Ad hoc routing protocols ppt

mobile ad hoc network routing protocols ppt and ad hoc network routing protocols ppt and ad hoc multicast routing protocol ppt
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Published Date:24-04-2017
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Outline:  Introduction.  Advantages and Applications.  Cellular VS Ad-Hoc Networks.  Technical Challenges and Issues.  Ad-Hoc Wireless Media Access Protocols.  Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols.  Providing Quality of Service in Ad-Hoc Networks.Introduction (1): Multi-hop Wireless Networks (MHWNs): It is defined as a collection of nodes that communicate with each other wirelessly by using radio signals with a shared common channel. Hop Path, chain or route Switching Unit HostIntroduction (2):  There are several names for MHWNs; it could be called packet radio network, Ad-Hoc network or mobile network.  The nodes here could be named stations or radio transmitters and receivers. MHWNs Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor Mesh Networks Networks NetworksIntroduction (3): Ad-Hoc Networks:  It is a type of MHWNs.  Nodes in the network are mobile in general.  The wireless hosts in such networks, communicate with each other without the existing of a fixed infrastructure and without a central control.  A mobile ad-hoc network can be connected to other fixed networks or to the Internet.  Most of the Ad-Hoc networks use the allocated frequencies for the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band.Advantages and Applications (1): Ad-hoc networks have several advantages over the traditional networks, like:  Ad-hoc networks can have more flexibility.  It is better in mobility.  It can be turn up and turn down in a very short time.  It can be more economical.  It considered a robust network because of its non-hierarchical distributed control and management mechanisms.Advantages and Applications (2): There are lots of applications for Ad-Hoc networks, like:  Group of people with laptops and they want to exchange files and data without having an access point. Sharing the internet Connected to the internetAdvantages and Applications (2):  Incase if we need to exchange information and the network's infrastructure has been destroyed.  It is suitable for military communications at battlefield where there is no network infrastructure.Cellular VS Ad-Hoc Networks: Cellular Ad-Hoc Networks  Infrastructure networks.  Infrastructureless networks.  Fixed, pre-located cell sites and  No base station, and rapid base station. deployment.  Static backbone network topology. Highly dynamic network topologies.  Relatively caring environment and  Hostile environment and irregular stable connectivity. connectivity.  Detailed planning before base  Ad-Hoc network automatically station can be installed. forms and adapts to changes.  High setup costs. Cost-effective.  Large setup time. Less setup time. Technical Challenges and Issues (1): There are several challenges that Ad-Hoc network faces such as: • Limited wireless range. • Hidden terminals. • Packet losses. • Routes changes. • Devices heterogeneity. • Battery power constraints.Technical Challenges and Issues (2): The main challenges face the Ad-Hoc networks are the following:  Energy conservation: Nodes in Ad-Hoc networks are equipped with limited batteries.  Unstructured and/or time-varying network topology: Because of the nodes mobility, that makes the network topology usually unstructured and makes the optimizing process a difficult task.  Scalability: In some cases, there will be a huge number of nodes.Technical Challenges and Issues (3):  Low-quality communications: In general, wireless networks are less reliable than the wired networks. In addition to that, the quality of the network can be affected by the environmental factors.  Resource-constrained computation: The resources in Ad-Hoc networks such as energy and network bandwidth are available in limited amounts.Technical Challenges and Issues (4): In addition to that, Ad-Hoc networks inherit some of the issues which are faced by the traditional wireless networks, like:  There are no known boundaries for the maximum range that nodes will be able to receive network frames.  The wireless channel is weak, unreliable, and unprotected from outside interferences.  The wireless channel has time-varying and asymmetric propagation properties.  Hidden-node and exposed-node problems may occur.Technical Challenges and Issues (5): Hidden-node problem: Collision Sender 2 Sender 1 ReceiverTechnical Challenges and Issues (6): Exposed-node problem: Blocked By The Transmitter Transmitter Exposed Node ReceiverAd-Hoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (1): Why do we need for a media access protocol?  The medium is shared by all of the nodes.  If we give the node the freedom to send at any time, then that could result in a contention.  We can't have a central controller to manage the transmission process, because every node can move at any time. Therefore, we will choose from the medium access control (MAC) protocols in order to use the shred medium in the most efficient way.Ad-Hoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (2): MAC Protocols Synchronous Asynchronous MAC Protocols Sender-Initiated Receiver-Initiated Ad-Hoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (3): Sender-Initiated MAC Protocols: RTS 1 CTS 2 Receiver Sender Data 3Ad-Hoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (4): Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocols: RTR 1 Receiver Sender Data 2Ad-Hoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (5): Existing Ad-Hoc MAC Protocols: 1. Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (MACA):  It was proposed as a solution for both hidden terminal and exposed node problems.  It has the ability to control the transmitter power for each packet.  It uses a three-way handshake, RTS-CTS-Data.  Collisions could occur in MCSA, because there is no carrier sensing in it.