How to Increase Student Success

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Dr.JohnParker,Singapore,Researcher
Published Date:01-07-2017
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GRADES: KINDERGARTEN-HIGH SCHOOL Parents’ Guide to Student Success THIS GUIDE INCLUDES • An overview of some of the key things your child will learn in English/Literacy and Math in Kindergarten through High School • Ideas for activities to help your child learn at home • Topics of discussion for talking to your child’s teacher about his or her academic progressParents’ Guide to Student Success This guide provides an overview of what your child will learn by the end of kindergarten in mathematics and English language arts/literacy. KINDERGARTEN This guide is based on the new Common Core State Standards, which have been adopted by more than 45 states. If your child is meeting the expectations outlined in these standards, he or she will be well prepared for 1st grade. Why Are Academic Standards Important? Academic standards are important because they help ensure that all students, no matter where they live, are prepared for success in college and the workforce. Standards provide an important first step — a clear roadmap for learning for teachers, parents, and students. Having clearly defined goals helps families and teachers work together to ensure that students succeed. They also will help your child develop critical thinking skills that will prepare him or her for college and career. English Language Arts & Literacy A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in Kindergarten ■ Naming upper-and lower-case letters, matching those letters ■ Taking part in classroom conversations and following rules for with their sounds, and printing them discussions (e.g., learning to listen to others and taking turns ■ Comparing the adventures and experiences of characters in when speaking) familiar stories, such as fairy tales and folktales ■ Speaking clearly to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas, ■ Retelling familiar stories and talking about stories read to them including descriptions of familiar people, places, things, using details from the text and events ■ Using a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to ■ Asking and answering questions about key details in stories describe an event, including his or her reaction to what or other information read aloud happened ■ Understanding and using question words (e.g., who, what, ■ Stating an opinion or preference about a topic or book in where, when, why, how) in discussions writing (e.g., My favorite book is . . .) ■ Learning to recognize, spell, and properly use those little grammatical words that hold the language together (e.g., a, the, to, of, from, I, is, are) Keeping the conversation focused. When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. In kindergarten, these include: Talking to ■ Using knowledge of letters and letter-sound correspondences to figure out how to Your Child’s spell words as they sound ■ Reading and understanding a story designed for early readers Teacher ■ Ask to see a sample of your child’s work. Ask the teacher questions such as: Is this piece of work satisfactory? How could it be better? Is my child on track? How can I help my child improve or excel in this area? If my child needs extra support or wants to learn more about a subject, are there resources to help his or her learning outside the classroom? 2Mathematics A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in Kindergarten ■ Counting objects to tell how many there are ■ Adding with a sum of 10 or less; subtracting from a ■ Comparing two groups of objects to tell which group, number 10 or less; and solving addition and subtraction if either, has more; comparing two written numbers to tell word problems which is greater ■ Adding and subtracting very small numbers quickly and ■ Acting out addition and subtraction word problems and accurately (e.g., 3 + 1) drawing diagrams to represent them ■ Correctly naming shapes regardless of orientation or size (e.g., a square oriented as a “diamond” is still a square) Keeping the conversation focused. When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, Talking to keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. In kindergarten, Your Child’s these include: ■ Counting to tell the number of objects (this will not be written work; ask the Teacher teacher for his or her observations of your child’s progress in this area) ■ Solving addition and subtraction word problems Help Your Child Learn at Home Try to create a quiet place for your child to study, and carve out time every day when your child can concentrate. You should also try to sit down with your child at least once a week for 15 to 30 minutes while he or she works on homework. This will keep you informed about what your child is working on, and it will help you be the first to know if your child needs help with specific topics. Additionally, here are some activities you can do with your child to support learning at home: English Language Arts & Literacy Mathematics ■ Read with your child every day. Ask your child to explain his or ■ Ask your child questions that require counting as many her favorite parts of the story. Share your own ideas. To find as 20 things. For example, ask, “Do many children have more books for your child to read, visit www.corestandards.org/ more than 20 books about wild animals?” assets/Appendix_B.pdf ■ Ask your child questions that require comparing numbers. ■ Encourage your child to tell you about his or her day at school “Who is wearing more bracelets, you or your sister?” (Your ■ Have your child describe the picture to you child might use matching or counting to find the answer) For more information, the full standards are available at www.corestandards.org 3Parents’ Guide to Student Success This guide provides an overview of what your child will learn by the end of 1st grade in mathematics and English language arts/literacy. 