Difference between Pedagogy and Andragogy

blackboard teaching vs powerpoint teaching concept need and significance of advanced pedagogy
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Published Date:08-07-2017
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College of San Mateo Basic Skills Initiative Research Project Teaching Paradigms, Pedagogies and Basic Skills Students Prepared by Lorena G. del Mundo EOPS Counselor 2009Definitions • Paradigm • Set of forms/ideas/patterns all of which contain a particular element • Pedagogy • The art or science of teaching; instructional methods • Basic Skills Student • College student who places in a Math, English or Reading Course of which units do not apply towards an Associate Degree nor Transfer • Educate • Derives from the Latin words “educare- to rear or to bring up” and “educere – to lead out” • To educate means to bring out and guide, expand, strengthen and discipline the mindIdentification of Our Basic Skills Students at CSM Method? ….Placement Test Results 2002-2007 CSM Educational Master Plan revealed: • 19.8% in Basic Skills English (Level 1) • 70-72% place in pre-transfer level English • 26.5 % in Basic Skills Math (Level 1) • 80-82 % place in Pre-transfer level Math Note: Pre-Transfer (Level 2)includes AA/AS degree coursework but not approved for transfer creditEthnicity of Our Basic Skills Students at CSM ENGLISH MATH (Placement Outcomes (Placement Outcomes For 2002-2007) for 2002-2007) 60 40 52.7 34.1 35 50 43.1 28.8 30 37 40 25 19.7 27.5 18.8 30 20 17 23.5 20.3 13.8 15 20 11.5 10 7.7 10 5 0 0Ethnic Breakdown of CSM Employees • Administrators African • Classified • Full-Time Faculty American, • Part-Time Faculty 4.70% Asian, 13.60% Latino, 7.50% Native White, American, 68.60% 0.30% Pacific Islander, 1%Ethnicity of CSM Instructional Faculty Full-Time Adjunct 80.00% 80.00% 75.40% White 74.10% 70.00% 70.00% Asian 60.00% African 60.00% American Latino 50.00% 50.00% Native American 40.00% 40.00% Pacific Islander 30.00% 30.00% 20.00% 20.00% 13.90% 10.80% 10.00% 10.00% 6.00% 4.90% 3.70% 3.30% 0.80% 0.20% 0.80% 0% 0.00% 0.00%CSM Employees over age 55 by Classification • Full-Time Instructional Faculty……………41% • Full-Time Non Instructional Faculty………39% • Adjunct Instructional Faculty………….…..31% • Adjunct Non-Instructional Faculty ………..12% • Classified Staff ……………………………..10% • Administrators ……………………………...32% CSM‟s Student Population????????? 54.1 % are 24 years or youngerTypical Characteristics of Basic Skills Students • Academically underprepared • Low course completion rates • Financially provide for • Lower SES themselves • Unclear on goals • Lack self-regulated successful learning behaviors • Negative self-perceptions, self-efficacy • Frequently first generation college • Resilient • Increasingly ethnically • Connection with college staff is underrepresented students critical • Not familiar with the college • Success is much more personal system environment • Multiple ObligationsImplications of Basic Skills Students on Instructional Faculty • Economic, social and ethnic cultural • Role of professor in higher differences can make education vs needs of basic teaching/learning difficult skills students • Accepting unique mission of • Professors‟ own educational community colleges experiences vs basic skills students‟ experiences • Professional development is critical • Professors SES vs basic skills students SES • Knowledge of curriculum vs knowledge of basic skills studentsTeaching Paradigms/Pedagogies 1. Paolo Friere 2. Student Centered Learning 3. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy 4. Psychological Theories 5. Educational Transformation 6. On Course Success Philosophies 7. Creating Powerful ClassroomsPaolo Friere Theory of Education Banking Concept Problem – Posing of Education Education • Teachers possess full knowledge • Teacher-student / student-teacher and students are empty receptacles to be filled by teachers • Mutual exchange of knowledge through dialogue and validation of experiences • Education becomes the act of depositing information • Embodies communication • Students receive, memorize and • Consists of cognition not transfer of repeat information deposited information • One way communication • Encourages critical thinking • Promotes passive learning • Negates education as a process of inquiryStudent Centered Learning • Focused on student‟s needs, abilities, • Students understand expectations and are interests and learning styles encouraged to use self-assessment measures • Acknowledges student voice as central to learning experience • Students work demonstrates deep and authentic learning and understanding • Classroom environment will be open, dynamic, trusting, respectful, • Teachers help students work through collaborative and promote the natural difficulties by asking open-ended questions desire and curiosity to learn • Minimal teacher lecturing or direct • Students are involved in the evaluation transmission of factual knowledge, multiple and demonstration of their learning small group activities, frequent student questions and discussion • Requires active engagement and participation from students and • Emphasis on activity learning rather than teachers teaching • Role of teacher is that of facilitator and • Inquire about students‟ understanding of resource person concepts before sharing your own • Students work in collaboration with • Build upon students existing knowledge others • Students have input into what they will • Shift to student learning vs getting through learn and how syllabus • Flexibility with lesson plansExamples of Student Centered Learning • Independent projects • Cross-overs • Small and large group discussions • Student class presentations • Peer mentoring • Peer/self assessment • Debates • Learning contracts • Field Trips • Hands-on activities • Reflective diaries, learning journals • Warm-up/Ice-breaker activities • Computer assisted learning • Social interaction/community building • Choice in subjects for study/projects • Metacognitive reflection • Portfolio development • Quiz first and work backwards • Buzz groups Culturally