Short stories for learning English

short stories for learning English beginners pdf
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Dr.PeterCena,Swaziland,Researcher
Published Date:02-07-2017
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ACTIVITIES TO DO WITH YOUR INFANT OR TODDLER 1ST EDITION Every Day I Learn Through PlayBest wishes on your new baby Your new arrival is ready to learn. No need to buy fancy programs or expensive materials, you can help your child learn and develop using daily routines, every day interactions and play. This guide provides ideas for learning in many areas of development (outlined in the Key Learning Areas below). You are your child’s first and MOST IMPORTANT teacher Every child grows and learns new things at his or her own pace. Children may vary as much as 6 months in some of the things they are able to do. Children developing new skills need lots of practice, therefore, the activities in each age range can be used over and over again. You might notice that some activities are intentionally repeated in various age levels. The activity guide is designed around key routines. Each routine provides multiple opportunities for interactions with adults and materials. Let’s Eat: mealtimes, snack times, eating out. 9 Let’s get Clean: bathing, diapering, toileting, grooming and dressing. 9 Let’s go: travel, running errands, taking walks, exploring outdoors, vacations, body movement. 9 L et’s Share Words and Stories: reading, orally telling stories, acting out 9 stories, pretend play, drawing and other forms of expression L et’s Say Hello/goodbye: transitions you and your child will 9 make including transitioning between activities, cleaning up, visiting with a babysitter or going to child care Let’s r est: nap time, bed time and down time. 9 KEy LEarNINg arEaS If you have any concerns about your child’s development, call your local Early Intervention programs Approaches to Learning or CONNECT (1-800-692-7288) and talk with a child specialist. Creative Arts Language and Literacy Activities are linked with Pennsylvania Learning Standards for Early Childhood which define the skills and Social Studies concepts children should know and do at various stages. For more information on the Learning Standards Mathematics ▲ and to access other important information regarding your child’s early education, go to www.pdesas.org/ Physical Health and Wellness ˜ ocdel and check out the “For Families” tab. Science Social and Emotional This activity book is made possible through the support of... welcomeChildren are able to understand language before they are able to THaNK y OU BED PLEaSE speak it. Imagine you have something to say, but do not have the words to say it How frustrating Such BOOK DaDDy MOMMy frustration is a major reason young children act out. Using sign language with young children is a simple way Using sign language with to give your child a way to express his/her message. young children is a simple way to give your child a way to express his/her message. Here are a few simple signs to get you and your child FINISHED/aLL DONE MILK DIaPEr “talking.” 9 For more signs visit: www.aslpro.com MOrE NO yESChildren begin learning even before birth. Children learn through experiences with their world. Interaction is at the heart of learning and, all children benefit from spending time with adults who are close to them. From birth, infants take in their world through their developing senses. The senses of hearing, touch and smell are the most developed during the first three months of life. Sight develops significantly during these first few months, but babies in this age range focus best on items 8-12 inches away. Adult faces become a major focal point. MiLestones By end of 3 months It may take your newborn several seconds to respond to you or he or she C an briefly calm self Follows things with eyes 9 9 may not respond much at all. Be patient — you may need to keep trying or wait a while for your baby to enter an alert, responsive state. Smiles A cts bored (cries, fusses) if 9 9 activity doesn’t change Parentese: the sing-songy tone of voice favored by many babies. F ocuses on faces 9 ( ) Holds head up 9 Coos 9 internet resources M ay begin to push up when Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare www.dpw.state.pa.us 9 T urns toward sounds 9 Connect with the various programs within the Department of Public Welfare to lying on tummy get the answers you need. Our goal is to be a quality human services provider and to respond to questions in a timely manner. Let’s EAT Let’s GET CLEAN ▲ While changing a diaper or getting ready for a bath, gently play with Describe your baby’s signs of hunger. Describe what you are do- your baby’s toes and feet, doing light tickles. Add “This Little Piggy ing as you prepare for feeding, as well as during the actual feed- Went to Market” (see song list), touching a different toe per verse. ing process. For example: “I hear you crying. That sounds like a hungry cry. Let’s get ready to eat.” After bath time, give your baby’s tummy a sampling of different textures. Collect an assortment of soft, touchable household objects. One at a time, brush each item ever so gently across your Use names for those who are interacting with and feeding your baby’s skin, describing the sensation as you go. For example: baby. For example: Daddy’s feeding you today. “Feel the silky scarf? It’s very slippery.” During feeding time, if your baby is alert, make “music” while After bath time, warm a dime-sized squirt of baby massage making eye contact with him/her. Click your tongue, make kissing oil or plain vegetable oil by rubbing it between your palms. Then gently massage it into your baby’s skin. noises, whistle, hum a tune, or sing a favorite tune. Name your baby’s body parts as you gently massage each part. 0-3 monthsLet’s GO Let’s SHARE WORDS and STORIES Take a walk outside. Describe the things you are Lie your baby down on a soft flat surface. Gently tap or rub your seeing and feeling. Stop and have a picnic. baby’s hands and fingers while singing “Pat A Cake.” (see song list) Place your baby on his/her tummy (younger babies may only be Tie or tape some ribbons, fabric, or other interesting able to handle a minute or two