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Advantages and Applications.
Cellular VS Ad-Hoc Networks.
Technical Challenges and Issues.
Ad-Hoc Wireless Media Access Protocols.
Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols.
Providing Quality of Service in Ad-Hoc Networks.Introduction (1):
Multi-hop Wireless Networks (MHWNs):
It is defined as a collection of nodes that communicate with each
other wirelessly by using radio signals with a shared common
Path, chain or route
There are several names for MHWNs; it could be called packet
radio network, Ad-Hoc network or mobile network.
The nodes here could be named stations or radio transmitters
Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor
Networks NetworksIntroduction (3):
It is a type of MHWNs.
Nodes in the network are mobile in general.
The wireless hosts in such networks, communicate with each
other without the existing of a fixed infrastructure and without a
A mobile ad-hoc network can be connected to other fixed
networks or to the Internet.
Most of the Ad-Hoc networks use the allocated frequencies for
the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band.Advantages and Applications (1):
Ad-hoc networks have several advantages over the traditional
Ad-hoc networks can have more flexibility.
It is better in mobility.
It can be turn up and turn down in a very short time.
It can be more economical.
It considered a robust network because of its non-hierarchical
distributed control and management mechanisms.Advantages and Applications (2):
There are lots of applications for Ad-Hoc networks, like:
Group of people with laptops and they want to exchange files and
data without having an access point.
Sharing the internet
Connected to the internetAdvantages and Applications (2):
Incase if we need to exchange information and the network's
infrastructure has been destroyed.
It is suitable for military communications at battlefield where
there is no network infrastructure.Cellular VS Ad-Hoc Networks:
Cellular Ad-Hoc Networks
Infrastructure networks. Infrastructureless networks.
Fixed, pre-located cell sites and No base station, and rapid
base station. deployment.
Static backbone network topology. Highly dynamic network topologies.
Relatively caring environment and Hostile environment and irregular
stable connectivity. connectivity.
Detailed planning before base Ad-Hoc network automatically
station can be installed. forms and adapts to changes.
High setup costs. Cost-effective.
Large setup time. Less setup time. Technical Challenges and Issues (1):
There are several challenges that Ad-Hoc network faces such as:
• Limited wireless range.
• Hidden terminals.
• Packet losses.
• Routes changes.
• Devices heterogeneity.
• Battery power constraints.Technical Challenges and Issues (2):
The main challenges face the Ad-Hoc networks are the following:
Energy conservation: Nodes in Ad-Hoc networks are equipped
with limited batteries.
Unstructured and/or time-varying network topology: Because of
the nodes mobility, that makes the network topology usually
unstructured and makes the optimizing process a difficult task.
Scalability: In some cases, there will be a huge number of nodes.Technical Challenges and Issues (3):
Low-quality communications: In general, wireless networks are
less reliable than the wired networks. In addition to that, the
quality of the network can be affected by the environmental
Resource-constrained computation: The resources in Ad-Hoc
networks such as energy and network bandwidth are available in
limited amounts.Technical Challenges and Issues (4):
In addition to that, Ad-Hoc networks inherit some of the issues
which are faced by the traditional wireless networks, like:
There are no known boundaries for the maximum range that
nodes will be able to receive network frames.
The wireless channel is weak, unreliable, and unprotected from
The wireless channel has time-varying and asymmetric
Hidden-node and exposed-node problems may occur.Technical Challenges and Issues (5):
ReceiverTechnical Challenges and Issues (6):
Transmitter Exposed Node
ReceiverAd-Hoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (1):
Why do we need for a media access protocol?
The medium is shared by all of the nodes.
If we give the node the freedom to send at any time, then that
could result in a contention.
We can't have a central controller to manage the transmission
process, because every node can move at any time.
Therefore, we will choose from the medium access control (MAC)
protocols in order to use the shred medium in the most efficient
way.Ad-Hoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (2):
Sender-Initiated Receiver-Initiated Ad-Hoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (3):
Sender-Initiated MAC Protocols:
3Ad-Hoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (4):
Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocols:
2Ad-Hoc Wireless Media Access Protocols (5):
Existing Ad-Hoc MAC Protocols:
1. Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (MACA):
It was proposed as a solution for both hidden terminal and
exposed node problems.
It has the ability to control the transmitter power for each
It uses a three-way handshake, RTS-CTS-Data.
Collisions could occur in MCSA, because there is no carrier
sensing in it.