Business objects training Material ppt

business plan for training center ppt and also business continuity training ppt
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Dr.JesperHunt,United States,Researcher
Published Date:16-07-2017
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f o u n d a t i o n BUSINESS TRAINING MANUAL A practical guide for training micro entrepreneurs Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Introduction About this Manual This is a manual for how to conduct a business training program for Maasai micro entrepreneurs, providing basic skills needed for starting up or improving a micro business. The training program has been developed in the Olkiramatian group ranch in the Rift Valley in Kenya, based on field research and test train- ings. The program is made suitable for illiterates by the use of drawings and stories. About the Training Program This program builds on the belief that business, community and nature are interlinked. Economic growth in itself can no longer be seen as the answer. Instead it must be coupled with a broader understanding of the principles of sustainability and ecology. Otherwise we only accelerate the destruction of the web of life that we all depend on. Understand- ing how to sustain this web of life will help people to build healthy and thriving communities. When we want to create sustainable communities, we can learn from nature, because ecosystems are sustainable communities of living organ- isms. The training uses many images and metaphors from nature, for ex- ample the tree. The purpose is to communicate practical business skills in a fun and effective way, and at the same time inspire an integrated understanding of business, community and environment. Page 6 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence.Background Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Content of the Manual Notations used in the Manual The intention of this manual is to provide background information and Games are described as a series of steps, marked with small squares. tips, as well as work as a field guide. You might want to read it through Find a ball. before you do your first training, and then bring it as a reference after that. The manual is divided into four main sections. Play football. • The Background section explains the ideas behind the training program, as provides general tips for how to conduct the training. Stories you can read aloud are marked with big double quotes. Timanoy is a young Maasai woman. She has a husband and two • The Timetable section provides the suggested ways to combine the “ children. modules into a three day training. ” • The Modules section contains description of the individual modules Business scenarios are indicated as a sequence of steps, marked with for teaching, including the goal, preparations, games and activities, small arrows. exercises, etc. Timanoy invests cash of 2 to start a bead business. • The Templeates secion contains visual templates and tools for use Timanoy uses all her cash of 2 to buy a stock of beads. during the training, ready to be copied or printed. When particpants should have time to work on their business plans, a small pencil is shown: Page 7 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence. Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Target Groups How to define Target Groups The training program is intended for people with low levels of formal education, including illiterates. However, choosing the target groups can be a challenge, because people vary according to three independent parameters: • Literacy level • Level of business experience • Languages spoken You might find almost any combination of these - people with business experience who don't read and write, people who read and write but don't speak Maa, people who speak Swahili but don't have any business experience, etc. If a class it too mixed it can be slowed down because everybody don’t speak the same language, and it can become difficult to find a pace that suits everyone. So it’s important to make a choice of the groups you want to reach. Target Groups in Olkiramatian When it comes to Olkiramatian group ranch, the training program is initially intended for two groups: a large group of rural Maasai, and a smaller group of existing business owners, many of which are Gîkûyû and Kamba. The definition of the two target groups might exclude a small group of Maasai who already own a business and but don’t speak Maasai. But it will improve trainings, because you avoid problems with multiple languages and differences in level of business experience. If you don’t have enough resources to reach everyone, it's better to start focused and ensure quality for those who attend the training. The two target groups are described in more detail below. Page 8 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence.Background Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Filtering Participants To know how many will attend a training, you need to setup a registration process before the training. During this registration people can sign up, and pay the contribution. During the registration it's important to be clear on the intended target groups and filter participants strictly. Otherwise you might get groups where not everybody speaks the same language. For example, if you’re doing a training in Swahili, make sure that everyone really do speak Swahili. Barriers to Self-Employment Not everybody is ready to start a business. Their circumstances might prevent them from having success. In such cases, it's better that they deal with these barriers before they try to start a business. The registration or public information meeting can include a discussion about such barriers and the pros and cons of self-employment. This can help people to make a more informed choice of whether or not to invest time in the training. Women The training program is targeted at both men and women. Although it might make sense to focus on women, because they need empow- erment the most, and are often more responsible, a choice has been made to not to exclude the men. It was decided that not allowing men at the trainings would generate too much resistance among the men in the community. However, it should be considered at a later point to do separate trainings for men and women. Women do show up and also participate well in the training. The Maasai women are often a little more quiet than the men, but do ask questions, take part in all the exercises, etc. But you should be careful to include them and provide them the space to speak up, discuss and participate. Don’t let the men speak all the time. Page 9 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence. Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Target Group: Rural Maasai Definition Key characteristics Those who speak Maa, cannot read and write and don't own a busi- • Speak Maa ness. • Cannot read and write Situation • Don't own a business The group consists mainly of traditional pastoral Maasai, living in the bush. Very few ever go to Nairobi. Most depend heavily on their cattle • Harder to reach and train and goats. Income is very low and comes mainly from selling animals. • Lives in the rural/bush areas Periods with drought can be very tough because animals often die. Their traditional culture is increasingly under pressure. • Less resourceful Language • 80-90% of the potential training participants in Olkiramatian They all speak Maa, a few speak Swahili, and very few speak English. They have very low levels of formal education. Only few have entered Key training needs primary school, and very few have finished it, specially amongst women. • Learning how to start up a business Most are illiterates, but everyone can count and are used to handling money. • Teaching done in Maa Views • Teaching process adapted to illiterates Most are traditional or even conservative in their views when it comes • Training close to where they live to gender issues and business ideas. Women are not traditionally al- lowed to own anything, or speak in front of men, although this is now changing. Almost all woman in this group are married and household duties take up considerable amount of their time. Most women are part of at least one woman group. Most in this group consider self-employment a second choice, and would rather be employed if they had the choice. Outreach The people in this group are harder to train, especially because most are illiterates, but they also need the training most. Page 10 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence.Background Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Target Group: Business Owners Definition Key Characteristics Those who speak Swahili, can read and write, and own a business. • Speak Swahili Situation • Can read and write The group consists of the ‘business experts’ in the community, although • Owns a business many actually struggle to run their businesses well. The group consists mainly of Gîkûyû and Kamba, but also has some Maasai. Most live in the • Easier to reach and train villages. In the Olkiramatian group ranch, the main part live in Entasopia. • Lives in the villages Many go regularly to Nairobi to trade goods, or for other reasons. Many have moved to the area from other places, and they often have some • More resourceful amount of business network to rely on. • 5-10% of the potential training participants in Olkiramatian Language They all speak Swahili, many speak English and some Maa. Most read Key training needs and write. • Learning how to improve their business Views • Teaching done in Swahili They are less traditional in their views, and are open to new ideas. Women are often business owners. Self-employment is seen by most • Written material in Swahili and English as something respectable and beneficial, also when compared to being employed. Outreach The group is relatively easy to reach, and also easier to teach. By involv- ing them in the program, they can inspire and help the group of rural Maasai. It will also be valuable to be in contact with this more resource- ful group, who can provide input, knows local regulations, etc. They might also be a potential source of new training staff. Page 11 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence. Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Sustainable Communities What is our Challenge? The first step in this endeavor, naturally, is to understand the principles of organization that ecosystems have developed to sustain the web of life. This Our current economic system is threatening to undermine the fabric understanding is what I call ecological literacy. The ecosystems of the natural of life that we all depend on for our survival, through the degradation of natural environments all over the world. To change this, economic world are sustainable communities of plants, animals, and microorganisms. development must be coupled with a broader understanding of the prin- There is no waste in these ecological communities, one species’ waste being ciples of sustainability and ecology. Instead of just growing, our goal another species’ food. Thus matter cycles continually through the web of must be to create sustainable communities. life. The energy driving these ecological cycles flows from the sun, and the diversity and cooperation among its members is the source of the community’s When it comes to training, it means that our challenge is not just to teach business skills, but to teach how to sustain the web of life, and resilience. to do it in a way that is relevant to poor people who need food on the A sustainable community is designed in such a way that its ways of life, table, an whose only way to get it is to start a micro enterprise. businesses, economy, physical structures, and technologies do not interfere The aim of this training