on their tummy but it is streamers onto a wooden spoon. While walking or important to provide some tummy time to infants everyday). while riding in the back seat of the car with your baby, Place cardboard books or black and white pictures in front of your pull out the wooden spoon and dangle them gently baby. Describe the pictures. over and in front of your baby’s face. Read aloud to your baby in a calming tone. At this age it does not matter what you are reading as long you read with expression Place your baby on his/her back, holding your baby’s ankles, ˜ using parentese (see above) and make frequent eye contact with gently rotate your baby’s legs as you say, “Row, Row, Row, Your your baby. Boat.” (see song list) Let’s SAY HELLO - GOODBYE Let’s REST Create black and white images either by drawing simple patterns Play “Now you see it, Now you don’t.” Show your baby a toy. Cover such as diagonals, bull’s eye, checkerboard, and simple faces with the toy with a cloth, asking “Where is it?” Remove the cloth with a a black marker onto white paper or by printing out black and “Here it is.” white images from the computer. Place these images where your Hold your baby closely or lie your baby down on a soft flat baby can see them, ideally 8-12 inches from their face, in places surface. Be sure to be close enough (8-12 inches) so your baby where your baby has downtime. can see you. Start with small movements, like sticking out your Play “Goodnight Moon” as part of your bedtime routine. tongue or opening your mouth in a wide grin. If you are patient, Carry your baby around the room or the house and your baby may try to imitate you. say “goodnight” to favorite toys, people, and objects. Begin to establish predictable routines for diapering, bath time, Play a favorite CD or tape of lullabies or other soothing music bedtime, etc. Routines and rituals provide a sense of safety that is while you settle your baby, and then leave it on at a low the foundation for later exploration. volume after you leave. KEy LEarNINg arEaS Approaches to Learning Language and Literacy Mathematics Science ▲ Creative Arts Social Studies Physical Health and Wellness Social and Emotional ˜Three to six month olds begin to pay more attention to the world around them. Positive interactions, filled with language and sensory exploration, are beneficial to your baby’s learning. If your baby is interested and involved in an activity—and having fun—he/she is learning  It isn’t necessary to “teach” very young MiLestones By end of 6 months children. Treasure these early days of playing and cuddling with your little one—it is exactly what he/she needs to grow and learn. R ecognizes familiar faces May react to strangers 9 9 Responds to other’s Strings vowels together when 9 9 emotions, often seems babbling (ah, eh, oh) happy Responds to own name 9 internet resources Likes to look at self in the 9 Begins to sit without 9 PA Early Learning Keys to Quality www.pakeys.org mirror support A quality improvement system in R olls over in both 9 Passes items from one hand 9 which all early learning directions to another programs and practitioners are encouraged and supported to improve child outcomes. Let’s EAT While cuddling before feeding time, try the following finger play: ‘Round and round the garden, went the teddy bear. One step, two steps Tickle under there Let’s GET CLEAN (Walk your fingers around your baby’s palm. Take steps with your ▲ After changing your baby’s diaper, hold onto your baby’s hands fingers up their arm, and then tickle their armpit, chin, or feet). and wrists and count, “one, two, three, up” GENTLY pull your baby Hang a wind chime close to where you feed your baby. to a sitting position. Smile and lower your baby to repeat. You can make a home-made one by hanging aluminum pie plates close together. Your baby will enjoy After diapering, a bath or while getting dressed, recite “Hickory, watching and listening to the sound during feeding. Dickory, Dock” with accompanying movements (see song list) When your baby can sit upright in a highchair or while Play “What’s that Toy?” by placing a textured toy under your baby’s holding your baby in your lap, allow your baby to hold shirt during diapering or while getting dressed. Talk about what and explore spoons. When your baby begins to eat solids, he/she will enjoy holding a spoon while being fed. the toy feels like and where it is hidden. 3-6 monthsLet’s GO Let’s SHARE WORDS and STORIES While holding your baby on your lap or while your baby practices Play Airplane Baby Rest your baby, tummy down, on your arm with your hand on the chest (similar to football hold). Use your sitting up (with support), read a simple story. Board books made of other hand to secure your baby (supporting head and neck). thick cardboard are best. Allow your baby to explore the Gently swing your baby back and forth. Walk your baby around book (most babies will attempt to place the book in the room making airplane noises. their mouths). Point out pictures. Hang safe toys that make music or different sounds when they Place interesting photos and pictures around the house are touched from your baby’s car seat. As your baby discovers in areas where your baby will notice them (on the floor them, he/she will begin to experiment with cause and effect. Be where your baby has tummy time, on ceiling above sure to point out and recognize your baby’s efforts. diaper area). Talk to your baby about these pictures when Weather permitting; take your baby on a nature adventure by he/she notices them. Photos of family members engaged taking a walk outside. Collect natural items along the way, such in various activities will interest your baby the most as leaves, grass, sticks, acorns, etc. When you get home, place the items in clear plastic bottles and secure the lids very tightly (you Have conversations with your baby. Listen for your baby’s can use glue or tape, as well). Let your baby explore the items babbling. When he/she stops babbling, repeat what you heard, inside the botlles. You can punch small holes in bottles containing then wait. Your baby will most likely respond and you can repeat items which smell. this back and forth conversation. Let’s SAY HELLO - GOODBYE Let’s REST As you cuddle with