Alkenes and alkynes ppt

Alkanes from Carbon and Hydrogen and ppt on alkanes alkenes alkynes
Dr.AldenCutts Profile Pic
Dr.AldenCutts,United Kingdom,Teacher
Published Date:23-07-2017
Your Website URL(Optional)
Comment
Chapter 2: Alkanes Alkanes from Carbon and Hydrogen •Alkanes   are carbon compounds that contain only single bonds. • The simplest alkanes are hydrocarbons – compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. • Hydrocarbons are used mainly as fuels, solvents and lubricants: H H H H H H H H H H H H H C C C H C C C C C H H C C C C H H H C C H H CH H CH H H H H 2 3 H H H H CH 3 boiling point range of carbons Use 1-4 20 °C fuel (gasses such as methane, propane, butane) 5-6 30-60 solvents (petroleum ether) 6-7 60-90 solvents (ligroin) 85-200 fuel (gasoline) 6-12 12-15 200-300 fuel (kerosene) 300-400 fuel (heating oil) 15-18 16-24 400 lubricating oil, asphaltHydrocarbons Formula Prefix Suffix Name Structure H CH meth- -ane methane H C H 4 H eth- -ane ethane C H 2 6 H C CH 3 3 C H prop- -ane propane 3 8 C H but- -ane butane 4 10 C H pent- -ane pentane 5 12 C H hex- -ane hexane 6 14 C H hept- -ane heptane 7 16 C H oct- -ane octane 8 18 C H non- -ane nonane 9 20 C H dec- -ane decane 10 22Hydrocarbons Formula Prefix Suffix Name Structure H CH -ane 4 meth- methane H C H H H H C H eth- -ane H C C H 2 6 ethane H H H C H prop- -ane propane 3 8 or H C C CH 3 3 H H H C H but- -ane butane 4 10 H C C C CH or 3 3 H H H C H -ane 4 10 but- butane? H C C CH or 3 3 CH 3Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons Formula Prefix Suffix Name Structure H CH meth- -ane methane 4 H C H H H H C H eth- -ane ethane H C C H 2 6 H H H C H prop- -ane propane 3 8 or H C C CH 3 3 H H H C H -ane 4 10 but- butane H C C C CH or 3 3 H H H C H but- -ane iso-butane 4 10 H C C CH or 3 3 CH 3Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons Formula Prefix Suffix Name Structure H H C H -ane 4 10 but- butane H C C C CH or 3 3 H H H C H but- -ane iso-butane 4 10 H C C CH or 3 3 CH 3 H H H pent- -ane pentane C H 5 12 H C C C C CH 3 3 or H H H H H H C H pent- -ane iso-pentane or H C C C C H 5 12 3 H CH H 3 H CH H 3 or iso-pentane??? C H pent- -ane H C C C H 5 12 H CH H 3Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons Formula Prefix Suffix Name Structure H H C H -ane 4 10 but- butane H C C C CH or 3 3 H H H C H but- -ane iso-butane 4 10 H C C CH or 3 3 CH 3 H H H pent- -ane pentane C H 5 12 H C C C C CH 3 3 or H H H H H H C H pent- -ane iso-pentane or H C C C C H 5 12 3 H CH H 3 H CH H 3 or neo-pentane C H pent- -ane H C C C H 5 12 H CH H 3IUPAC System of Naming Organic Compounds 1. Find the longest carbon chain 2. Name all the atoms (other than H) not in the longest chain as groups 3. Number groups from the end of the chain closest to the first group 4. List multiple groups in alphabetical order, IUPAC Name H H H 2 4 Longest chain: pentane H C C C C CH 3 3 pentane Groups: none 1 3 5 H H H 1 3 H H H 2 2-methylbutane 4 Longest chain: butane H C C C C H Groups: one methyl not: 3-methylbutane 3 H CH H 3 not: 4 2 1 3 3 H CH H 3 Longest chain: propane 2 2,2-dimethylpropane 1 Groups: two methyls H C C C H H CH H 3Hydrocarbons IUPAC System of Naming Organic Compounds Formula Prefix Suffix IUPAC Name Structure H H C H -ane 4 10 but- butane or H C C C CH 3 3 H H H C H but- -ane iso-butane 4 10 H C C CH 3 3 CH 3 H H H pent- -ane pentane C H 5 12 H C C C C CH 3 3 H H H H H H C H pent- -ane 2-methyl butane 5 12 H C C C C H 3 H CH H 3 H CH H 3 C H pent- -ane 2,2-dimethylpropane H C C C H 5 12 H CH H 3Naming Branches as “Groups” Naming Branches as Groups Group Formula Prefix Suffix Name Abbreviation Structure H –CH meth- -yl methyl –Me 3 C H H H H C C H –C H eth- -yl ethyl –Et 2 5 H H H H or C C CH 3 –C H prop- -yl propyl 3 7 –Pr H H H or H C C CH 3 3 i –C H -yl iso-propyl iso-prop- 3 7 – Pr H H H –C H -yl butyl C C C CH or 4 9 but- –Bu 3 H H HNaming Branches as “Groups” Other Groups We May Encounter Group Formula Structure Group Formula Name Name Structure –C H 4 9 –F fluoro –F iso-butyl –C H –Cl chloro –Cl sec-butyl 4 9 –Br bromo –Br tert-butyl –C H 4 9 –I iodo –I neo-pentyl –C H 5 11Structural Isomers How many structural isomers – compounds with the same chemical formula but different connectivity – are there with the formula C H ? 