135 Marshall Space Flight Center James J. Mail Code LS01 256-544-1013 McGroary, LLB Huntsville, AL 35812 Stennis Space Center HA30/Technology Development James Ray Bryant and Transfer Offi ce 228-688-3964 Building 1100, Room 2017A Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 NASA Headquarters Suite 4D39 Gretchen Davidian 202-358-0831 Washington, DC 20546-0001The Board, Staff, and Field Support Chris Scolese, Chair, NASA Chief Engineer, Offi ce of the Chief Engineer Keith L. Hudkins, Offi ce of the Chief Engineer, Vice-Chair Dr. Biliyar N. Bhat, MSFC, EM30 Dr. Donald C. Braun, GRC, VCD0 Sandra A. Cauffman, GSFC, 417.0 Lawrence P. Chambers, Exploration Systems Mission Directorate Christopher J. Culbert, JSC, Automation, Robotics, and Simulation Division Dr. Anngienetta Johnson, Offi ce of Education Carey F. Lively, GSFC, Systems Engineering, 593 Alan J. Kennedy, Offi ce of the General Counsel Reginald (Reg) S. Mitchell, GSFC, 542.0 Dr. J. Steven Newman, Offi ce of Safety and Mission Assurance Dr. Clyde F. Parrish, KSC, YA-C3 Caleb M. Principe, GSFC, 555.0 Pamela R. Rinsland, LaRC, SED Dr. Jonathan D. Trent, ARC, SLB Guy Miller, Counsel to the Board, Offi ce of the General Counsel Staff Roger Forsgren, ICB Staff Director, Offi ce of the Chief Engineer Dr. Paul A. Curto, ICB Senior Technologist, Offi ce of the Chief Engineer Gail M. Sawyer, ICB Recording Secretary and Patent Waiver Examiner, Offi ce of the Chief Engineer Iona Butler, ICB Records Manager, Offi ce of the Chief Engineer For More Information Information about the ICB and its programs may be viewed at the NASA Web site: The lead contact for the Inventions and Contributions Board is Roger Forsgren, ICB Staff Director, 202-358-0859. Questions on the NASA Space Act Awards Program may be addressed to Dr. Paul A. Curto, ICB Senior Technologist, 202-358-2279. The key contact in the process for an application waiver, and for advance patent waivers, is Ms. Gail M. Sawyer, ICB Program Specialist, 202-358-1637.National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA HEADQUARTERS Washington, DC 20546 NP-2005-12-418-HQ