your baby before nap or bedtime, pull out a Show your baby a ball then cover it under one of three plastic flashlight, turn it on, and say “Look at the light” Slowly move the cups. Make sure your baby sees which cup you hid the ball under. Next, encourage your baby to grab or tap the cup with the light around the darkened room, focusing on various objects. Talk hidden ball with a “You found it” about the objects. After spending time away from your baby, tell your Place an unbreakable mirror on the floor in front of your baby. Your baby about your day. baby will enjoy seeing his/her reflection moving and smiling back. A favorite toy, stuffed friend, blanket, or other item helps Have an open space for your baby to practice rolling and rest- ˜ your baby feel comfortable moving from one place to ing. Add small cushions or pillows (with close supervision) for an another. Pictures of family members work great too added challenge. KEy LEarNINg arEaS Approaches to Learning Language and Literacy Mathematics Science ▲ Creative Arts Social Studies Physical Health and Wellness Social and Emotional ˜Six to nine month olds are explorers. They like to try things to find out what happens (cause and effect). They are beginning to move with some skill, sitting up, crawling and even beginning to stand. Babies of this age are interested in new things and people but, at the same time, often are afraid of strangers. They enjoy watching MiLestones By end of 9 months and responding to the things going on around them and like to Responds to own name Stands while holding on repeat sounds and actions. 9 9 Finds partially hidden Passes toys or objects from 9 9 objects one hand to the other Sits alone Laughs and squeals 9 9 internet resources R olls over from back to 9 PA Promise for Children www.paprom.convio.net stomach and stomach to Pennsylvania’s Promise for Children is a campaign to back raise awareness about the importance of providing Babbles w ords like ‘mama’ 9 Pennsylvania’s young children with access to or ‘dada’ quality early learning opportunities. Let’s GET CLEAN Peek-a-boo After changing your baby’s diaper, put a soft blanket Let’s EAT or clothing item over a part of his/her face saying “Where’s baby?” Bring your baby to the table while your family is eating. Give your ˜ Then, pull it off gently, saying “Peek-a-boo” Repeat with your baby finger foods like banana slices or cheerios that allow your baby’s arm or leg, describing the covered body part as you play. baby to practice picking up small items. Give your baby a rattle or small toy to splash while being bathed. Introduce new foods, slowly. When the doctor tells you to start ˜ While undressing your baby, gently run your fingers from soft, solid foods like rice cereal, give one food several times to stomach up to the chin, saying, “Creepy, creepy mousy, from the allow your baby to get used to the taste. If your baby appears not barn (tummy) to the housy (chin). ” Tickle your baby’s chin when to like it, try again a few days later. your fingers arrive there. Help your baby discover why or how things happen. When your Hold your baby up to the mirror while dressing. Describe your baby drops a spoon or bottle, pick it up, describing what baby’s face. Let your baby touch the mirror to discover that what happened. “You dropped the spoon and it made a loud noise.” is being seen is not “the real thing.” Babies learn by doing the same thing over and over again. 6-9 monthsLet’s GO Let’s SHARE WORDS and STORIES Safety proof your house; crawl around with your baby to make ˜ Describe objects and activities as they happen. “I’m putting on sure there are no small items under the couch or dresser that your your socks,” “look at that big ball,” “that feels really soft.” baby could put in his/her mouths. Play word games by repeating the sounds your baby makes… Put a toy just out of reach and encourage your baby to crawl or ˜ “Dada, Dada.” Then, wait to see if your baby says them again. move to get it. Shake it or move it to catch your baby’s attention. Change the sound a bit… “Mama, Mama” and wait to see if your Talk about the wonderful colors and smells of the grocery store as baby tries a different sound. you walk through with your baby. Use your shopping trip to talk about foods that are good to eat. Make up songs by describing your baby’s actions, clothing, etc. This teaches new words. “Pretty, pretty Polly is wearing a green Hold your baby on your lap and bounce, saying, “Humpty shirt.” Dumpty sat on the wall. Humpty Dumpty had a great... pause and while holding your baby securely, bounce Share the book Baby Faces (see book list) with your baby. Talk him/her between your legs as if to drop, saying with about each pictured face. enthusiasm, “had a great fall.” Let’s REST Let’s SAY HELLO - GOODBYE Your baby may wake in the middle of the night and cry. This could Hold your baby’s hand up to wave good-bye when a familiar per- be a sign of separation anxiety. Gently pat your baby’s back and son leaves, saying “Good-bye.” Make sure your baby sees favorite reassure him/her that you are nearby. people leave so he/she won’t worry about people disappearing. Help your baby know how to respond to visitors or new people by Start your baby’s day with a bonding experience. showing (or modeling) the ways you say hello or greet someone. When your baby wakes up, sing “Good Your baby will learn how to react in similar ways. Don’t be surprised Morning Song” (see song list). if your baby is fearful of new situations or adults; help your baby feel comfortable in strange situations, allowing time to warm up slowly. Read Baby Can’t Sleep (see book list) ▲ before bedtime. Pretend that five cotton Sing the “Where is Thumbkin?” (see song list). This action song balls are sheep. Count the “sheep” as will help your baby learn that objects do not disappear when you jump them over your baby’s head. they go away. KEy LEarNINg arEaS Approaches to Learning Language and Literacy Mathematics Science ▲ Creative Arts Social Studies Physical Health and Wellness Social and Emotional ˜Babies at this age watch others and then repeat the actions they see. They like to explore objects and actions and do things over and over again to understand how things work. Older babies also are