1ST GRADE This guide is based on the new Common Core State Standards, which have been adopted by more than 45 states. If your child is meeting the expectations outlined in these standards, he or she will be well prepared for 2nd grade. Why Are Academic Standards Important? Academic standards are important because they help ensure that all students, no matter where they live, are prepared for success in college and the workforce. Standards provide an important first step — a clear roadmap for learning for teachers, parents, and students. Having clearly defined goals helps families and teachers work together to ensure that students succeed. They also will help your child develop critical thinking skills that will prepare him or her for college and career. English Language Arts & Literacy A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 1st Grade ■ Using phonics (matching letters and sounds) and word ■ Producing and expanding complete simple and compound analysis skills to figure out unfamiliar words when reading statements, questions, commands, and exclamations and writing ■ Identifying the correct meaning for a word with multiple ■ Getting facts and information from different writings meanings, based on the sentence or paragraph in which ■ Writing about a topic, supplying some facts, and providing the word is used (e.g., deciding whether the word bat some sense of opening and closing means a flying mammal or a club used in baseball) ■ Taking part in conversations about topics and texts being ■ Learning to think about finer distinctions in the meanings studied by responding to the comments of others and of near-synonyms (e.g., marching, prancing, strutting, asking questions to clear up any confusion strolling, walking) When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. Talking to In 1st grade, these include: Your Child’s ■ Reading grade-level text with understanding and fluency Teacher ■ Learning from, enjoying, and getting facts from books he or she reads and listens to 4Mathematics A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 1st Grade ■ Solving addition and subtraction word problems in situations ■ Understanding what the digits mean in two-digit numbers of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and (place value) comparing (e.g., a taking from situation would be: “Five apples ■ Using understanding of place value to add and subtract were on the table. I ate some apples. Then there were three (e.g., 38 + 5, 29 + 20, 64 + 27, 80 – 50) apples. How many apples did I eat?”) ■ Measuring lengths of objects by using a shorter object as ■ Quickly and accurately adding with a sum of 10 or less, and a unit of length quickly and accurately subtracting from a number 10 or less ■ Making composite shapes by joining shapes together, (e.g., 2 + 5, 7 – 5) and dividing circles and rectangles into halves or fourths When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. In 1st grade, these include: Talking to ■ Adding with a sum of 20 or less and subtracting from a number 20 or less (this Your Child’s will not be written work; ask the teacher for his or her observations of your Teacher child’s progress in this area) ■ Using understanding of place value to add and subtract ■ Solving addition and subtraction word problems Help Your Child Learn at Home Try to create a quiet place for your child to study, and carve out time every day when your child can concentrate. You should also try to sit down with your child at least once a week for 15 to 30 minutes while he or she works on homework. This will keep you informed about what your child is working on, and it will help you be the first to know if your child needs help with specific topics. Additionally, here are some activities you can do with your child to support learning at home: English Language Arts & Literacy Mathematics ■ Encourage your child to read to you books such as Little Bear Look for “word problems” in real life. Some 1st grade examples by Else Holmelund Minarik. Help him or her sound out difficult might include: words. To find more books for your child to read, visit www. ■ If you open a new carton of a dozen eggs, and you use four eggs corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_B.pdf to cook dinner, close the carton and ask your child how many ■ Pick a “word of the day” each day starting with a different letter eggs are left ■ Have your child write the word and look for other things ■ Play the “I’m thinking of a number” game. For example, “I’m beginning with the same letter thinking of a number that makes 11 when added to 8. What is my number?” For more information, the full standards are available at www.corestandards.org 5Parents’ Guide to Student Success This guide provides an overview of what your child will learn by the end of 2nd grade in mathematics and English language arts/literacy. If your 2ND GRADE child is meeting the expectations outlined in these standards, he or she will be well prepared for 3rd grade. Why Are Academic Standards Important? Academic standards are important because they help ensure that all students, no matter where they live, are prepared for success in college and the workforce. Standards provide an important first step — a clear roadmap for learning for teachers, parents, and students. Having clearly defined goals helps families and teachers work together to ensure that students succeed. They also will help your child develop critical thinking skills that will prepare him or her for college and career. English Language Arts & Literacy A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 2nd Grade ■ Paying close attention to details, including illustrations and ■ Taking part in conversations by linking his or her comments to the graphics, in stories and books to answer who, what, where, remarks of others and asking and answering questions to gather when, why, and how questions additional information or deepen understanding of the topic ■ Determining the lesson or moral of stories, fables, and folktales ■ Retelling key information or ideas from media or books read aloud ■ Using text features (e.g., captions, bold print, indexes) to locate ■ Producing, expanding, and rearranging sentences (e.g., “The boy key facts or information efficiently watched the movie”; “The little boy watched the movie”; ■ Writing an opinion about a book he or she has read, using “The action movie was watched by the little boy”) important details from the materials to support that opinion ■ Determining the meaning of the new word formed when a ■ Writing stories that include a short sequence of events and known prefix or suffix is added to a known word (happy/unhap- include a clear beginning, middle, and end py; pain/painful/painless) When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. Talking to In 2nd grade, these include: Your Child’s Teacher ■ Reading grade-level books and stories with understanding and fluency ■ Building a foundation of knowledge through reading and listening to books in history/social studies, science, and other subjects 6Mathematics A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 2nd Grade ■ Solving challenging addition and subtraction word problems ■ Using understanding of place value to add and subtract three- with one or two steps (e.g., a “one-step” problem would be: digit numbers (e.g., 811 – 367); adding and subtracting two-digit “Lucy has 23 fewer apples than Julie. Julie has 47 apples. numbers quickly and accurately (e.g., 77 – 28) How many apples does Lucy have?”) ■ Solving addition and subtraction word problems involving length ■ Quickly and accurately adding with a sum of 20 or less (e.g., “The pen is 2 cm longer than the pencil. If the pencil is 7 cm (e.g., 11 + 8); quickly and accurately subtracting from a number long, how long is the pen?”) 20 or less (e.g., 16 – 9); and knowing all sums of one-digit ■ Building, drawing, and analyzing 2-D and 3-D shapes to develop numbers from memory by the end of the year foundations for area, volume, and geometry in later grades ■ Understanding what the digits mean in three-digit numbers (place value) When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. In 2nd grade, these include: Talking to ■ Using understanding of place value to add and subtract Your Child’s ■ Solving more challenging addition and subtraction word problems Teacher ■ Measuring lengths, and solving word problems involving addition and subtraction of lengths Help Your Child Learn at Home Try to create a quiet place for your child to study, and carve out time every day when your child can concentrate. You should also try to sit down with your child at least once a week for 15 to 30 minutes while he or she works on homework. This will keep you informed about what your child is working on, and it will help you be the first to know if your child needs help with specific topics. Additionally, here are some activities you can do with your child to support learning at home: English Language Arts & Literacy Mathematics ■ Read at home every day and assist your child by reading every Look for “word problems” in real life. Some 2nd grade examples other paragraph. To find recommendations of books for your might include: child to read, visit www.corestandards.org/assets/ ■ When saving for a purchase, compare the cost of the item to the Appendix_B.pdf amount of money you have; then ask your child to determine ■ Have your child write a thank you note or letter to family how much more money he or she needs to buy the item members or friends ■ Play “draw the shape.” For example, ask your child to draw a hexagon with one side longer than the others, or ask him or her to shade in a quarter of a rectangle. For more information, the full standards are available at www.corestandards.org 7Parents’ Guide to Student Success This guide provides an overview of what your child will learn by the end of 3rd grade in mathematics and English language arts/literacy. If your 3RD GRADE child is meeting the expectations outlined in these standards, he or she will be well prepared for 4th grade. Why Are Academic Standards Important? Academic standards are important because they help ensure that all students, no matter where they live, are prepared for success in college and the workforce. Standards provide an important first step — a clear roadmap for learning for teachers, parents, and students. Having clearly defined goals helps families and teachers work together to ensure that students succeed. They also will help your child develop critical thinking skills that will prepare him or her for college and career. English Language Arts & Literacy A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 3rd Grade ■ Reading closely to find main ideas and supporting details in a ■ Independently conducting short research projects that build story knowledge about various topics ■ Describing the logical connection between particular sentences ■ Asking and answering questions about information he or she and paragraphs in stories (e.g., first, second, third; cause and effect) hears from a speaker or while participating in classroom discus- ■ Comparing the most important points and key details presented sions, offering appropriate elaboration and detail that build on in two books on the same topic what others have said ■ Writing opinions or explanations that group related information ■ Reading stories and poems aloud fluently, without pausing to and develop topics with facts and details figure out what each word means ■ Writing stories that establish a situation and include details and ■ Distinguishing the literal and nonliteral meanings of words, such clear sequences of events that describe the actions, thoughts, as something’s fishy and cold shoulder and feelings of characters ■ Spelling correctly and consulting dictionaries to clarify meanings of words When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. Talking to In 3rd grade, these include: Your Child’s ■ Reading grade-level books, stories, poems, and articles fluently Teacher ■ Writing and speaking well, following rules of punctuation and grammar ■ Reading grade-level books and stories with understanding and fluency ■ Building a foundation of knowledge through reading and listening to books in history/social studies, science, and other subjects 8Mathematics A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 3rd Grade ■ Multiplying and dividing up to 10 × 10 quickly and accurately, ■ Measuring and estimating weights and liquid volumes, and including knowing the times tables from memory solving word problems involving these quantities ■ Solving word problems using addition, subtraction, multiplication, ■ Reasoning about shapes (e.g., all squares are rectangles but not and