program is to provide practical business skills with nature’s inherent ability to sustain life. in a fun and effective way, and at the same time inspire an integrated Being ecologically literate, or ecoliterate, means understanding the basic understanding of business, community and environment. Hopefully this principles of ecology and being able to embody them in the daily life of human will help people build healthy and thriving communities. communities. In particular, I believe that the principles of ecology should be the guiding principles for creating sustainable learning communities. The word Sustainability and Ecoliteracy ecology comes from the Greek oikos (“household”). Ecology is the study of how To build sustainable communities, the first step is to understand sustain- the Earth Household works. More precisely, it is the study of the relationships ability. Here’s how author Fritjof Capra, describes sustainability: that interlink all members of the Earth Household. Since its introduction in the early 1980s, the concept of sustainability has often been distorted, co-opted, and even trivialized by being used without the ecological context that gives it its proper meaning. So, I think it is worthwhile to reflect for a moment about what sustainability really means. What is sustained in a sustainable community is not economic growth, development, market share, or competitive advantage, but the entire web of life on which our long-term survival depends. In other words, a sustainable community is designed in such a way that its ways of life, businesses, economy, physical structures, and technologies do not interfere with nature’s inherent ability to sustain life. Page 12 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence.Background Business Training f o u n d a t i o n A lively community also depends on a multitude of partnerships between Six Principles of Ecology Fritjof Capra summarizes six principles of ecology, described below. businesses, organizations and people, both formal and informal. No business can exists on its own. These principles can provide guidance when we attempt to integrate business skills with ecoliteracy in the training. Our challenge is to create new partnerships across traditional boundaries, and find creative solutions that provides mutual benefit. We must also Networks learn to see nature as the essential partner it is, instead of an enemy. All ecosystems consist of networks nested within larger networks. For example, a forest is a network of tree, plants and animals. And each Diversity animal is a network of organs and cells. Diversity strengthens an ecosystem and makes it stronger. A lack of di- In a similar way, a society is a network of communities. A community is a versity makes it fragile. For example, a field with only one type of crop network of businesses and people. A business can be seen as a network is more at risk of suddenly being destroyed by a pest. of different activities working together. In a similar way, a community with only one type of business can sud- Our challenge is to become aware of the different networks we are part denly be hurt hard by a drop in marked price. A variety of business of (not least the environmental networks), and build businesses that types will make the community more resilient. sustain and strengthen these networks, instead of degrading them. Our challenge is to value diversity and find ways to sustain it, both when it comes to culture and the natural environment. Understanding the value of diversity will also lead to an appreciation of the local. Solar Energy The various ecological cycles are all driven by energy from the sun. Green plants convert sunlight and store the energy in special molecules. Animals then eat the plants. The heat of the sun also causes drives wind, rain and rivers. Cycles Our challenge is to switch energy sources based on the sun, instead of In ecosystems, energy and matter cycle continuously through the networks. Nothing is wasted. One species’ waste is another species’ depending on fossil fuels like oil which pollute and will eventually run out. Solar cells, solar cookers, wind power and electric cars are all part food. For example, manure is used by plants to grow. of this move towards clean, renewable energy. In a similar way, a business thrives on a continuous flow of money and goods. Dynamic Balance Our challenge is to create an economy where all materials are recycled Ecosystems are ever-fluctuating networks where no single variable is continuously, and nothing ends up as poisonous waste. maximized. A thriving community will also experience fluctuations as people make appropriate responses to changing conditions. Partnerships Our challenge is to think beyond profit as the only goal, and establish a Ecosystems develop through partnerships, not competition. broader agenda that includes quality of life, social inclusion and environ- mental sustainability. Page 13 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence. Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Business Skills Guiding Principles However, a lack of more fundamental business skills, especially financial skills, is often what causes the biggest problems for micro entrepre- The choice of topics can be seen as guided by two questions: What neurs. So this program tries to take up the challenge of communicating will the participants use most? And what will cause them the biggest such skills. It’s true that sophisticated budgets or lengthy business plans problems if not used? can’t be expected from participants who can’t read or write. Core Skills However, the basic principles and processes behind the list of core busi- The goal of the training program is to help micro entrepreneurs start up ness tools above are actually not too complicated, and can well be un- a business, or improve their existing business, by teaching a set of core derstood as long as the usual accounting