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Dr.DouglasPatton,United States,Teacher
Published Date:26-07-2017
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Space Biophysics, Accomplishments, Trends, Challenges Jeffrey D. Smith, NASA Ames Research Center Abstract Physics and biology are inextricably linked. All the chemical and biological processes of life are dutifully bound to follow the rules and laws of physics. In space, these physical laws seem to turn on their head and biological systems, from microbes to humans, adapt and evolve in myriad ways to cope with the changed physical influences of the space environment. Gravity is the most prominent change in space that influences biology. In microgravity, the physical processes of sedimentation, density-driven convective flow, influence of surface tension and fluid pressure profoundly influence biology at the molecular and cellular level as well as at the whole-body level. Gravity sensing mechanisms are altered, structural and functional components of biology (such as bone and muscle) are reduced and changes in the way fluids and gasses behave also drive the way microbial systems and biofilms grow as well as the way plants and animals adapt. The radiation environment also effects life in space. Solar particle events and high energy cosmic radiation can cause serious damage to DNA and other biomolecules. The results can cause mutation, cellular damage or death, leading to health consequences of acute radiation damage or long-term health consequences such as increased cancer risk. Space Biophysics is the study and utilization of physical changes in space that cause changes in biological systems. The unique physical environment in space has been used successfully to grow high-quality protein crystals and 3D tissue cultures that could not be grown in the presence of unidirectional gravitational acceleration here on Earth. All biological processes that change in space have their root in a biophysical alteration due to microgravity and/or the radiation environment of space. In order to fully-understand the risks to human health in space and to fully-understand how humans, plants, animals and microbes can safely and effectively travel and eventually live for long periods beyond the protective environment of Earth, the biophysical properties underlying these changes must be studied, characterized and understood. This lecture reviews the current state of NASA biophysics research accomplishments and identifies future trends and challenges for biophysics research on the International Space Station and beyond. Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 2NASA Ames Research Center Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 4Space Biology at NASA Ames What is Space Biology? Enabling Exploration Hypothesis-driven, discovery-based biological science in space and associated technology development Why do we do it? So We Can: Making New • Travel further than we’ve ever Discoveries been and live safely beyond the protection of Earth • Discover how gravity and space Improving shape life, and Life on • Enable breakthroughs to improve Earth life on Earth Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 5System Level Gravity Shapes Life Organism Level On Earth and in Space Human System Tissue and Organ Level Human Whole Animal Molecular Molecular and Cellular and Cellular Organ Systems Level Level Organs Tissue Culture Model Organisms Cells Biomolecules Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 6Gravity Shapes Ecosystem Life Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015For approximately 3.5 Billion years, the ever- 2 constant 9.8 m/s acceleration of gravity has shaped every aspect of life on Earth https://universe-review.ca/F10-multicell01.htm Everything Changes for Life in Space Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 12Forces In Life • In space, changes in the physical environment are at the root of all known biological adaptations • Many physical influences directly affect biological systems: – Acceleration Fields: Loading and Unloading – Hydrostatic Pressure, Buoyancy and Sedimentation – Convective Flow of Gasses and Liquids – Surface Tension – Space Radiation – Other: Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure and Atmospheric Composition Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 13“Microgravity” in Orbit Is Not Absence of Gravity Earth Orbital Velocity = 17,000 miles/hr v = Velocity (m/s) 24 M = Mass (5.972 × 10 kg) r = radius (6371000 + 400000 m) G = Gravitational Constant −11 3 2 (6.67384 × 10 m /(kg·s ) Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica (1687) Edward White during Gemini 4 performing EVA; he was the first American to “walk” in space (June 1965) Gravitational Acceleration At the Space Station 𝑀 𝑒 2 = 8.69 m/s a = G 2 𝑟 Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 14Weightlessness and the Human Body Space Biophysics At the root of all biological changes in space, are changes in the physical environment Figure from the article by Ronald J. White, “Weightlessness and the Human Body,” Scientific American, Sept. 1998 Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 15Acceleration Fields: Loading and Unloading • Linear Acceleration • Angular Acceleration • Vibration Soyuz 4gL:4gR Shuttle 3gL:2gR Moon 1/6g Mars 3/8g Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 16Hydrostatic Pressure, Buoyancy and Sedimentation Buoyant Force Force due to Acceleration = Gravity Force - Buoyancy Force - Drag Force Sedimentation velocity by Stoke’s Law The fastest settling particles are huge, heavy, spherical molecules. The slowest settling particles, which sometimes cannot be settled accurately or properly, are tiny, light, irregularly shaped molecules. Complications for Biology Flocculation, or "clumping," of particles into spherical