Microelectronics pills ppt

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Economic impact Concepts and terminology Design ow in digital VLSI Field-programmable logic Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families Introduction to Microelectronics Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  VLSI I: Architectures of VLSI Circuits last update: April 8, 2009 Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact Concepts and terminology Design ow in digital VLSI Field-programmable logic Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families Worldwide semiconductor market by vendors (2007) Revenue Share Share Rank Vendor GUSD % % 1 Intel 33.80 12.3 2 Samsung Electronics 20.46 7.5 3 Toshiba 11.82 4.3 4 Texas Instruments 11.77 4.3 5 In neon + Qimonda 10.20 3.7 6 ST-Microelectronics 9.97 3.6 7 Hynix 9.10 3.3 8 Renesas 8.00 2.9 9 AMD 5.88 2.1 10 NXP 5.87 2.1 ... others 147.05 53.8 Total 237.91 100 0.49 for comparison World GDP (2006) 48 462 100 source: Gartner March 2008 and www.worldbank.org May 2008 Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact Concepts and terminology Design ow in digital VLSI Field-programmable logic Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families Economic leverage of semiconductors I Microelectronics has a much larger impact on world economy, however, because it is acting as a technology driver for I Computer and software industry I Telecommunications and media industry I Commerce, logistics and transportation I Natural science and medicine I Power generation and distribution I Finance and administration Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact Concepts and terminology Design ow in digital VLSI Field-programmable logic Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families Economic leverage of semiconductors II EDA software & virtual components 2006: 248 GUSD/y Semiconductor components Electronic components Electronic goods World-wide gross domestic product 2006: 48.2 TUSD/y (computers, mobile phones, home entertainment equipment, etc.) Applications: · Goods with embedded electronics (machines, cars, cameras, watches, etc.) · Information technology services (corporate IT, Internet, music download, etc.) Figure: Impact of microelectronics on \downstream" industries and services. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to Microelectronics) Microelectronics is the enabler of information technology. Economic impact Concepts and terminology Design ow in digital VLSI Field-programmable logic Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families Microelectronics drives the information age I Microelectronics has an enormous economic leverage as any progress there spurs innovations in \downstream" industries and services. I While computing, telecommunication, and entertainment products existed before the advent of microelectronics, today's information society would not have been possible without. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact Concepts and terminology Design ow in digital VLSI Field-programmable logic Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families Microelectronics drives the information age I Microelectronics has an enormous economic leverage as any progress there spurs innovations in \downstream" industries and services. I While computing, telecommunication, and entertainment products existed before the advent of microelectronics, today's information society would not have been possible without. ) Microelectronics is the enabler of information technology. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact Concepts and terminology Design ow in digital VLSI Field-programmable logic Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families Impact of semiconductors on consumer goods I Figure: Four products that take advantage of microelectronics. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact Concepts and terminology Design ow in digital VLSI Field-programmable logic Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families Impact of semiconductors on consumer goods II Figure: Similar products that include no large-scale integrated circuits. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact Concepts and terminology Design ow in digital VLSI Field-programmable logic Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families Impact of semiconductors on consumer goods III Figure: A product that has brought system integration to even higher levels. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to Microelectronicscircuit complexity GEs of logic + bits of memory small-scale integration (SSI) 1 ... 10 medium-scale integration (MSI) 10 ... 100 large-scale integration (LSI) 100 ... 10 000 very-large-scale integration (VLSI) 10 000 ... 1 000 000 ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) 1 000 000 ... Hint: state storage capacities separately from logic complexity, e.g. 75 000 GE of logic + 32 Kibit SRAM + 512 bit ash 108 000 GE Economic impact The Guiness book of records point of view Concepts and terminology The marketing point of view Design ow in digital VLSI The fabrication point of view Field-programmable logic The design engineer's point of view Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families The business point of view The Guiness book of records point of view \How large is that circuit?" I Geometric chip size I Transistor count I Gate-equivalents 1 GE7 1 two-input nand7 4 MOSFETs in static CMOS logic Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact The Guiness book of records point of view Concepts and terminology The marketing point of view Design ow in digital VLSI The fabrication point of view Field-programmable logic The design engineer's point of view Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families The business point of view The Guiness book of records point of view \How large is that circuit?" I Geometric chip size I Transistor count I Gate-equivalents 1 GE7 1 two-input nand7 4 MOSFETs in static CMOS logic circuit complexity GEs of logic + bits of memory small-scale integration (SSI) 1 ... 10 medium-scale integration (MSI) 10 ... 100 large-scale integration (LSI) 100 ... 10 000 very-large-scale integration (VLSI) 10 000 ... 