language is dropped, and things business skills: are explained in a more creative way, using everyday words, drawings and stories. • Generating business ideas • Choosing a marketing strategy Teaching current Business Owners Amongst current micro business owners, there’s also a lack of basic • Using a balance sheet business skills, and few have tried to use tools like a budget or the marketing mix. So core business skills are useful for almost all micro • Creating a business plan entrepreneurs, which means that the same set of skills can be taught to • Creating a cash flow budget both beginnings and current business owners. But when training the group of current business owners, the pace can • Taking and repaying loans be faster, and finer details or more complicated examples can be cov- • Keeping business records ered. Presenting the same topics for both target groups will make the training program simpler to deliver, and also make it easier for the two • Managing the use of profits for personal use groups to meet and help each other after the training. This can facilitate This might seem like an ambitious list, considering the fact that many the creation of a community of practice around entrepreneurship. participants can’t read or write, and that the suggested length of the training is only three days. Many other topics that could be taught, per- haps more easily, like producing sales materials or improving sales tech- niques, and indeed this is often taught to micro entrepreneurs. Page 14 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence.Background Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Focus on Financial Skills Rules and Regulations When looking at the list of core skills, some might seem more ‘fun’ to The training does not include teaching about official rules and regula- teach, like marketing. Other topics, like the cash flow budget, might tions, because it’s not needed by most micro entrepreneurs. seem more ‘dry’ and challenging to explain. However, financial skills and In Kenya a business is not required to pay tax, deliver accounting in- planning are important, and must not be left out or pushed to the end formation, etc. if it's below a certain threshold. In principle, you're sup- where they risk becoming a footnote. posed to register your business, no matter how small, but in practice, For this reason, financial skills are introduced from the beginning of the this is never done anywhere. training, but are given simpler names and explained using the metaphor However, it should always be your responsibility as a teacher to advice of a tree: participants if they are about to do things that requires them to observe rules and regulations. You should at least know the overall framework • Balance Sheet Business Tree of official business regulations that might affect your participants. • Cash Flow Budget Money Plan • Business Plan The money plan (budget) is probably the most difficult topic, and is given special attention. There are three modules dealing with different aspects of using the Money Plan. Page 15 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence. Business Training f o u n d a t i o n The Tree Metaphor The tree can therefore provide a shortcut to an understanding of A Visual Language When working with illiterates, it’s very helpful to use an inviting visual the dynamic interplay of business activities, how a business requires a continuous flow of money, etc. The tree is also quite culturally neutral, language. The training program uses the metaphor of a tree to explain which helps to avoid cultural misunderstandings during the training. key business topics, and create a link to the natural world and the principles of ecology. The tree can provide you with straight-forward Connecting to Business metaphors for many business concepts: The tree is a good way to explain the dynamics of business, and can link • Tree - business a range of business, community and environmental topics in a natural Business Tree way. For example, it’s a way to explain the otherwise difficult topic of • Seeds - ideas the balance sheet. Roots show assets, while branches show liabilities. • Water - money In this way, the business tree work as an inviting entry point into different business topics like markets, balance sheets, cash flows, management • Branches - activities and planning. • Roots - sources • Withering - loss • Drought - bad times • Flowers - marketing • Fruits - results • Soil - market Throughout the training material, these metaphor are used for a range of visual icons that are easy to understand for illiterates and can help them memorize and recall the content. Tapping into Existing Knowledge Another benefit of using the image of a tree is that it taps into existing knowledge. Everybody knows many things about trees; their different parts, how they grow, their needs, etc. Page 16 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence.Background Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Stock:2 / Owners Cash:2 Connecting to Ecology The tree metaphor is straightforward and easy to understand, yet rich Timanoy sells all her beads for the price of 2. (Profit of 1) when explored further. Cash:3 / Profit:1 Owners Cash:2 The image of a tree provides a different mental framework than the one The scenarios can be used for demonstrating how to use the business provided by an image of a machine. tree, as exercises, etc. Each step indicated by a small arrow describes a business event. If a step results in a profit or loss, it is indicated in A tree is alive, and part of a larger network of organisms, supporting parentheses at the end of the line. each other, continuously recycling energy and matter. Considering the relationships between leaves, roots, branches, flowers, fruits, soils, etc. After each step, the resulting situation is written in small letters. The can open up a deeper understanding of both business and