beginning to remember things they’ve seen before and may copy something they’ve seen. They are starting to say basic words and understand many things they hear. MiLestones By end of 12 months internet resources Pulls off socks or hat Understands “no” 9 9 Center on the Social and Emotional Claps hands together Identifies self in mir ror 9 9 Foundations for Early Learning Says at least one word Uses pincher g rip to pick 9 9 http://www.vanderbilt.edu/csefel/index.html    up small objects P uts objects in 9 The Center on the Social and Emotional containers and takes Stands for 1-2 minutes 9 Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) is them out without support focused on promoting the social emotional Enjo ys imitating people development and school readiness of 9 young children birth to age 5. Let’s EAT Let’s GET CLEAN Babies try new foods more willingly if they are allowed to feed Play “Name the Body Part” while bathing or dressing. Ask “Show ˜ themselves. Put small pieces of a new food on the tray and give me your nose” or “Where are your hands?” your baby time to investigate it. Be prepared for the mess as your Help your baby get excited about bath time Put a favorite toy ˜ baby becomes better at getting foods into his/her mouth. Take a or rattle just out of your baby’s reach and encourage your baby picture of your messy baby for the baby book to reach for it. Keep moving it closer and closer to wherever you bathe your baby. Bring out the plastic food storage containers for stacking. Show your baby how to put one on top of the other and then give your Dip a kitchen spatula or spoon with holes into bubble solution baby time to try it. (dish detergent works great) and blow bubbles for your baby to watch. Encourage your baby to try to catch them. Put on some lively music while cooking dinner. Introduce art and painting to your baby by painting in the Encourage your baby to bounce or move to the bathtub. Give your baby a clean paintbrush and encourage him/ music. Music is a great way to gain control over her to paint the walls with the water. body movements. 9-12 monthsLet’s GO Let’s SHARE WORDS and STORIES Keep your baby’s attention while driving in the car by chanting Take pictures of family members and paste each one on card- your baby’s name or other familiar words. Then add words that board to make a family album. Read the book, talk about each rhyme even if they are nonsense words. “car, car, far, far, har, har, family member. “There’s Grandma. She has a big smile in this har.” “Beep, cheep, heap, sleep.” picture.” Read this book every day before bed or before leaving for child care. Make a ramp by putting a toilet paper or paper towel roll under a large book or flat object. Then, roll a small ball or object down the Tape down a large piece of sticky paper or Velcro on the floor. Put ramp and watch what happens Repeat over and over and clap objects on top of the sticky paper and then, with your baby, try when the ball reaches the bottom. to pull them off. Use words that describe what’s happening. “That Make a texture book by putting different objects on sheets of sticks” “The ball is hard to pull off.” paper and fasten the sheets together. Make a page with cotton, Give your baby a piece of paper and a thick, non-toxic crayon or ˜ another page with sandpaper, and another with felt or ridged marker. Show your baby how to make marks on the paper and let cardboard. Help your baby feel each page and talk about the way him/her scribble away. Beginning writing starts with scribbles the materials feel. Put this book in your diaper bag for touching and reading while you wait at the doctor’s office. Let’s REST Let’s SAY HELLO - GOODBYE Fresh air before naptime helps babies become drowsy. Take a walk Give your baby a chance to be part of the hello-good-bye routine around the block, talking about the scenery. “The leaves are start- by letting her/him push the doorbell or the elevator button when ing to turn green. I hear a dog barking. Listen to that loud truck.” you enter child care or are visiting a friend or neighbor. Sing Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star as a good night song. Move your Make a set of shakers for the car or stroller. Fill small plastic con- baby’s hands and arms to the motions: Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star tainers with safe materials like rice or dry lima beans. Put on the (wiggle fingers); How I wonder what you are. Up above the world lids and seal the containers with glue or heavy tape. Keep them so high (hold hands above head); Like a diamond in the sky (make handy when you’re running errands. a diamond shape); Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star (wiggle fingers); Hold up each of your pointer fingers and make motions as you How I wonder what you are. say: Two Little Blue birds sitting on a hill. One named Jack (wiggle one finger), One named Jill (wiggle the other finger). Fly away Count your baby’s toes as you take off his/her socks while getting ▲ Jack (Move finger behind back). Fly away Jill (Move other finger ready for rest time. Sing, “1-2-3-4-5, once I caught a toe alive. 6-7-8- behind back). Come back Jack (bring finger back in front of you). 9-10. Then I let it go again.” Come back Jill (bring second finger back). KEy LEarNINg arEaS Approaches to Learning Language and Literacy Mathematics Science ▲ Creative Arts Social Studies Physical Health and Wellness Social and Emotional ˜First words, first steps, and first efforts at independence - what an exciting time for you and your growing baby. Toddlers are aware of other children, but still may prefer to play alone. Sharing is hard for toddlers and will be learned over time. Hearing your toddler say, “It’s mine” is common. When your toddler does play with other children, offer plenty of materials. During this time of active exploration, it is best to direct your MiLestones By end of 18 months child to another activity if they are doing an unwanted behavior. Spend more time encouraging wanted behaviors. It will take Imitates others during play Walks without 9 9 MANY reminders as your toddler learns what is expected. help M ay have temper 9 tantrums Scribbles on 9 his/her own Plays pretend (talking 9 internet resources on a toy phone) Says and 9 Zero to Three www.zerotothree.org shakes head M ay show fear with strang- 9 ZERO TO THREE is a national, nonprofit organization that informs, “no” ers trains, and supports professionals, policymakers, and parents Dr inks from a 9 Uses se veral single words. in their efforts to improve the lives of infants and toddlers. 