division all rectangles are squares) ■ Beginning to multiply numbers with more than one digit ■ Finding areas of shapes, and relating area to multiplication (e.g., multiplying 9 × 80) (e.g., why is the number of square feet for a 9-foot by 7-foot ■ Understanding fractions and relating them to the familiar system room given by the product 9 × 7?) of whole numbers (e.g., recognizing that 3⁄1 and 3 are the same number) When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. In 3rd grade, these Talking to include: Your Child’s ■ Multiplication and division Teacher ■ Fractions Help Your Child Learn at Home Try to create a quiet place for your child to study, and carve out time every day when your child can concentrate. You should also try to sit down with your child at least once a week for 15 to 30 minutes while he or she works on homework. This will keep you informed about what your child is working on, and it will help you be the first to know if your child needs help with specific topics. Additionally, here are some activities you can do with your child to support learning at home: English Language Arts & Literacy Mathematics ■ Make reading for fun a part of your child’s daily routine Look for “word problems” in real life. Some 3rd grade examples ■ Encourage your child to find a picture from a newspaper or might include: magazine, cut it out, paste it on paper, and write a story about it ■ Notice those everyday occasions when you find yourself using ■ Start a family vocabulary box or jar. Have everyone write down your times tables — such as to determine how many days there new words they discover, add them to the box, and use the are in four weeks. Ask your child for the answer. words in conversation ■ Involve your child when you notice yourself using division to “work backward” in the times tables — such as determining how many candies each child will get if 36 candies are shared equally among nine children at a party For more information, the full standards are available at www.corestandards.org 9Parents’ Guide to Student Success This guide provides an overview of what your child will learn by the end of 4th grade in mathematics and English language arts/literacy. If your 4TH GRADE child is meeting the expectations outlined in these standards, he or she will be well prepared for 5th grade. Why Are Academic Standards Important? Academic standards are important because they help ensure that all students, no matter where they live, are prepared for success in college and the workforce. Standards provide an important first step — a clear roadmap for learning for teachers, parents, and students. Having clearly defined goals helps families and teachers work together to ensure that students succeed. They also will help your child develop critical thinking skills that will prepare him or her for college and career. English Language Arts & Literacy A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 4th Grade ■ Describing the basic elements of stories — such as characters, ■ Independently conducting short research projects on different events, and settings — by drawing on specific details in the text aspects of a topic using evidence from books and the Internet ■ Paying close attention to key features of informational books ■ Paraphrasing and responding to information presented in and articles: these include understanding the main and supporting discussions, such as comparing and contrasting ideas and ideas; being able to compare and contrast information; and analyzing evidence that speakers use to support particular points explaining how the author uses facts, details, and evidence to ■ Reporting orally on a topic or telling a story with enough facts support particular points and details ■ Comparing ideas, characters, events, and settings in stories and ■ Writing complete sentences with correct capitalization myths from different cultures and spelling ■ Writing summaries or opinions about topics supported with a ■ Relating words that are common in reading to words with set of well-organized facts, details, and examples similar meanings (synonyms) and to their opposites (antonyms) When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. Talking to In 4th grade, these include: Your Child’s ■ Comprehending a range of grade-level stories, poems, and informa- Teacher tional texts such as biographies, articles, or guidebooks about history, science, or the arts ■ Building understanding of relationships between words and nuances in word meanings—synonyms, antonyms, idioms—and using this knowledge to convey ideas precisely 10Mathematics A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 4th Grade ■ Using whole-number arithmetic to solve word problems, includ- ■ Adding, subtracting, and multiplying fractions in simple cases ing problems with remainders and problems with measurements (such as 2 3⁄4 − 1 1⁄4 or 3 × 5⁄8), and solving related word problems ■ Adding and subtracting whole numbers quickly and accurately ■ Understanding simple decimals in terms of fractions (numbers up to 1 million) (e.g., rewriting 0.62 as 62⁄100) ■ Multiplying and dividing multi-digit numbers in simple cases ■ Measuring angles and finding unknown angles in a diagram (e.g., multiplying 1,638 × 7 or 24 × 17, and dividing 6,966 by 6) ■ Understanding and applying equivalent fractions (e.g., recognizing that 1⁄4 is less than 3⁄8 because 2⁄8 is less than 3⁄8) When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. Talking to In 4th grade, these include: Your Child’s ■ Doing arithmetic and solving word problems with multi-digit numbers Teacher ■ Doing arithmetic and solving word problems with fractions Help Your Child Learn at Home Try to create a quiet place for your child to study, and carve out time every day when your child can concentrate. You should also try to sit down with your child at least once a week for 15 to 30 minutes while he or she works on homework. This will keep you informed about what your child is working on, and it will help you be the first to know if your child needs help with specific topics. Additionally, here are some activities you can do with your child to support learning at home: English Language Arts & Literacy Mathematics ■ Urge your child to use logical