Responsive Pedagogy • Using cultural knowledge, prior • Communication of high expectations experiences and performance styles of diverse students to make learning • Learning within the context of culture more appropriate, relevant and effective • Acknowledgement of students‟ life experiences and background knowledge • Builds bridges of meaningfulness between home and school • Realizes not only the importance of experiences academic achievement, but also the maintaining of cultural identity and heritage • Incorporates multicultural information, resources, materials and readings • Recognizes the legitimacy of cultural other than textbooks heritage both as legacies that affect students dispositions, attitudes and • Integrated throughout- Not restricted approaches to learning and as worthy to one part of the lesson, nor 4 F‟s: content to be taught in the formal food, fun, folklore, fashion curriculum • Transforms lessons and curriculums • Acknowledges and recognizes that there that challenge traditional views and are cultural differences in learning encourage re-conceptualization • Understand role of family and education • Incorporates diverse cultural ways of for various cultural groups knowing, understanding and presenting information from various cultural perspectivesExamples of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy • Assign students to interview members of • Math instruction would incorporate their community who have knowledge of everyday-life concepts, such as the topic they are studying economics, employment, consumer habits, etc. of various ethnic groups • Verbal creativity and story-telling that is unique among some African Americans in • Handouts, word problems, readings, informal social interactions is graphics, etc. would be culturally acknowledged as a gift and contribution reflective, images, names situations, and used to teach writing skills etc. • Community building/group activities • Projects/Assignments completed through and by incorporating cultural viewpoints/experiences • Use of language • Using „pop culture‟ as a foundation for • Referencing cultural origins of many understanding/learning/assignments concepts – Ex. Tupac lyrics for understanding – Ex. Mayan concept of zero poems, critical thinking etc.Psychological Theories Motivation Theory Attribution Theory – Critical in influencing behavior and – Analyzes reasons that students give for their learning success or failure – Intrinsic vs extrinsic – Include locus of control, internal or external – Enrollment in college alone does not constitute motivation to persist – Underprepared students are more likely to be motivated if needs are being met, they see value in what they Engagement Theory learn, and they believe success is – Being integrated, feeling a part of attainable – It doesn‟t happen by accident, it happens by design – Community colleges must be deliberate and aggressive to create opportunities to involve Self-Efficacy Theory students – Students‟ beliefs about their – Engagement within the classroom is critical capabilities to produce designated levels of performance – Personal judgment of competence – Approach difficult tasks as something to be mastered not avoided PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT: Core NOT supplemental component of curriculum/academic programs for basic skills studentsEducational Transformation ( Bell Hooks) • Inner-transformation of self-sabotaging behaviors, beliefs, attitudes is critical • Only once this has begun can the real learning occur • To educate as the practice of freedom, educational uplifting of communities, as moral obligation to serve those that come to us • Aspect of education that is sacred • Not merely to share in the intellectual and spiritual growth of our students • Essential to teach in manner that respects and cares for souls of our students • Engaged voice must never be fixed and absolute, but always changing, always evolving • ABC‟s: Affirming Identity, Building Community, Cultivating Leadership (Beverly Daniel Tatum, PHD) – A = important dimensions of students‟ identity are reflected in environment, curriculum and among faculty/staff/administrators/classmates – B = importance of creating a sense of belonging for everyone within the college community – C = role of education in preparing citizens for active participation in a democracyOn Course Success Philosophies By Skip Downing • Self-Awareness • Self-Responsibility • Life-Long Learning • Self-Motivation • Emotional Intelligence • Self-Management • Self-Esteem • InterdependenceCreating Powerful Classrooms • High Structure – Explicit expectations and examples – Explicit about the practices and „moves‟ of successful students – Balance between structure/openness and guidance/independence • High Challenge – Material that‟s challenging and engaging – Balance of challenge and support • Intensity – Greater immersion and connectedness • Intentionality & Learning How to Learn – Understand and monitor self-learning – Explicit about student expectations • Inquiry & Making Learning Visible – SOTL, think-alouds, capture student voices/experiencesExamples of Powerful Classrooms • Intentionality & learning How • High Structure to Learn – WRAMPS (Writing and Reading Activities for Math Problem Solving) – Calibrated Peer Review (English Yu-Chung Chang, Pasadena City peer-self assessment) Jeff College Maryanow, College of the Sequoias – Full E-mersion (English critical thinking and writing excercises – Math (outlining chapters as through multi-media) Chris Juzwiak, homework) Laura Graff, College Glendale Community College of the Desert • Inquiry & Making Learning • High Challenge Visible – Poetry in ESL, Annie Agard, Laney College – Reading Between The Lives (Student Reflection Video), Sean – Relevant Analytical Essays, English McFarland, Chabot College Jennifer McBride, Merced College – Math Engagement to Real-World Scenarios, Myra Snell, Los Medanos College Google: Windows on Learning: • Intensity Resources for Basic – Math Jam Sessions, Teaching and Skills Education Learning Center, Pasadena City College

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