9 cup and eats with P oints to things he/she 9 a spoon wants Let’s GET CLEAN Explore with bath toys, plastic cups, squirters, strainers in the bath- tub. Pour water from a cup into the bath from different heights. Let’s EAT Freeze a small bath toy in a paper cup filled with water. Peel off the cup and watch as the ice melts in the bathtub. The toy must Allow lots of time for your toddler to practice feeding himself/ ˜ be big enough to not fit into a toilet-paper roll to prevent possible herself with a spoon and drinking from a sippy cup. choking. Provide time for your toddler to pretend to feed his/her doll or Sing “Five Little Ducks” (see song list) while acting out the song ▲ stuffed animal. with 5 rubber duckies in the bathtub. Practice counting to 5. Provide play food, plates, pots/pans, cups, etc. for your toddler to If your toddler is fearful of the sound made when taking the plug “cook” with. Enjoy the pretend meal together out to drain bath water, make crazy, fun sounds before and during the process. Teach and use simple sign language (see resource) such as “eat,” Give your toddler a brush/comb to brush their stuffed animal or “more milk,” “please,” “thank you,” and “finished.” Simple sign doll’s hair. language is a wonderful tool to help your toddler communicate while language is being developed. 12-18 monthsLet’s GO Let’s SHARE WORDS and STORIES Encourage your toddler to throw, push and kick a ball forward. Read Mouse Paint (see book list). Make mouse tracks ˜ by dipping your toddler’s finger into red, blue and Run, hop and march to music. ˜ yellow non-toxic paint and pressing onto paper. Talk Sing action songs like “Itsy Bitsy Spider” and “Wheels on the Bus” about how the colors mix to make other colors. (see song list). After reading a favorite story, ask your toddler to act out some- Go for a nature walk and collect items (acorns, leaves, sticks, thing a character did. For example, after reading The Little Engine pinecones, etc.) to fill a wagon or bucket. Toddlers love to fill and that Could (see book list), ask your child to move like a train and dump things over and over again make a sound like a train. Make instruments such as a drum made from an oatmeal Look for books with real pictures of animals and practice making container, shakers with paper towel rolls filled with rice with animal sounds together. Talk about the animals. For example, tape over the ends, bells tied to ribbons, etc. Parade around in a “the snake is slimy and makes hissing sounds.” marching band. Take books everywhere Let your toddler “read” to you Listen, smile and laugh as he/she points and babbles. Let’s SAY HELLO - GOODBYE Let’s REST Make a “take along” book with pictures of familiar things, people and routines. Glue the photos to large index cards. Label each Have your toddler put his/her doll or stuffed animal to bed, photo. Place the index card pages into zipper plastic covering it and patting the doll or animal’s back. baggies, punch a hole in the corner and tie with yarn Read Goodnight Moon (see book list). Go and find the moon and or book rings. ˜ talk about it together. You can even pretend to jump over the moon When a storm is coming, or you get caught in the rain, Read Time for Bed (see book list) and talk about how, where and ease your toddler’s fear and make it fun by singing a song when different animals sleep. about rain such as “I Hear Thunder” (see song list) Have your toddler color or paint slowly while listening to lullabies After bath time, have your toddler use a cup to scoop out or other slow, relaxing or classical music. He/she could also crawl, bathwater and put into a bucket. Then take it outside walk, or dance slowly to the tempo of the music. together to water the garden ▲ Give your toddler choices For example, allow your toddler to Tell your toddler before you are going to grandma’s, childcare, etc. choose from 2 sets of pajamas. He or she could also choose a Make a book or picture chart (or picture schedule) showing the book from three selections. Count the books as you point to them. order that the activities and events of the day will occur. KEy LEarNINg arEaS Approaches to Learning Language and Literacy Mathematics Science ▲ Creative Arts Social Studies Physical Health and Wellness Social and Emotional ˜Your 18-24 month old is on the go As your toddler begins to walk, run and climb with greater skill, a new sense of independence emerges. You may need to toddler-proof your house AGAIN As your toddler continues to explore his/her world, you may see your toddler watching and imitating others. Your toddler might copy day-to-day tasks such as brushing MiLestones By end of 24 months his/her hair, dressing, and feeding routines. You may find your toddler using objects for different, new purposes, such as Sa ys 30-50 words & says Builds t owers of 9 9 using a toothbrush as a brush for their stuffed animal. two word sentences 4 or more blocks May show interest in the Can name most 9 9 potty familiar things internet resources American Academy of Pediatrics www.aap.org Shows a wide range of Understands “ mine,” 9 9 The official Web site of the American Academy of emotions “his” and “hers” Pediatrics—an organization of 60,000 pediatricians committed to the attainment of optimal physical, Shows defiant behavior 9 mental, and social health and well-being for all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Let’s EAT Let’s GET CLEAN Look at pictures and photos of foods in magazines and name Assist your toddler with tooth brushing while playing/singing ▲ ˜ them. Help your toddler to tear or cut out (with appropriate Raffi’s “Brush Your Teeth” song (see song list). child-size scissors) pictures of food and glue them to make a food During bath time, encourage your toddler to name different body collage or book. Count the foods together. parts as he/she washes. Use a variety of washers (sponge, wash- Talk about how