arguments to defend his or her ■ Ask your child to compare numbers using phrases like “times opinion. If your child wants a raise in allowance, ask him or her to as much.” For example, if the family cat weighs 8 lbs. and the research commonsense allowance systems and, based on that family dog weighs 56 lbs., how many times as much does the research, explain reasons why, supported by facts and details dog weigh? ■ Talk about the news together. Pick one story in the news, read it ■ Ask your child to help you compare fractional amounts — for together, and discuss with your child what it means example, if one recipe calls for 2⁄3 of a cup of oil, but another recipe calls for 3⁄4 of a cup of oil, which recipe calls for more oil? (In 5th grade, your child will learn ways to determine just how much more oil) For more information, the full standards are available at www.corestandards.org 11Parents’ Guide to Student Success This guide provides an overview of what your child will learn by the end of 5th grade in mathematics and English language arts/literacy. If your 5TH GRADE child is meeting the expectations outlined in these standards, he or she will be well prepared for 6th grade. Why Are Academic Standards Important? Academic standards are important because they help ensure that all students, no matter where they live, are prepared for success in college and the workforce. Standards provide an important first step — a clear roadmap for learning for teachers, parents, and students. Having clearly defined goals helps families and teachers work together to ensure that students succeed. They also will help your child develop critical thinking skills that will prepare him or her for college and career. English Language Arts & Literacy A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 5th Grade ■ Summarizing the key details of stories, dramas, poems, and ■ Coming to classroom discussions prepared, then engaging nonfiction materials, including their themes or main ideas fully and thoughtfully with others (e.g., contributing accurate, ■ Identifying and judging evidence that supports particular ideas relevant information; elaborating on the remarks of others; in an author’s argument to change a reader’s point of view synthesizing ideas) ■ Integrating information from several print and digital sources ■ Reporting on a topic or presenting an opinion with his or her to answer questions and solve problems own words, a logical sequence of ideas, sufficient facts and ■ Writing opinions that offer reasoned arguments and provide details, and formal English when appropriate facts and examples that are logically grouped to support the ■ Expanding, combining, and reducing sentences to improve writer’s point of view meaning, interest, and style of writing ■ Writing stories, real or imaginary, that unfold naturally and ■ Building knowledge of academic words with an emphasis on developing the plot with dialogue, description, and effective those that signal a contrast in ideas or logical relationships, pacing of the action such as on the other hand, similarly, and therefore ■ Producing writing on the computer When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. Talking to In 5th grade, these include: Your Child’s ■ Reading closely and drawing evidence from grade-level fiction Teacher and nonfiction materials, including the ability to quote accurately from them when answering questions ■ Adjusting communications to accomplish a particular purpose (e.g., providing more background information for audiences who do not know the topic well) 12Mathematics A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 5th Grade ■ Adding and subtracting fractions with unlike denominators ■ Multiplying whole numbers quickly and accurately, for example (e.g., 21⁄4 – 11⁄3), and solving word problems of this kind 1,638 × 753, and dividing whole numbers in simple cases, such ■ Multiplying fractions; dividing fractions in simple cases; and as dividing 6,971 by 63 solving related word problems (e.g., finding the area of a ■ Understanding the concept of volume, and solving word problems rectangle with fractional side lengths; determining how many that involve volume 1⁄3-cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins; determining the size of ■ Graphing points in the coordinate plane (two dimensions) to a share if 9 people share a 50-pound sack of rice equally or if solve problems 3 people share 1⁄2 pound of chocolate equally) ■ Analyzing mathematical patterns and relationships ■ Generalizing the place-value system to include decimals, and calculating with decimals to the hundredths place (two places after the decimal) When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. In 5th grade, these Talking to include: Your Child’s ■ Multiplying and dividing fractions, and solving related word problems Teacher ■ Decimals (concepts and arithmetic) ■ Volume (concepts and problem-solving) Help Your Child Learn at Home Try to create a quiet place for your child to study, and carve out time every day when your child can concentrate. You should also try to sit down with your child at least once a week for 15 to 30 minutes while he or she works on homework. This will keep you informed about what your child is working on, and it will help you be the first to know if your child needs help with specific topics. Additionally, here are some activities you can do with your child to support learning at home: English Language Arts & Literacy Mathematics ■ Invite your child to read his or her writing out loud to other family Look for “word problems” in real life. Some 5th grade examples members. Ask questions about your child’s word choices and ideas might include: ■ Go to a play or musical with your child. Discuss the way the ■ Doing arithmetic with decimals, for example when balancing actors bring the words to life a checkbook ■ Discuss your family stories and history. Encourage your child ■ Multiplying with fractions — for example, if you used about 2⁄3 to ask relatives questions about their lives. Put the information of a 3⁄4-cup measure of vegetable stock, then how much stock together in an album or brainstorm different ways to tell family did you use? About how much is left? tales, such as poems or short stories ■ Using the length, width, and depth of a garden plot to determine how many bags of garden soil to buy For more information, the full standards are available at www.corestandards.org 13Parents’ Guide to Student Success This guide provides an overview of what your child will learn by the end of 6th grade in mathematics and English language arts/literacy. If your 6TH GRADE child is meeting the expectations outlined in these standards, he or she will be well prepared for 7th grade. Why Are Academic Standards Important? Academic standards are important because they help ensure that all students, no matter where they live, are prepared for success in college and the workforce. Standards provide an important first step — a clear roadmap for learning for teachers, parents, and students. Having clearly defined goals helps families and teachers work together to ensure that students succeed. They also will help your child develop critical thinking skills that will prepare him or her for college and career. English Language Arts & Literacy A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 6th Grade ■ Gaining knowledge from materials that make extensive use ■ Conducting short research projects to answer a question, of elaborate diagrams and data to convey information and drawing on several sources and sharpening the focus based illustrate concepts on the research findings ■ Evaluating the argument and specific claims in written materials ■ Reviewing and paraphrasing key ideas and multiple perspectives or a speech, and distinguishing claims that are supported by of a speaker reasons and evidence from claims that are not ■ Determining the correct meaning of a word based on the ■ Presenting claims and findings to others orally, sequencing context in which it is used (e.g., the rest of the sentence or ideas logically, and accentuating main ideas or themes paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) ■ Writing brief reports that examine a topic, have a clear focus, and include relevant facts, details, and quotations When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. Talking to In 6th grade, these include: Your Child’s ■ Reading closely and citing evidence from grade-level fiction and Teacher nonfiction to support an analysis of what the materials say ■ Developing a rich vocabulary of complex and sophisticated words and using them to speak and write more precisely and coherently 14Mathematics A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 6th Grade ■ Understanding ratios and rates, and solving problems involving ■ Working with variables and expressions by generalizing the way proportional relationships (e.g., if it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, numbers work (e.g., when adding numbers, the order doesn’t mat- then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours?) ter, so x + y = y + x; likewise, properties of addition and multiplica- ■ Dividing fractions and solving related word problems (e.g., how tion can be used to rewrite 24x + 18y as 6(4x + 3y), or y + y + y as 3y) wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3⁄4 mile and area ■ Writing equations to solve word problems and describe relation- 1⁄2 square mile?) ships between quantities (e.g., the distance D traveled by a train ■ Using positive and negative numbers together to describe in time T might be expressed by an equation D = 85T, where D is quantities; understanding the ordering and absolute values of in miles and T is in hours) positive and negative numbers ■ Reasoning about relationships between shapes to determine area, surface area, and volume When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. In 6th grade, these Talking to include: Your Child’s ■ Analyzing and solving problems using concepts of ratio and rate Teacher ■ Working with variables and expressions ■ Analyzing and solving word problems using equations Help Your Child Learn at Home Try to create a quiet place for your child to study, and carve out time every day when your child can concentrate. You should also try to sit down with your child at least once a week for 15 to 30 minutes while he or she works on homework. This will keep you informed about what your child is working on, and it will help you be the first to know if your child needs help with specific topics. Additionally, here are some activities you can do with your child to support learning at home: English Language Arts & Literacy Mathematics ■ Listen with your child to a television reporter, politician, or other Look for “word problems” in real life. Some 6th grade examples speaker. Ask your child to tell you the speaker’s main points. Was might include: the speaker trying to convince the audience of something? How? ■ Determining the average speed of a family trip, based on the ■ Encourage your child to learn at the library or on the Internet distance traveled and the time taken; or estimating the time what life in your community was like 100 years ago. Have your that a trip will take, given the distance and an estimate of the child write a story, poem, or play about that time average speed ■ Finding the surface area of the walls and ceiling in a room to determine the cost of painting the room For more information, the full standards are available at www.corestandards.org 15Parents’ Guide to Student Success This guide provides an overview of what your child will learn by the end of 7th grade in mathematics and English language arts/literacy. If your 7TH GRADE child is meeting the expectations outlined in these standards, he or she will be well prepared for 8th grade. Why Are Academic Standards Important? Academic standards are important because they help ensure that all students, no matter where they live, are prepared for success in college and the workforce. Standards provide an important first step — a clear roadmap for learning for teachers, parents, and students. Having clearly defined goals helps families and teachers work together to ensure that students succeed. They also will help your child develop critical thinking skills that will prepare him or her for college and career. English Language Arts & Literacy A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 7th Grade ■ Citing several sources