Sun ppt presentation

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Prof.EvanBaros,United Kingdom,Teacher
Published Date:26-07-2017
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Chapter 16 The SunUnits of Chapter 16 16.1 Physical Properties of the Sun 16.2 The Solar Interior SOHO: Eavesdropping on the Sun 16.3 The Sun’s Atmosphere 16.4 Solar Magnetism: not covered 16.5 The Active Sun: not covered 16.6 The Heart of the Sun Fundamental Forces Energy Generation in the Proton–Proton Chain 16.7 Observations of Solar Neutrinos16.1 Physical Properties of the Sun Radius: 700,000 km 30 Mass: 2.0 × 10 kg = 300 Jupiters = 90,000 Earths Density: not meaningful to give average because varies by orders of magnitude from surface to center. Rotation: Differential; period about a month Surface temperature: 5800 K (a yellow star) Apparent surface of Sun is “photosphere”The sun is the only star that we can resolve in detail, but most of what we want to know is in the deep interior This is a filtered image of the Sun showing sunspots, the sharp edge of the Sun due to the thin photosphere, and the corona:The solar interior Interior structure of the Sun: Outer layers are not to scale The core is where nuclear fusion takes place. The energy emitted by the surface repesents energy transported from the core through the radiative zone, the convection zone, and finally the photosphere, which by definition is the thin atmospheric layer that is thin enough for the radiation to escape.16.1 Physical Properties of the Sun Luminosity— total energy radiated by the Sun— can be calculated from the fraction of that energy that reaches Earth, called the solar constant. Solar constant— amount of Sun's energy incident on a square meter of the Earth per 2 second—is 1400 W/m . That is not much more than a the glare from a very strong light bulb a foot or so away, but the Sun delivers that energy flux to every square meter of the Earth, and does it from 93 million miles (1AU) away. 26 Total luminosity of the sun is about 4 × 10 W—the equivalent of 10 billion 1-megaton nuclear bombs per second. We have no experience with such brightnesses, but just remember that if you moved the sun a parsec away, it would be a bright star in the sky. Since the sun will turn out to be a typical star, this is an extremely important bit of information: What kind of fuel could generate that much energy for over 4 billion years?16.2 The Solar Interior: methods 1. Mathematical models, consistent with observation and physical principles, provide information about the Sun’s interior. Most of what we know about the Sun’s interior, and the interiors of other stars, comes entirely from these models. Example: equation of hydrostatic equilibrium: In equilibrium, inward gravitational force must be balanced by outward pressure: 2. Another method for “looking into” the Sun: Doppler shifts of solar spectral lines indicate a complex pattern of vibrations near the surface. This area is called “solar siesmology.” This only probes the upper layers, and can’t be used in as much detail for other stars. Why do you think that is?What do we know about the solar interior? Solar density and temperature, according to the standard solar model: sun gets denser and hotter as you move inwards. Energy transport: The heat generated in the sun’s core is transported outward by photons in the radiative zone. Eventually radiation is not efficient enough to carry all the heat, and convection currents are set up in the convection zone. (Exactly like heating a room; will explain in class.The granulation: seeing the “top” of the convection zone The visible top layer of the convection zone is granulated, with areas of upwelling material surrounded by areas of sinking material. We can see these rising and falling convection currents through the photosphere.Discovery 16-1: SOHO: Eavesdropping on the Sun SOHO: Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Orbits at Earth’s L1 point, outside the magnetosphere Multiple instruments measure magnetic field, corona, vibrations, and ultraviolet emissions16.3 The Sun’s Atmosphere Spectral analysis can tell us what elements are present, but only in the chromosphere and (mainly) photosphere of the Sun. This spectrum has lines from 67 different elements:16.3 The Sun’s Atmosphere Spectral lines are formed when light is absorbed before escaping from the Sun; this happens when its energy (frequency, wavelength) is close to an atomic transition, so it is absorbed.16.3 The Sun’s Atmosphere The cooler chromosphere is above the photosphere. Difficult to see directly, as photosphere is too bright, unless Moon covers photosphere and not chromosphere during eclipse:16.5 The Active Sun: we are skipping all the material in 16.4 and 16.5 But look at the pictures Areas around sunspots are active; large eruptions may occur in photosphere Solar prominence is large sheet of ejected gas:Discovery 16-2: Solar–Terrestrial Relations Does Earth feel effects of 22-year solar cycle directly? Possible correlations seen; cause not understood, as energy output doesn’t vary much Solar flares and coronal mass ejections ionize atmosphere, disrupting electronics and endangering astronauts16.6 The Core of the Sun Given the Sun’s mass and energy production, we find that, on the average, every kilogram of the sun produces about 0.2 milliwatts of energy This is not much—gerbils could do better— but it continues through the 10-billion-year lifetime of the Sun We find that the total lifetime energy output is about 3 × 13 10 J/kg This is a lot, and it is produced steadily, not explosively. How?Nuclear fusion: Energy source for the sun Why do we believe this? Because nothing else comes close to working. This was in fact the earliest suggestion that there must be something like quantum mechanics in order to allow to nuclei to fuse at very high temperatures. In general, nuclear fusion works like this: nucleus 1 + nucleus 2 → nucleus 3 + energy But where does the energy come from? • It comes from the mass; if you add up the masses of the initial nuclei, you will find that it is more than the mass of the final nucleus.Nuclear fusion converts mass into energy The relationship between mass and energy comes from Einstein’s famous equation: 2 E = mc In this equation, c is the speed of light, which is a very large number. What this equation is telling us is that a small amount of mass is the equivalent of a large amount of energy—tapping into that energy is how the Sun keeps shining so long.What nuclear reactions could be occurring? Nuclear fusion requires that like- charged nuclei get close enough to each other to fuse. This can happen only if the temperature is extremely high—over 10 million K. But even then, only the lightest elements (the ones with the smallest electric charge barriers to be overcome) can undergo fusion. The lightest elements are also the most abundant: hydrogen and helium.The proton-proton reaction The previous image depicts proton–proton fusion. In this reaction: proton + proton → deuteron + positron + neutrino The positron is just like the electron except positively charged; the neutrino is also related to the electron but has no charge and very little, if any, mass. In more conventional notation: 1 1 2 H + H → H + positron + neutrino

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