vegetables grow and help your cloth) to experience different textures. toddler plant and care for a bean seed. Give your toddler a wet sponge or washcloth to wipe counter- ˜ When dining out, have your toddler point to, color and talk about tops, tables, etc. Allow her/him to help clean with child-sized ▲ different foods on the children’s menu. Count food items as your brooms, mops, etc. toddler points to them. Put a bar of soap and plastic animals or dolls into a water table, Make pudding together. Help your toddler pour and stir the sink, or tub and have your toddler wash them. Exploring with ingredients. Describe the ingredients and expand your toddler’s the bar of soap can be a new experience, since many families use language (ex: your toddler says “milk” and you can say “yes, the liquid soaps. Talk about how the soap feels. For example, “slippery milk is white and creamy”). and wet.” 18-24 months Let’s GO Let’s SHARE WORDS and STORIES Draw a simple map with 3 places (such as your house, a tree and Give your toddler a large paper heart, a blanket, and/or hats and a neighbor’s house) before going for a walk and point out the allow him/her to hide various stuffed animals/dolls behind the places on the map as you pass them. heart, the blanket or the hat as you read Peek-a-Boo, I Love You (see book list). The book ends with a heart-shaped mirror for your Read books that encourage movement and singing such as Five ˜ toddler to see himself/herself as you read “Peek a Boo, I love You” Little Monkeys Jumping on the Bed (see book list). Relate stories to things that your toddler is familiar with asking Move like a variety of animals (ex: jump like a frog, crawl like a things like, “Where do dogs live?” “What sound does a dog make?” bug, etc.) or “What toys do you like to play with in the bath?” Throw and catch a ball outside. Inside, you can toss balls or ˜ Play “I Spy” while reading. “I spy something big and blue. What is it?” beanbags into baskets or inside a hula hoop. Play “Follow the Leader” by having your toddler follow you as Describe your toddler’s emotions while reading. you march, hop, etc. and then allow her/him to be the leader, “This part of the story makes you laugh, feel sad, etc.” following what he or she does. Allow your toddler to look at books independently Play outside daily weather permitting Use push/pull and riding toys. and tell the story to you. ˜ Let’s REST Let’s SAY HELLO - GOODBYE ˜ Ask your toddler to wiggle his/her sillies out, then point to a body part (nose, mouth, arm, etc.) and “put it to sleep” until your When it’s time to clean up toys, sing “Toys away. Toys away. Time toddler’s whole body is resting. to put the toys away.” Or sing “Clean Up” (see song list). Clean up Put several items into a bag or empty tissue box and have your with your toddler, showing him/her how and where to put toys toddler reach in and feel and guess the item or ask him/her to find and praise your toddler as he/she cleans up. “Wow, you are doing “something bumpy.” a great job putting your toys away” Have your toddler lie down on a big piece of paper (you can cut Move like an animal: walk quietly “like a mouse” into the doctor’s open a brown paper bag) and trace the outline of her/his body. office or library, hop “like a cricket” to the door before Color the face, hair, clothes together. going outside to hunt for bugs. Give your toddler strips of construction paper and a variety of Look at a calendar together. Point to and count the stickers and make bookmarks together. number of days until a special event such as a play “Paint” with water on sidewalk, driveway, etc. with sponges, paint date, first day of school, vacation, etc. brushes and roller brushes. Explore with water and sidewalk chalk. KEy LEarNINg arEaS Approaches to Learning Language and Literacy Mathematics Science ▲ Creative Arts Social Studies Physical Health and Wellness Social and Emotional ˜ W O W W O BChildren 24-30 months are consistently testing their independence, insisting on completing tasks without help. Expect to hear words and phrases such as “mine”, “no” and “me do it.” You will notice that your child plays next to other children and may begin to play more cooperatively with MiLestones By end of 30 months others. As your child becomes more social, provide oppor- Copies others Builds t owers of 4 or more tunities for play dates with other children. Good news, you 9 9 blocks Gets excited when with may begin to see your child showing signs of being ready 9 other children M ight use one hand more 9 to use the toilet (dry diaper for long periods of time, some than the other Says sentences with 2 – 4 9 regularity of bowel movements, urinates a lot at one time). words Stands on tipt oe 9 F ollows simple instruction Throws ball overhand 9 9 internet resources Let’s GET CLEAN Center for Early Literacy Learning www.earlyliteracylearning.org/pgparents.php The Center for Early Literacy Learning (CELL) promotes the adoption and Sing the following song, while drying off after a bath. sustained use of evidence-based early literacy learning practices. After my bath, I try, try, try To wipe myself off til I’m dry, dry, dry. My arms, my legs, my neck, my nose, All my fingers and all my toes Let’s EAT Just think how much less time it would take Explore ways to create fun snacks with your child. For example, ˜ If I were a dog and could shake, shake, shake ants on a log with cream cheese on celery and cereal down the center. Talk about how you are going to make it, as well as the Get creative and change the words textures, colors, smells and tastes. Brainstorm other snack ideas to your favorite nursery rhymes. that you could try at a later time. Rub a dub dub; a child is in the tub; and who do you think he/she be?; Set your child up for success. Prepare food in a form that is rea- ˜ Why “child’s name” is in the tub. Rub sonably easy for your child to manage, for example, finger foods, a dub dub; as clean as he/she can be. thickened soups. Allow your child to be independent. If she/he does ask for help, assist minimally still allowing him/her to be as Take a milk jug and make a few holes independent as possible. in the bottom of it. Be careful to sand Visit a local farmer’s market or produce stand. Talk about what down any rough edges. Your child will enjoy filling and watching kinds of food come from the farm. Enjoy some locally grown the water pour out of the bottom of the jug. Engage your child in foods together. Talk about colors, flavors, textures. questions: Why is the water coming out of the bottom?; Can you find a way to stop the water from coming out?; Can we make the At home or while dining out, count the number of place settings ▲ water come out slow/fast? together. 