of specific evidence from a piece when ■ Evaluating a speaker’s key points and reasoning, asking questions, offering an oral or written analysis of a book, essay, article, or play and stating his or her own well-supported ideas in discussions ■ Organizing and focusing his or her own writing, including support- ■ Presenting claims and findings to others emphasizing main points, ing statements and conclusions with evidence and showing that making eye contact, speaking loudly enough, pronouncing words the evidence is accurate and reliable clearly, and using formal English when the situation calls for it ■ Conducting research in response to a specific question by draw- ■ Using common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and ing on evidence from several credible literary or informational roots as clues to defining the meaning of a word (e.g., semi-, sources to support an analysis or reflection semiannual, semicircle) ■ Avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citations (e.g., footnotes, bibliography) When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. Talking to In 7th grade, these include: Your Child’s ■ Reading closely and citing several sources of evidence from grade- Teacher level fiction and nonfiction works to support an analysis of what the material says ■ Developing a rich vocabulary of complex and sophisticated words and using them to speak and write more precisely and coherently 16Mathematics A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 7th Grade 1 ■ Analyzing proportional relationships (e.g., by graphing in the per hour receives a 10% raise; she will make an additional ⁄10 coordinate plane), and distinguishing proportional relationships of his or her salary an hour, or 2.50, for a new salary of 27.50) 1 3 from other kinds of mathematical relationships (e.g., buying 10 ■ Solving equations such as ⁄2 (x – 3) = ⁄4 quickly and accurately, times as many items will cost you 10 times as much, but taking 10 and writing equations of this kind to solve word problems times as many aspirin will not lower your fever 10 times as much) ■ Solving problems involving scale drawings ■ Solving percent problems (e.g., tax, tips, and markups and ■ Using statistics to draw inferences and make comparisons markdowns) (e.g., deciding which candidate is likely to win an election ■ Solving word problems that have a combination of whole num- based on a survey) bers, fractions, and decimals (e.g., a woman making 25 When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. Talking to In 7th grade, these include: Your Child’s ■ Analyzing proportional relationships Teacher ■ Arithmetic with positive and negative numbers ■ Solving equations quickly and accurately, and writing equations to solve word problems Help Your Child Learn at Home Try to create a quiet place for your child to study, and carve out time every day when your child can concentrate. You should also try to sit down with your child at least once a week for 15 to 30 minutes while he or she works on homework. This will keep you informed about what your child is working on, and it will help you be the first to know if your child needs help with specific topics. Additionally, here are some activities you can do with your child to support learning at home: English Language Arts & Literacy Mathematics ■ Visit a local art museum together. Take time to closely observe Look for “word problems” in real life. Some 7th grade examples the details of the paintings or other art objects and talk about might include: what you see there ■ Figuring the amount of a 15% tip or determining what percentage ■ Ask your child who his or her favorite authors are. Why does of weekly income goes to pay taxes your child like their books? What ideas does the author write ■ For a long-term project, help your child choose a stock and about? Who are his or her favorite characters? Why? To find follow its value on the stock market using the newspaper or the recommendations of books for your child to read, visit Internet. Have your child calculate the stock’s percent increase www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_B.pdf or decrease each month For more information, the full standards are available at www.corestandards.org 17Parents’ Guide to Student Success This guide provides an overview of what your child will learn by the end of 8th grade in mathematics and English language arts/literacy. If your 8TH GRADE child is meeting the expectations outlined in these standards, he or she will be well prepared for high school. Why Are Academic Standards Important? Academic standards are important because they help ensure that all students, no matter where they live, are prepared for success in college and the workforce. Standards provide an important first step — a clear roadmap for learning for teachers, parents, and students. Having clearly defined goals helps families and teachers work together to ensure that students succeed. They also will help your child develop critical thinking skills that will prepare him or her for college and career. English Language Arts & Literacy A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 8th Grade ■ Citing the evidence that most strongly supports an analysis ■ Analyzing the purpose of information presented in diverse of what is explicitly stated and/or implied from a book, article, media (e.g., print, TV, web) and evaluating its social, political, poem, or play or commercial motives ■ Analyzing where materials on the same topic disagree on mat- ■ Presenting findings and claims to others, emphasizing key ters of fact, interpretation, or point of view points with relevant evidence and sound reasoning, adapting ■ Building writing around strong central ideas or points of view; speech to the audience and the formality of the setting, and supporting the ideas with sound reasoning and evidence, responding to questions and comments with relevant precise word choices, smooth transitions, and different sentence observations and ideas structures ■ Using strong, active verbs to create a clear picture for the reader ■ Planning and conducting research projects that include several (e.g., walk, skip, meander, lurch, limp) steps and use many credible and documented print and