ecology. part before the slash (/) is the branches of the business tree (the assets), while the part after the slash is the roots (the liabilities). If a particular You can’t control a tree in the way you control a machine. You can’t item on the business tree has a value of zero (cash, stock, loans, etc), command the leaves to grow, as you might hit a button on a machine. it’s not shown. Instead you must care for the tree by creating the right conditions for the natural process of healthy growth. This is a better foundation for Symbols creating a sustainable and socially responsible business. A number of small symbols based on the tree metaphor is used to The tree help to clarify how similar principles operate in business, nature illustrate central items and roles. and communities. Using images from the living world will hopefully remind us that we’re all part of the web life, and that the businesses we create should sustain this web. Small Business Product Hands-On Using the image of a tree provides opportunities for hands-on learning. Small Business Owner For example, you can draw a business tree on a flip chart, and move Supplier pieces around between branches and roots to show how the value in a business changes when you buy and sell, etc. When the tree is drawn on a piece of paper, it also works well as a kind of board game, where participants can play out different business situations, by moving beans around between the different branches and Money roots, indicating buying of stock, taking loans, etc. Business Scenarios Customer Lender A number of small business scenarios are described in the manual, made up of a sequence of steps. For example: Timanoy invests cash of 2 to start a bead business. Cash:2 / Owners Cash:2 Timanoy uses all her cash of 2 to buy a stock of beads. Future Delivery Future Payment Page 17 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence. Business Training f o u n d a t i o n The Timanoy Story Stories Stick Humans like stories. A story can often make it much easier to understand a topic and remember information. This is especially true for people I want to start without formal education. Say hi to Timanoy: A local Maasai woman who starts up a small beadwork a business.... business. She lives in a traditional settlement with her family. Timanoy experiences different things like borrowing money, buying beads from a supplier, having a good day at the market, paying for school fees, loosing her goods, having to buy on credits, etc. The Timanoy story can support you during the training, by making topics like giving credits, taking loans, loosing money, buying on credit, etc. easier for participants to relate to. Throughout the manual, many topics include pieces of the Timanoy story, indicated by big quotes. Some topics also include a number of additional ‘events’, indicated by small arrows, which you can use for group work or exercises, to work with the business tree, discuss possible cause and solutions to Timanoy's problems, etc. Improvising Don’t be afraid to make up new events in the story about Timanoy, if it can help you in your training. Yon can even ask participants what might happen next with Timanoy, for example when you’re working with the business tree and want to play out different scenarios. If you improvise, it’s helpful to know a little about the local business situation - what typical problems and challenges are, what kind of goods are produces and sold, etc. Page 18 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence.Background Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Working with Illiterates Drawing If typical prices are counted in hundreds or thousands (as is the case in Kenya) just drop the zeroes. Instead of 200, use 2. You can still say ‘two When people can’t read, drawings are useful. For example, when using a hundred’ when presenting the example if you wish. flip chart, try to add drawings and symbols to all titles and text. Mixing drawings and words are good when some in the class can read. Avoiding Negative Numbers Making up good symbols require a bit of imagination. Try to find some Negative numbers can be confusing, especially to illiterates. For example, that are easy to understand, and not ambiguous. It’s often helpful to the result in a month can either be a profit or a loss. When creating a keep building on the same underlying metaphor. For example, if a tree budget, we would often use a single box, and write a negative number symbolizes a business, a forest is the business community, a drop is if we have a loss, or a positive if we have a profit. Instead, it's better to money, etc. use two boxes next to each other; you write in one if you have a profit, But you also have to accept that numbers and words are effective tools in the other if you have a loss. This way you avoid negative numbers for recalling and manipulating meaning and language. When you lack and can place a visual symbol next to each box, like a healthy leaf, and them, things will take longer. a withering leaf. Another problem with negative numbers is that you can't easily display Telling Stories them with things you count. Again, it’s better to have two different Stories is a natural way to structure and memorize information when boxes for placing the pieces or beans in. you can’t read or write. Explaining things through the use of stories can be powerful. Even people who read and write enjoy stories - they make They’re not Kids things more interesting and fun Working with illiterates require imagination and a bit of patience. Even though participants can't read and write, it's important to remember Counting that they are not kids - otherwise you risk being patronizing. It's useful Almost all people can count, even if they might not be able to read or to tell yourself that the problem is not that they can't understand it - it's write numbers. So when working with numbers, try to use physical that you can't explain it. things you can count instead of written numbers. Move pieces around on the flip chart and provide the participants with beans they can count. They can Get Help This way, participants can follow examples, and even do simple addition Illiterate participants often have children or friends who can help them and subtraction themselves. to read material or write things down later. You should also encourage To make this possible, use small amounts (1-6) when giving examples. participants to help each other in the class. Numbers above ten quickly become impractical when you have to count and move pieces. Page 19 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence. Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Creating a Learning Space Facilitating Learning 4. Action. Filling out business plans, playing games and moving beans around on a business tree allows participants to actually try things and The best learning does not come from being told something, but from take decisions, instead of just talking. discovering it yourself. When you discover something yourself, you believe it and remember it easier. To make the training effective, it’s Adjusting the Frame important to include a variety of activities where the participants can You should try to adapt your teaching style to what the participants find gets hands-on experience, try things themselves, etc. It should not just appropriate. Be careful about assuming that the participants like the be you talking all the time. same thing as you like. Providing opportunities for participants to discover things for themselves For example, in places where resources are lacking, a teaching style that requires that you take a role that’s a little different that the traditional is too informal can make participants insecure. In this case it’s better to role of the teacher. Instead of just transmitting knowledge, you need make the training a little more formal, because it shows you respect the to create a space where learning can happen. Instead of providing the participants, and go to the trouble of making things neat. answer, you help participants find it themselves. You facilitate learning. Being formal can be as simple as aligning tables, providing a timetable, A big part of being a facilitator is to be receptive of what is happening, assigning a timekeeper and a chairman, ringing a bell at breaks, doing and what is needed in each moment. For example, it’s important to prayers before and after training, and handing out official-looking sense when the energy in the class goes low, so you can adjust the pace, certificates at the end of the training. A more formal training style does or put in breaks or games when needed. not mean you can't be friendly and personal or do games and physical exercises. Four Flows A way to improve your facilitation skills is to be aware of four ‘flows’ When things don’t go as Planned that are always present when people work together. When all four flows When you facilitate learning, instead of just explain things, unexpected work well, things will feel easy, fun and productive. things might happen. So part of being a good facilitator is to be able to 1. Purpose. When the purpose is clear, people are motivated. When adjust along the way and work with whatever happens. So be ready to the purpose is not clear, the participants might be frustrated or resists improvise. You might need to change games, use different examples, what you’re doing. change the timetable or deal with small conflicts. 2. Emotions. A spirit of helping each other, honest reflections and fun If things don’t go as you planned or hoped, your task is not to force games all provide good energy. On the other hand, conflicts can drain the things back on track, but instead to find an appropriate way forward. energy and prevent learning, even if your training is otherwise good. It’s often a good idea to tell the participants what you observe is hap- 3. Information. Facts, clear explanations, good drawings and relevant pening in the class, and present participants with relevant choices. examples helps the participants. If they lack, participants might be confused, or the training might feel irrelevant. Page 20 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence.Background Business Training f o u n d a t i o n For example, if you can see that you don’t have enough time, you can • Speaking the same language as the participants is important. It is tell the participants that you’re now running short on time, and ask if possible to do the training using a translator, but it's impractical and they would rather finish what they’re working on, or move on to the will slow things down. next topic. • Local konwledge is very useful, including the local business situation Of course it’s still your responsibility as a trainer to organize the train- - what are common types of goods, what are produced locally, what ing, but involving participants in this way can often improve learning by is not produced locally? What are typical prices for common goods? building an atmosphere of honesty. It’s also important for you to be honest and admit when one of your Tips for Working with Maasai game or ways of explaining didn’t work well. Then you can find a more • Let the group choose someone to lead prayers at the beginning and helpful way. end of each day of the training. Trainer Skills • Let the group choose a chairman, who will gather requests, There are some skills that will help you as a trainer. You don’t neces- complains etc. from the group and deliver them to you. sarily need them all. You might think of them as possibilities for you to • Assign a timekeeper, who will ring the bell to start and end classes. learn more and become an even better trainer. • Maasai like to sing gospels - they are almost all Christian. • Pedagogical skills and experience with training is good. But what’s more important is that you like to help