24-30 monthsLet’s GO Let’s SHARE WORDS and STORIES Waiting in line at the grocery store is an excellent time to engage Have lots of conversations with your child. This boosts language your child in conversation and vocabulary building. Point to a skills, introduces the concept of conversation and enables your picture on a magazine cover while asking “What do you think this child to feel important. Two-year olds typically can speak girl is doing?” Look for letters in big type. Point to a letter and say between 200 and 250 words. “Look, here’s a B just like the letter B in your name.” Your child can tell stories through drawing. Help your child Go outside after it rains. Look for a puddle. Have your child drop understand that pictures have meaning. Ask him/her to tell you a rock into the puddle and talk about what happens. “How can about his/her drawings. Show you are listening by asking ques- we make a BIG splash? A small splash?” Look for worms and talk tions about the colors, shapes and what the picture is about. about how they feel, and move. Follow up by reading Start a story and ask your child to add to it. When Diary of a Worm (see book list). telling a pretend story, ask your child to make up Lie in the grass and watch the clouds on a sunny day. details, for example, “What does the child’s bike look Have your child share what shapes he/she sees OR find like?” If the story is about a real person or place, ask a certain shaped cloud and ask your child to search the sky for it. your child to give details about them. Follow up by reading It Looked Like Spilt Milk (see book list). Let’s SAY HELLO - GOODBYE Let’s REST When you are sending your child to a setting for the first time, The soothing sound of a familiar voice helps your child drift off to there are a few things you can do to help your child get over sleep. Have a calming conversation while settling down for bed. those first day jitters. Visit the setting as many times as possible Make bedtime fun and a part of the day your child looks forward before you begin. You and your child both will be more to Play a quiet game before going to bed. For example, Pick comfortable if the surroundings, sounds and staff are familiar. something in the room and give your child clues to help him/her Invite a friend over for a play date. Get your child excited about guess what it is. For example, “I see something …” the visit, sharing how much fun he/she will have and offering Add a new twist to naptime. Take a blanket and pillow outside on many items of interest to explore. As children play, introduce new a warm (not hot) afternoon and look for a shaded area. Have your vocabulary and engage in conversations. child close his/her eyes and listen to the sounds all around. Listen Begin introducing the concept of time. Talk about what we do ▲ for the birds, the cars, a dog barking, a door opening and closing etc. in the morning (get up, eat breakfast, play), what we do in the Create a fort together. Drape sheets and blankets over furniture. afternoon (nap, play) and what we do in the evening (dinner, play, Crawl in with your child. Use a flashlight to make shadow puppets. story time and go to bed). Have your child start predicting what You and your child will enjoy this indoor “camping” experience. routines may come next. KEy LEarNINg arEaS Approaches to Learning Language and Literacy Mathematics Science ▲ Creative Arts Social Studies Physical Health and Wellness Social and Emotional ˜ All About MeAs children continue to demonstrate independence, they will test their limits and boundariestaking risks and showing defiant behavior. Spend more time praising your child’s positive behavior while limiting attention to negative behavior. Language is developing quickly and can help your child talk about his/her behaviors and feelings. MiLestones By end of 36 months Teach your child to “use his/her words.” Introduce new vocabulary by labeling emotions and talking about Play begins to include B egins to sort shapes 9 9 others (i.e. tea parties, and colors experiences. chase games) Finds things even 9 Laughs at unusual w ords when hidden 9 internet resources for things Follows two- 9 Pennsylvania Public Libraries P oints to things or pictures step directions 9 www.publiclibraries.com/pennsylvania.htm when they’re named K icks a ball Most libraries have wonderful learning opportunities 9 R epeats words overheard 9 for children of all ages.  To find out what programs B egins to run 9 in conversation are offered in your local community, please visit M akes or copies 9 the link above which provides a listing of all straight lines public libraries within the Commonwealth. Let’s GET CLEAN Let’s EAT Provide several objects during bath time (a feather, cotton, leaf, Pretend that your kitchen is a science lab. For example, ask your rock etc…) and have your child predict whether the object will child what he/she thinks might happen when you mix baking soda float or sink, then test them. and vinegar OR make “goop” by mixing corn starch and water. Talk Time your toothbrushing. Play one of your child’s favorite ˜ about how the “goop” feels (dry and wet at the same time). songs and have him/her brush teeth until the song is Enjoy strawberries as a snack. Talk about the seeds on the outside. ˜ over. After washing, cut the strawberry in half and talk about what you You can encourage creativity in the tub Make homemade see. JOKE: What do you call a sad strawberry? (A “blue” berry) bath paints with your child using 1 Tbsp (or more) of cornstarch, Try new fruits and vegetables like star fruits, kiwis, corn in the husk, 1/3 cup dishwashing soap (eco-friendly) and food coloring. etc. Discuss the shape, texture and smells. Compare what the fruit/ Encourage your child to paint away. vegetable looks like on the outside to what it looks like on the in- Create a microphone using an empty toilet paper roll and a piece side. Ask your child questions and listen closely to his/her answers. of crumbled aluminum foil. Attach the ball of aluminum foil to When dining out, give your child a few choices (use picture menu the toilet paper roll with tape. Encourage your child to use the if the restaurant provides one). Let your child choose what he/she microphone to sing or to tell stories while in the tub. will eat from the choices given. 