digital ■ Interpreting figures of speech (e.g., irony, puns) and developing sources a large vocabulary of general academic words and phrases When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. Talking to In 8th grade, these include: Your Child’s ■ Reading closely and drawing evidence from grade-level fiction and non- Teacher fiction works that most strongly supports an analysis of the material ■ Developing a rich vocabulary of complex and sophisticated words and using them to speak and write more precisely and coherently 18Mathematics A Sample of What Your Child Will Be Working on in 8th Grade ■ Understanding slope, and relating linear equations in two vari- ■ Analyzing statistical relationships by using a best-fit line (a ables to lines in the coordinate plane straight line that models an association between two quantities) 1 ■ Solving linear equations (e.g., –x + 5(x + ⁄3) = 2x – 8); solving ■ Working with positive and negative exponents, square root and pairs of linear equations (e.g., cube root symbols, and scientific notation (e.g., evaluating Ö36 9 x + 6y = –1 and 2x – 2y = 12); and writing equations to solve + 64; estimating world population as 7 x 10 ) related word problems ■ Understanding congruence and similarity using physical ■ Understanding functions as rules that assign a unique output models, transparencies, or geometry software (e.g., given two number to each input number; using linear functions to model congruent figures, show how to obtain one from the other by a relationships sequence of rotations, translations, and/or reflections) When you talk to the teacher, do not worry about covering everything. Instead, keep the conversation focused on the most important topics. Talking to In 8th grade, these include: Your Child’s ■ Linear equations with one and two variables Teacher ■ Functions ■ Congruence and similarity of geometric figures Help Your Child Learn at Home Try to create a quiet place for your child to study, and carve out time every day when your child can concentrate. You should also try to sit down with your child at least once a week for 15 to 30 minutes while he or she works on homework. This will keep you informed about what your child is working on, and it will help you be the first to know if your child needs help with specific topics. Additionally, here are some activities you can do with your child to support learning at home: English Language Arts & Literacy Mathematics ■ Make time in everyone’s busy schedule for family discussions Ask your child to share with you any work he or she is doing in about things going on around the world. Weekends can be a math class that strikes him or her as interesting. Some possibilities chance for everyone to catch up might include: ■ Visit the campus of a local college with your teen. Begin talking ■ Solving interesting problems involving cylinders and spheres, about college early. What does he or she expect from college? such as figuring out how much water fits inside a garden hose, What high school courses will your child need to pass to prepare or how many earths would fit inside the sun for college? ■ Analyzing data with a scatterplot, for example to decide whether exercise and obesity are related For more information, the full standards are available at www.corestandards.org 19Parents’ Guide to Student Success This guide provides an overview of what your child will learn during HIGH SCHOOL high school in English language arts. This guide is based on the new ENGLISH Common Core State Standards, which have been adopted by more than 45 states. If your child is meeting the expectations outlined in these standards, he or she will be well prepared for success after graduation. Why Are Academic Standards Important? Academic standards are important because they help ensure that all students, no matter where they live, are prepared for success in college and the workforce. Standards provide an important first step — a clear roadmap for learning for teachers, parents, and students. Having clearly defined goals helps families and teachers work together to ensure that students succeed. They also will help your child develop critical thinking skills that will prepare him or her for college and career. English Language Arts & Literacy To become ready for college and career, high school students tight deadlines. And they are able to revisit and make improve- learn to evaluate intricate arguments and surmount the challenges ments to a piece of writing over multiple drafts if needed. They posed by complex written materials independently and confi- master the essential “rules” of standard written and spoken English dently. Through wide and deep reading of literature and literary and resolve usage issues by consulting style and usage guides. By nonfiction of steadily increasing sophistication, students expand writing and participating in a variety of conversations, they assert their literary and cultural knowledge and better understand refer- and defend claims and show what they know about a subject using ences and images. They also develop the flexibility, concentration, appropriate examples and evidence. and fluency to produce high-quality, first drafts of writing under An Overview of the Work Your Child Will Be Doing in High School to Become Ready for College and Career Reading Writing ■ Understanding more from and making fuller use of written ■ Making an argument that is logical, well-reasoned, and supported materials, including using a wider range of evidence to support by evidence an analysis ■ Writing a literary analysis, report, or summary that develops a ■ Making more connections about how complex ideas interact central idea and a coherent focus and is well supported with and develop within a book, essay, or article relevant examples, facts, and details ■ Evaluating arguments and specific claims, assessing whether the ■ Conducting several research projects that address different reasoning is valid and the evidence is sufficient, and as appropriate, aspects of the same topic, using more complex books, articles, detecting inconsistencies and ambiguities and other sources ■ Analyzing the meaning of foundational U.S. documents (the Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights) 20