1 000 000 ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) 1 000 000 ... Hint: state storage capacities separately from logic complexity, e.g. 75 000 GE of logic + 32 Kibit SRAM + 512 bit ash 108 000 GE Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact The Guiness book of records point of view Concepts and terminology The marketing point of view Design ow in digital VLSI The fabrication point of view Field-programmable logic The design engineer's point of view Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families The business point of view What you ought to know about logic families A logic family is a collection of digital subfunctions that  assemble to arbitrary logic, arithmetic and storage functions  are compatible among themselves electrically  share a common fabrication technology Acronym Meaning MOS Metal Oxide Semiconductor. FET Field E ect Transistor (n- or p-channel) BJT Bipolar Junction Transistor (npn or pnp) CMOS Complementary MOS (circuit or technology) static CMOS data stored in bistable subcircuits and retained dynamic CMOS data stored as electrical charges to be refreshed TTL Transistor Transistor Logic (BJTs & passive devices) ECL Emitter-Coupled Logic (non-saturating logic) BiCMOS CMOS & bipolar devices on a single chip Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact The Guiness book of records point of view Concepts and terminology The marketing point of view Design ow in digital VLSI The fabrication point of view Field-programmable logic The design engineer's point of view Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families The business point of view VDD VDD VCC 2-input IN1 technological nand evolution OUP OUP IN1 IN2 IN2 IN2 OUP gate in IN1 various VSS VSS GND b) c) e) techno- VCC1 device MOSFET BJT VCC2 logies p-channel pnp icon (NAND) (AND) OUP1 OUP2 n-channel npn IN1 approximate voltage-controlled current-controlled IN2 behavior current source current source depletion variations device device resistor diode bias section shared with other gates icon VEE g) Figure: Static CMOS (c), NMOS (b), early TTL (e), and ECL circuit (g). Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsApplication-speci c integrated circuit (ASIC). I Application-speci c standard product (ASSP): designed for a speci c task and sold to various customers. Examples: graphics accelerators, cellular radio chip sets, smart card chips, etc. I User-speci c integrated circuit (USIC): designed and produced for a single company. Examples: audio processor for hearing aids, etc. Economic impact The Guiness book of records point of view Concepts and terminology The marketing point of view Design ow in digital VLSI The fabrication point of view Field-programmable logic The design engineer's point of view Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families The business point of view The marketing point of view \How do functionality and target markets relate to each other?" General-purpose IC. Examples are either very simple or very generic. Simple circuit: gates, ip- ops, counters, etc. Generic functionality: RAMs, ROMs, microcomputers, FPL, etc. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact The Guiness book of records point of view Concepts and terminology The marketing point of view Design ow in digital VLSI The fabrication point of view Field-programmable logic The design engineer's point of view Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families The business point of view The marketing point of view \How do functionality and target markets relate to each other?" General-purpose IC. Examples are either very simple or very generic. Simple circuit: gates, ip- ops, counters, etc. Generic functionality: RAMs, ROMs, microcomputers, FPL, etc. Application-speci c integrated circuit (ASIC). I Application-speci c standard product (ASSP): designed for a speci c task and sold to various customers. Examples: graphics accelerators, cellular radio chip sets, smart card chips, etc. I User-speci c integrated circuit (USIC): designed and produced for a single company. Examples: audio processor for hearing aids, etc. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact The Guiness book of records point of view Concepts and terminology The marketing point of view Design ow in digital VLSI The fabrication point of view Field-programmable logic The design engineer's point of view Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families The business point of view A rst IC classi cation scheme hardware SSI MSI LSI VLSI ULSI complexity computer . . . . memory and still more memory . . . . counter interface general . . . . program-controlled processor . . . . logic parallel purpose gate multiplier . . . . field-programmable logic devices . . . . (before getting programmed) functionality mobile radio digital spatial diversity base-band filter transceiver processor application- glue logic specific error-correcting video data encoder/decoder compressor . . . . "system on a chip (SoC) " . . . . Figure: ICs classi ed as a function of functionality and hardware complexity. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact The Guiness book of records point of view Concepts and terminology The marketing point of view Design ow in digital VLSI The fabrication point of view Field-programmable logic The design engineer's point of view Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families The business point of view A rst glimpse at VLSI manufacturing few masks made to order for one design all masks made to order most masks for one design shared with other designs unprocessed preprocessed wafer wafer a) b) Figure: Full-custom (a) and semi-custom (b) masks sets compared. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact The Guiness book of records point of view Concepts and terminology The marketing point of view Design ow in digital VLSI The fabrication point of view Field-programmable logic The design engineer's point of view Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families The business point of view Semi-custom fabrication I preprocessed master a) Figure: Prefabricated gate array site. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to MicroelectronicsEconomic impact The Guiness book of records point of view Concepts and terminology The marketing point of view Design ow in digital VLSI The fabrication point of view Field-programmable logic The design engineer's point of view Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families The business point of view Semi-custom fabrication II + custom metallization b) Figure: Custom contact and metal masks. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to Microelectronics= Economic impact The Guiness book of records point of view Concepts and terminology The marketing point of view Design ow in digital VLSI The fabrication point of view Field-programmable logic The design engineer's point of view Appendix I: A brief glossary of logic families The business point of view Semi-custom fabrication III customized circuit not used not used c) Figure: Site customized into a 2-input NAND gate. Dr. Hubert Kaeslin Microelectronics Design Center ETH Zurich  Introduction to Microelectronics

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