Basics of six sigma ppt

six sigma basics ppt and an introduction to six sigma and process improvement pdf
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Prof.WilliamsHibbs,United States,Teacher
Published Date:28-07-2017
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Six Sigma Basics Learning Objectives At the end of this module, you will be able to: • Recognize that Six Sigma is a valuable approach for improving process quality • Interpret a basic Statistical Process Control chart • Distinguish between process and specified control limits • Describe a capable process Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 2 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology What is Six Sigma? • A Strategy to improve process quality by identifying and eliminating defects and minimizing variation in process outputs • A data driven approach based on Measurement of the process variation using Statistical Process Control • A structured Implementation approach based on a DMAIC cycle and certified experts The goal of Six Sigma is to reduce process variation Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 3 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Standard Normal Distribution Curve Some notable qualities of the Sigma (σ) = normal distribution: one standard • The mean is also its mode and median. deviation • 68.27% of the area (green) is 1 within one standard deviation of 34.1% the mean. • 95.45% of the area (green & yellow) is within two standard deviations. • 99.73% of the area (green & 2 yellow & red) is within three 13.6% standard deviations 0.1% 3 2.1% Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 4 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Defects • “Defect” is defined as any process output that does not meet the customer‟s specifications. • Improving quality means reducing the defects per million opportunities (DPMO). There are two attributes to this metric that can be controlled: • Opportunities – reducing the number of steps, handoffs and other “opportunities” will help improve quality • Defects – reducing the number of defects for each process step through continuous process improvement will help improve quality Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 5 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Six Sigma – Practical Meaning 99.99966% GOOD (6 Sigma) 99% GOOD (3.8 Sigma) • 20,000 lost articles of mail • Seven articles of mail lost per hour per hour • Unsafe drinking water for • One unsafe minute every almost 15 minutes per day seven months • 5,000 incorrect surgical • 1.7 incorrect operations operations per week per week • Two short or long landings • One short or long landing at most major airports every five years each day • 68 wrong prescriptions • 200,000 wrong drug each year prescriptions each year • One hour without • No electricity for almost electricity every 34 years seven hours each month Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 6 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Statistical Process Control • Control charting is the primary tool of SPC • Control charts provide information about the stability/predictability of the process, specifically with regard to its: • Central tendency (to target value) • Variation • SPC charts are time-sequence charts of important process or product characteristics Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 7 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Class Exercise • Pharmacy wants to monitor the dispensing of doses of White Bean Medicine • A 3 cup sample will be taken each day and weighed and recorded on a check sheet • Data will be entered into two control charts (one for means or averages and one for range) • Data for the first twenty days will establish the current process capability • From then on, the pharmacy will monitor the dosages by entering daily samples into the control chart • Process improvements will be made as needed, based upon data collected. Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 8 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology What To Do Phase I Process Capability • Select three cups with the same sample number (day) • Weigh each on the digital scale • Record the data on the check sheet form and calculate the mean (average) and report the results to the instructor • Also report the lowest and highest weights for each day. Calculate range = highest - lowest Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 9 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Six Sigma Process - DMAIC • Define • Who are the customers and what are their requirements • Identify key characteristics important to the customer • Measure • Categorize key input and output characteristics, verify measurement systems • Collect data and establish the baseline performance • Analyze • Convert raw data into information to provide insights into the process • Improve • Develop solutions to improve process capability and compare the results to the baseline performance • Control • Monitor the process to assure no unexpected changes occur Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 10 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Simple DMAIC Example Control Define Output Input Improved Process Process Measurement System Measure Analyze Improve • DMAIC is easy to see in process control applications • The same steps can be used to analyze more complex systems, often in tandem with lean tools Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 11 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Types of Process Variation • Common Cause Variation is the sum of many „chances causes,‟ none traceable to a single major cause. Common cause variation is essentially the noise in the system. When a process is operating subject to common cause variation it is in a state of statistical control. • Special Cause Variation is due to differences between people, machines, materials, methods, etc. The occurrence of a special (or assignable) cause results in an out of control condition. Control charts provide a means for distinguishing between common cause variability and special cause variability Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 12 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Control Chart Example - Patient Falls UCL LCL Phase I – Establish Phase II – Monitor Process Capability the Process Reference: National Quality Measures Clearing House http://qualitymeasures.ahrq.gov/expert/printView.aspx?id=16454 Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 13 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology What To Do Phase II Process Monitoring • Draw control limits on your chart UCL based on the first 20 samples. • Weigh a new sample (3 cups), nd record the data on the 2 check LCL sheet and calculate the average and range. • Plot the average and range on the charts, and decide if the process is in control. • If the process goes out of control, stop and investigate the cause using a fishbone diagram. Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 14 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Control Chart Example - c Chart for Resident Falls Courtesy of Faten Mitchell, Quality Improvement Advisor, Health Quality Ontario. Used with permission. Source: Faten Mitchell, Quality Improvement Advisor, Health Quality Ontario Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 15 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Process Improvement and Control Charts - Starting Output Input Process Measurement System • In early stages, control charts (usually on output variables) are used to understand the behavior of the process • After corrective actions, place charts on critical input variables Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 16 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Process Improvement and Control Charts - Sustaining Output Input Process Measurement System • The goal: Monitor and control inputs and, over time, eliminate the need for SPC charts by having preventative measures in place • If a chart has been implemented, remove it if it is not providing valuable and actionable information Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 17 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Process Capability • “Process Capability is broadly defined as the ability of a process to meet customer expectations” (Bothe, 1997) • Once we have a process in control then we can answer the question of whether the process is capable of meeting the customer‟s specifications. Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 18 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Customer and Process Quality Defined • Process Quality is a measure of the capability of a process to produce to its expected capability • The upper and lower values between which the process must be controlled are known as upper and lower control limits (UCL and LCL) • Customer Quality is the conformance to customer specifications within a tolerance band • The upper and lower values that the customer is willing to accept are known as upper and lower specification limits (USL and LSL) How can we assure Process Capability? Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 19 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Assessing Process Capability C , a term used to define p process capability, is mathematically expressed by: The figure shows centered distributions with various C levels. Note C s less p p than two have visible tails outside the acceptable limits. Bad Bad Six Sigma Basics V7.6 - Slide 20 © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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