Applications of nanotechnology in Biotechnology

biomedical applications of nanotechnology ppt and difference between biotechnology and nanotechnology
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Published Date:21-07-2017
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Introduction to BioMEMS & Bionanotechnology Lecture 1 R. Bashir R. Bashir Laboratory of Integrated Biomedical Micro/Nanotechnology and Applications (LIBNA), Discovery Park School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 1Key Topics • Biochips/Biosensors and Device Fabrication • Cells, DNA, Proteins • Micro-fluidics • Biochip Sensors & Detection Methods • Micro-arrays • Lab-on-a-chip Devices Cells Bacteria Viruses Proteins DNA Molecules 2Definitions • BioMEMS are biomedical or biological applications of MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) • BioNanotechnology is biological applications of nanotechnology (science and technology of miniaturization at scales of 100nm) 3BioMEMS and Bionanotechnology Apply micro/nano-technology to develop novel devices and systems that have a biomedical impact or are bio-inspired Micro/Nanotechnology and Systems Biology & Biomedicine Novel Solutions for Novel Solutions for Frontiers in Medicine Frontiers in Materials and Biology and Information 4 ProcessingOn Size and Scale Top-down 100µm Plant and Animal Cells 10µm MEMS Micro-fluidics Molecular Most Bacteria Devices Molecule- & Specific Memory 1µm MEMS/ Sensors NEMS 2-D CMOS platform 100nm Min Feature Virus of MOS-T (in 2004) 10nm Integrated Proteins One Helical Turn of DNA BioChips (Macro, Micro, 1nm Gate Insulator Nano) for 100nm MOS-T Atoms 0.1nm Bottoms-Up 5 Feature Size MicroElectronics Nanoscale functional & MEMS elementsMore Definitions • Biosensors are ‘analytical devices that combine a biologically sensitive element with a physical or chemical transducer to selectively and quantitatively detect the presence of specific compounds in a given external environment’ Vo-Dinh and Cullum, 2000. • Biochips can be defined as ‘microelectronic-inspired devices that are used for delivery, processing, analysis, or detection of biological molecules and species’ Bashir, 2004. These devices are used to detect cells, microorganisms, viruses, proteins, DNA and related nucleic acids, and small molecules of biochemical importance and interest. 6Overview of Biosensor System Data Analysis/ Sample Processing/ Detection/ Results Separation ID • Water • Food • Air • Body Fluids 7Introduction Key Attributes of Biochips 1. Small length scale 2. Small thermal mass 3. Laminar flow, Re 1 4. High surface-to-volume ratio W.J. Chang, D. Akin, M. Sedlek, M. Ladisch, R. Bashir, Biomedical Microdevices, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 281-290, 2003. Whitesides Harvard University 8Reasons for Miniaturization • In general, the use of micro and nano-scale detection technologies is justified by, – (i) reducing the sensor element to the scale of the target species and hence providing a higher sensitivity à single entity/molecule – (ii) reduced reagent volumes and associated costs, – (iii) reduced time to result due to small volumes resulting in higher effective concentrations, – (iv) amenability of portability and miniaturization of the entire system – (v) point-of-care diagnostic, – (vi) Multi-agent detection capability – (vii) Potential for use in vitro as well as in vivo 9Biochips for Detection • Applications o Medicine o Pharmaceuticals o Food Safety o Homeland Security, etc. • Integrated, Sensitive, Rapid, Cost x Performance • Commercialized; Nanogen, Affymetrix, Caliper, Others…. Cells Bacteria Viruses Proteins DNA Molecules 10Novel Tools for NanoBiology Transcription factors: Controlled Microenvironment Proteins that control the in a Biochip transcription of specific genes stimulus DNA Cell Transcription Real Real- -time time cell cell mRNA bio bio- -chemical chemical communication communication Translation Electrical Electrical Proteins or Optical Signals • Analysis of single cells and the study of their function in real time. • Increase understanding of signaling pathways inside the cell. • Basic cell functions such as differentiation, reproduction, apoptosis, etc. and their implications on various disease states. • Focus of the post-genomic era and systems biology 11BioChip/BioMEMS Materials • Silicon and microelectronic materials • Glass, Quartz • Polymers – Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) – Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) – Teflon, etc. • Biological Entities – Cells, Proteins, DNA – Frontier of BioMEMS 12Introduction to Device Fabrication • MEMS/NEMS Silicon Fabrication – Formation of structures that could be used to form sensors and actuators. – Processing of electrical or non-electrical signals. – Conventional and new semiconductor processing technology modules are used. – Etching, Deposition, Photolithography, Oxidation, Epitaxy, etc. – Deep RIE, Thick Plating, etc • Bulk and Surface Micromachining 13MEMS Examples From Dec 1996, Electron IC Design Probes for AFM Bulk Micromachined Accelerometer from Silicon Microstructures. Inc. DMD Chip from Texas Instruments 14MEMS Examples Single Chip Single Chip Microphone Au back-plate Accelerometer (Analog Devices) Sensor Etch Cavity Chip Si Membrane Deployment of air-bag Draper Labs, 15 National Semiconductor, 1998Silicon BioMEMS Examples Kumetrix IBM Zurich Research Purdue Silicon BioChip 16BioMEMS/Biochip Fabrication • In addition to Silicon…. • Biocompatibility, ideal for biomedical devices • Transparent within the visible spectrum • Rapid fabrication • Photo-definable • Chemically modifiable • Possible choices – PDMS - polydimethylsiloxane, – Hydrogels – PMAA, – Teflon – SU-8, etc. Lab on Chip (Caliper) 17Alternative Fabrication Methods • Soft Lithography – Replication and molding – Micro-contact printing – Micro-molding in capillaries – Micro-transfer molding – Solvent assisted micro-molding – Dip Pen Lithography • Compression Molding – Hot Embossing – Injection Molding • Inkjet Printing 18Replication and Molding • Master mold made from silicon, glass, metal, SU-8 • Surface treatment of master • Pour PDMS (mix, oligomer, and CL agent) • Cure (60C, 1 hr) • Peel off PDMS structure • Mold can be used again • Y. Gia, and G. M. Whitesides, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 1998, 28, 153-84 19μ-Contact Printing • Ink the PDMS structure with molecules (alkylthiols, proteins, DNA, etc.) • Transfer the layer through physical contact (optimize time) • Inking is performed via covalent binding on substrate • Can be performed on flat surface or curved surface 20

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