shapes Autocoagulation due to mineral or chemical traits inherent in the particle http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech- Environ/SEDIMENT/sedsettle.html Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 17Surface Tension and Biophysics in Space Drinking Tea in Space Contact Angle Surface Tension Astronaut, Don Pettit, takes Contact angle is related to the Surface tension (g) is defined advantage of capillary flow liquid-solid surface tension as the ratio of the surface from surface tension to drink (g ) and the liquid-gas surface force (F) to the length (d) a cup of tea on ISS ls tension (g ) along which the force acts lg http://www.geek.com/news/how- do-astronauts-drink-tea-with- g = -g cos(q) g = F / d (dyne/cm) ls lg capillary-action-tea-cups-of-course- 1509793/ http://physics.about.com Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 19Space Radiation Damage to DNA and its Enzymatic Repair Living Cell Genome DNA Various types of radiation DNA Damage Nucleobase modification Ionization along a radiation track DNA strand break Diffusible OH DNA Repair Protein radical induced by water radioloysis http://asrc.jaea.go.jp/soshiki/gr/eng/mysite6/index.html Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 21Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 22Temperature, Pressure, Atmosphere 10.2 psi (6,100ft) atmosphere in EMU 14.7 psi (sea level) atmosphere in ISS 100% Oxygen 21% Oxygen, 78% Nitrogen 3K-10K ppm CO2 19°C (67°F) to 27°F (82°C) −156 °C (−249 °F) to 121 °C (250 °F) Italian astronaut Luca Parmitano discovered water accumulation in the helmet of his spacesuit and needed to return to the ISS (July 2013) Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 23Space Biophysics: Forward Accomplishments, Trends, Challenges – Humans – Tissues – Plants – Microbes – Molecules Space Biophysics At the root of all biological changes in space, are changes in the physical environment http://www.occupycorporatism.com/home/house-passes-nasa-bill-put-humans-mars/ Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 24Accomplishments in Space Biophysics: Human Systems Biology Bone mineral loss occurs in microgravity due to unloading of the skeletal Bone system, with average loss rates of approximately 1% per month. It is unclear whether this bone mineral density will stabilize at a lower level, or continue to diminish. It is also unknown if fractional gravity, present on the moon and Mars would mitigate the loss. http://humanresearchroadmap.nasa.gov/Evidence/reports/Bone%20Fracture.pdf Section of the pelvis bone in mice is thinner after 30 days in space 1-g ISS Rodent Habitat m-g Blaber et. al., PLoS ONE 8(4): e61372. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061372 Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 27Accomplishments in Space Biophysics: Human Systems Biology Animal Research in Space Applied to Human Health M. Delp’s results with mice flown for 30d on Bion-M1 suggests a mechanism that may contribute to the temporary or permanent vision problems experienced by ISS astronauts. (S. Sofronova et al. Spaceflight on the Bion-M1 Biosatellite Alters Cerebral Artery Vasomotor and Mechanical Properties in Mice, J. Appl. Physiol, in press Jan. 2015) - A. Hargens’ results with mice on the Bion-M1 mission indicate that the deleterious effects on the caudal discs in the spine may underlie cervical versus lumbar disc herniation rates that are observed among astronauts. Future studies are warranted to explore the rate and effect of recovery post landing, i.e., are the effects of spaceflight reversible? (J. Bailey et al, Effect of microgravity on the biomechanical properties of lumbar and caudal intervertebral discs in mice. J. Biomechanics, 47:2983-2988:2014) - E. Blaber’s results with mice flown on STS-131 indicate that the process of hematopoietic mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in bone marrow is profoundly altered under conditions of reduced mechanical load in microgravity, and a broad down-regulation in marrow differentiation capacity. (E. Blaber et al. Mechanical unloading of bone in microgravity reduces mesenchymal and hematopoetic stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration.Stem Cell Res. 13:181-201:2014) Space Biophysics - JDSmith Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 28Accomplishments in Space Biophysics: Human Systems Biology There is growing research suggesting that skeletal muscles, particularly Muscle postural muscles of the lower limb, undergo atrophy and structural and metabolic alterations during space flight. However, the relationships between in-flight exercise, muscle changes and performance levels are not well understood. http://humanresearchroadmap.nasa.gov/Evidence/reports/Muscle.pdf http://www.womenshealthmag.com/health/heart-disease Suni Williams on TVIS Heart Muscle: the most-altered in space Dan Burbank on ARED Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 29Accomplishments in Space Biophysics: Human Systems Biology Postflight orthostatic intolerance, the inability to maintain blood pressure Fluid while in an upright position, is an established, space-flight-related medical problem. Countermeasures have been identified and implemented with some success (fluid loading, compression garments) or are being evaluated Shift (midodrine & others). Completion of these efforts is essential for determin- ing what preventive measures should be used to combat orthostatic intoler- ance during future long-term missions in LEO or to the Moon and Mars. http://humanresearchroadmap.nasa.gov/Evidence/reports/Orthostatic.pdf m-g 1-g Pavy-Le Traon et. al, Eur J Appl Physiol, 2007 Chris Hadfield DOI 10.1007/s00421-007-0474-z Space Biology Project - NASA Ames Research Center 7 April 2015 Space Biophysics - JDSmith 30

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