others, are patient and enjoy • Maasai prefer beef or goat meat for lunch. explaining things. • Many Maasai don’t eat fish or chicken because it's considered taboo. • Faciliatation skills, like how to lead games and reflections and create a good learning space, are very helpful. • Business experience is great when you’re teaching business, and willmake you more trustworthy. At least, be sure you really understand the core tools like the balance sheet and the cash flow budget. • An understanding of ecology is important, because the goal of the training is to integrate ecoliteracy into the business training. There's a list of recommended articles in 'Recommended Reading', in case you want to learn more about ecology and sustainability. • You need to draw. But don't worry - everyone can draw You don't need to be an artist. The point is just to draw simple things to help the participants follow along. Page 21 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence. Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Training Activities Vary the Training You can also asks participants for real-world experiences related to the current topics. Have someone experienced a similar situation? Some people learn best by working in groups, others individually. Some learn well from doing games, others like stories. People have different Games styles of learning. For this reason, it’s good to have different types of Games work very well for lifting energy and as a basis for reflections. activities in the training. By having a mix of activities, you can make the Often we learn something better when we use the body in some way. It training fun and engaging for everyone, change dynamic and lift energy. helps to make a topic concrete, fun and easy to remember. If participants Flip Chart start to look sleepy - it might be time for a game A flip chart is a good way to focus attention and is important when you Reflection need to draw. You can use it to explain things. It also works well to Reflecting and sharing insights is important when learning. The key to invite someone up to the flip chart and do some kind of task while the facilitating good reflections is to avoid discussion, and instead focus on class watches. For example, you might work with the person to analyze personal experiences and insights. their business using the business tree. This would provides a real-world example, and make things relevant. Breaks Breaks are an important part of any training. Mix in smaller breaks for Individual Work stretching and drinking water when you feel the energy is going down. Individual work is used when participants fill out their business plans. It’s often good to combine it with group work, so they can help each other at the tables. Group Work Working in smaller groups, for example around each table, provides space for all participants to speak and get help from their peers. Someone who might not speak when the whole class discuss will have an easier time when there’s only two others. Class Discussion Asking questions to the class engages the participants. If it’s only you talking, it can get boring Asking questions gives participants a chance to share their knowledge, which is important when teaching adults. The key is to ask good questions, which cannot be answered with just a yes or no. How? Why? are often good questions. Page 22 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence.Background Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Page 23 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence. Business Training f o u n d a t i o n Training Delivery Length Charging a fee also provides a direct feedback to the training organiza- tion - if people are not satisfied with the training they will stop paying. The suggested format for the training program is 15 hours of training This will help make sure that the training stays relevant and useful. ,delivered over three days. (18 hours including lunch breaks.) This length was chosen as a balance between resources and needs. On Typical Steps one hand, longer trainings would provide more time for teaching the To deliver a training, typical steps will include: skills people need. On the other hand, longer trainings would make • Decide location it more difficult for people to attend, and require more resources to deliver. • Coordinate with local chiefs Three days is enough time to teach basic business skills if you focus on • Arrange venue the essentials. It’s short, but makes the delivery flexible. Suggested time of day for the training is from 11 am to 5 pm on week- • Invite the community to a public meeting (baraza) days. (But remember to avoid marked days, etc.) • Public meeting (baraza) Price • Registrations and payment Other NGO’s have done business training in the nearby city of Magadi, paying people to attend, as well as providing free transport, accommo- • Training dation and food. • Business Club. It's good to arrange opportunities for the participants For this reason, locals might tell you that people will never pay to attend to meet again and help each other, keep up their motivation, etc. a training. But the pilot project showed that people are in fact willing to pay a price of KSh 100 (about 1€) for a training in the local area. The turnout was good, and included traditional Maasai women. Some even choose to pay again to go to the second training as well. Providing the training for free would send the wrong signal - after all, business is about the value of things. Charging a price also makes sure that only motivated people attend. The price of KSh 100 was chosen because it is approximately the local price of the physical things the participants get: three lunches, a note- book, a pencil and a rubber. This provides a simple way to justify the price. Page 24 Revision 1.0.1. Published under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence.

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