7 16Structural Isomers How many structural isomers – compounds with the same chemical formula but different connectivity – are there with the formula C H ? 7 16Methyl and Ethyl Compounds Methyl & Ethyl Compounds Name Group Formula Abbreviation Structure H H C– methyl –Me C H 3 H H H H C – ethyl –Et C C H 5 2 H H H C–H methane H C –H ethane 3 5 2 H C–OH methyl alcohol (methanol) ethyl alcohol (ethanol) 3 H C –OH 5 2 H C–NH methylamine (aminomethane) ethylamine (aminoethane) 3 2 H C –NH 5 2 2 methyl fluoride (fluoromethane) H C–F 3 H C –F ethyl fluoride (fluoroethane) 5 2 H C–Cl methyl chloride (chloromethane) H C –Cl ethyl chloride (chloroethane) 3 5 2 H C–Br methyl bromide (bromomethane) H C –Br ethyl bromide (bromoethane) 3 5 2 H C–I methyl iodide (iodomethane) H C –I ethyl iodide (iodoethane) 3 5 2 H C–CN methyl cyanide (cyanomethane, acetonitile) H C –CN ethyl cyanide (cyanoethane, proprionitile) 3 5 2 H C–SH methanethiol (methyl mercaptan) H C –SH ethanethiol (ethyl mercaptan) 3 5 2Methyl and Ethyl Compounds Methyl & Ethyl Compounds Name Abbreviation Group Formula Structure H H C– methyl –Me C H 3 H H H H C – ethyl –Et C C H 5 2 H H H H C H C H H C –H ethane H C–H methane 5 2 3 H C 3 H H C–CH ethyl cation H C methyl cation 3 2 3 C C H H H H C–CH ethyl radical H H C methyl radical 3 2 H C 3 3 H H C–CH ethyl anion methyl anion H C 3 2 3 C C H H H H H C 3 HPropyl Compounds Propyl Compounds Name Group Formula Abbreviation Structure H H or H C – prop- –Pr C C CH 7 3 3 H H H H C – 7 3 iso-prop- i or H C C CH – Pr 3 3 3 1 HO 2 3 propyl alcohol (1-propanol) isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol; 2-propanol) 2 OH 1 H N 2 propyl amine (1-aminopropane) isopropyl amine (2-aminopropane) NH 2 F propyl fluoride (1-fluoropropane) isopropyl fluoride (2-fluoropropane) F Cl propyl chloride (1-chloropropane) isopropyl chloride (2-chloropropane) Cl Br propyl bromide (1-bromopropane) isopropyl bromide (2-bromopropane) Br I propyl iodide (1-iodopropane) isopropyl iodide (2-iodopropane) IStructural Isomers of C H 7 16 2 4 6 7 heptane 1 What if we attatch the two ends together? 3 5 1 H 2 2 7 C H C CH 2 2 3 6 H C CH 2 2 H C CH 4 2 2 5 C H cycloheptane 7 14 Cycloheptane contains two fewer hydrogens than heptane. They are not structural isomers. Cycloalkanes Cycloalkanes Compound Name Structure Group Name Structure cyclopropane cyclopropyl cyclobutane cyclobutyl cyclopentane cyclopentyl cyclohexane cyclohexyl cycloheptane cycloheptyl cyclooctane cyclooctylNaming Cycloalkanes Unlike "floppy" chains, rings have an additional consideration for multiple substitutions: H Me Me Me Me H H H Me H H H H Me "flat" 1,2-dimethylcyclopropane "3-D" 1,2-dimethylcyclopropane "3-D" 1,2-dimethylcyclopropane These are different compounds They cannot be interconvertied by bond rotation. H Me Me Me H H H Me H H H H cis-1,2-dimethylcyclopropane trans-1,2-dimethylcyclopropane cis – substituents on same side (of the ring) trans – substituents on opposite sides (of the ring) The above compounds are not structural isomers. Their connectivity is identical. They are stereoisomers – compounds that differ in how substituents are arranged in space Naming Cycloalkanes IUPAC Naming of Rings How can we represent cis/trans isomers in a flat drawing? Me Me H Me Me Me H H H Me H H H H Me Me cis-1,2-dimethylcyclopropane trans-1,2-dimethylcyclopropane A solid wedge means the bond is A dashed wedge means that the bond pointing "up" and out of the page is pointing "down" and into the page

Advise: Why You Wasting Money in Costly SEO Tools, Use World's Best Free SEO Tool Ubersuggest.