30-36 monthsLet’s GO Let’s SHARE WORDS and STORIES Go on a scavenger hunt with your child. Search your home look- Have your child choose her/his favorite stuffed animals. Take ▲ ing for change that has been lost under sofa cushions etc. Once photos of the animals and create a book with a title page. Have found, help your child sort the coins into separate piles by type. your child look through the book and tell you the story. The money he/she finds can be used to purchase a treat the next Talk to your child about fire safety – steering clear of matches, ˜ time you are out and about lighters, candles, stovetops, radiators and heaters. Discuss what Go outside and scatter birdseed or stale bread around. to do in a fire emergency and practice with your child. Make predictions on how long it will take the birds Make your own face paint combining ½ cup of cold cream with to come. Watch for the birds. Be sure to talk about colors, 2 Tbsp. of cornstarch. Scoop mixture in empty egg carton sizes of the birds and sounds they make. Take paper containers and add food coloring. Turn your child into his/her and encourage your child to draw the birds. favorite animal or character . Get creative A great way to teach your child to give back is to volunteer. Your local SPCA can always use volunteers to walk their dogs. As you control the leash, your child will be happy to walk alongside a Let’s REST furry friend. Be sure to use this opportunity to build vocabulary and encourage discussion. You can also talk about dog safety. Yoga provides many health benefits for children and ˜ adults. Try “the Tree Pose” by standing up straight and tall. Breathe in and out and feel your legs reaching toward the ground and your head reaching toward the Let’s SAY HELLO - GOODBYE sky. Lift your right leg, bending at the knee and place it Moving from one activity to another (transitioning) can be stress- on your left leg above or below the knee. Let your leg ful for children and parents. Oer ff ing two, acceptable choices be strong like the trunk of a tree and stretch your arms can help ease the stress of transition times. For example, “Do you up like branches want to slither like a snake or jump like a frog to bed?” Read stories aloud to your child. Your child will enjoy hearing the Make cleaning up fun. Be sure to give a verbal or non verbal warning same story over and over again. Repetition helps children learn before it’s time to clean up. Warning signals include: 5 minute verbal about the structure of stories which prepares your child to be- warning, ring a bell, turn on a favorite song or turn off the light. come a reader and writer. When picking your child up from a play date, school or a relative’s Take a quiet, peaceful walk inside or outside. Agree to be very house – show interest in them by asking specific questions about quiet and pay attention to the sounds that are all around you. Ask, what they have done. Listen to his/her response and add “What do you hear?” Talk about where the sounds may be coming comments or ask more questions to keep the conversation going. from. At the end of your walk, reflect on all the different sounds The number of words you exchange TRULY matters in language you heard together. See how many your child can remember. development KEy LEarNINg arEaS Approaches to Learning Language and Literacy Mathematics Science ▲ Creative Arts Social Studies Physical Health and Wellness Social and Emotional ˜Pat-A-Cake The Itsy Bitsy Spider Pat-A-Cake, Pat-A-Cake, The itsy bitsy spider Baker’s Man. Climbed up the waterspout Bake me a cake, Down came the rain As fast as you can. (clap hands to beat) And washed the spider out. Roll it. (roll hands) This Little Piggy Went to Market Out came the sun Pat it. (pat lap or floor) This Little Piggy went to market. And dried up all the rain Mark it with a “B,” (finger write “B” on baby’s belly) This Little Piggy stayed home. So the itsy-bitsy spider And put it in the oven for baby and me. This Little Piggy had roast beef. Climbed up the spout again (tickle baby’s belly) This Little Piggy had none. And this Little Piggy went “wee wee wee” Hickory, Dickory, Dock all the way home Where is Thumbkin? Hickory, Dickory, Dock (Hide both hands behind your back) (Touch your baby’s toes, knees and hips) Where is Thumbkin? Where is Thumbkin? The mouse ran up the clock. Here I am. (bring out one hand with thumb up) (Tickle up your baby’s body) Here I am. (repeat with other hand) The clock struck one, Row, Row, Row Your Boat How are you today, sir? (move one thumb as if talking) (Touch your baby’s nose) Row, Row, Row Your Boat, Very well, I thank you. (move other thumb as if talking) The mouse ran down, Gently Down the Stream, Run away. (move one hand behind back) (Tickle down your baby’s body) Merrily, Merrily, Merrily, Run away. (move other hand behind back) Hickory, Dickory, Dock. Life is but a Dream. (Touch your baby’s toes, knees and hips) Repeat with each finger. Pointer finger – where is pointer? Middle finger – where is tall man? Clean Up Ring finger – where is ring man? Clean-up, clean-up Pinkie – where is pinkie? Everybody get some toys. I Hear Thunder Clean-up, clean-up (sung to the tune of “Are You Sleeping?) All the little girls and boys. I hear Thunder, I hear Thunder, (drum feet on the floor) Good Morning Song Clean-up, clean-up Oh don’t you? Oh, don’t you? (pretend to listen) Good Morning, Good Morning, Everybody do your share. Pitter-patter raindrops, (flutter your fingers for raindrops) Good Morning to you. Clean-up, clean-up Pitter-Patter raindrops I’m Happy to see you, Everybody, everywhere. I’m wet through, (shake your body vigorously) And how do you do? So are you (point to your child) songs & finger plays