Gender equality and equity ppt

gender equality ppt presentation and ppt on gender equality
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Prof.KristianHardy,Austria,Teacher
Published Date:26-07-2017
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Gender Smriti Sharma UNU-WIDER Development Economics I, HECER October 7, 2015Readings Mandatory Du o, Esther (2012). Women empowerment and economic development. Journal of Economic Literature, 50(4), 1051-1079. Jayachandran, Seema (2015). The roots of gender inequality in developing countries. Annual Review of Economics, 7, 63-88. Optional Bertrand, Marianne (2011). New perspectives on gender. Handbook of Labor Economics, Vol. 4b, 1545-1592. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 2 / 26De nitions Birth rate (crude): number of births per 1000 population Sex ratio: number of males per 100 females Age-speci c fertility rate: average number of children born to women in a particular age group (in a given year) Total fertility rate: the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with current age-speci c fertility rates. Replacement level fertility: the average number of children born per women required to keep a population at its current level, without migration Maternal mortality rate: number of maternal deaths during pregnancy or due to pregnancy-related causes, per 100000 live births. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 3 / 26\Missing Women" Phenomenon discussed by Amartya Sen (1990) More than 100 million women missing in South Asia, West Asia and North Africa Economic development Neglect of females on account of cultural preferences for sons Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 4 / 26Missing women around the world Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 5 / 26GDP and gender equality Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 6 / 26Development to Empowerment (1) Reduction in poverty relieves households' nancial constraints Girls' well-being is more adversely a ected by income and price shocks. Bjorkman-Nyqvist (2014): nds negative deviations in rainfall from the long-term mean to have negative e ects on female enrollment, esp. of older girls in Uganda. No e ect on boys. With more income and wealth, households less likely to be at margin of subsistence & less likely to make choices at the expense of girls' welfare. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 7 / 26More female vulnerability at lower incomes (WDR 2012) Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 8 / 26With globalization, more trade openness, spread of ICT, rise of service and skill-intensive economy. Women have comparative advantage in light manufacturing & services. Increasing importance of interpersonal skills, that women are better endowed with. Development to Empowerment (2) More job opportunities for women increases perceived returns to education for girls improves long-term outcomes. Heath & Mobarak (2015): study the e ects of rapidly growing export-oriented garment industry in Bangladesh on women. Increase in female education in villages close to factories; higher FLFP; delay in age at marriage & childbirth. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 9 / 26Development to Empowerment (2) More job opportunities for women increases perceived returns to education for girls improves long-term outcomes. Heath & Mobarak (2015): study the e ects of rapidly growing export-oriented garment industry in Bangladesh on women. Increase in female education in villages close to factories; higher FLFP; delay in age at marriage & childbirth. With globalization, more trade openness, spread of ICT, rise of service and skill-intensive economy. Women have comparative advantage in light manufacturing & services. Increasing importance of interpersonal skills, that women are better endowed with. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 9 / 26Trade openness and female employment Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 10 / 26Female labor force participation and GDP (WDR 2012) Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 11 / 26Goldin & Katz (2002) show that introduction of the birth control pill gave women greater control over their fertility & age at marriage. Increased willingness to invest in long-duration professional degrees. Decline in maternal mortality due to medical progress & improved public health systems. Development to Empowerment (3) Technological advancement Frees up time for women to engage in labor markets: electri cation, easier water access, household gadgets etc. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 12 / 26Decline in maternal mortality due to medical progress & improved public health systems. Development to Empowerment (3) Technological advancement Frees up time for women to engage in labor markets: electri cation, easier water access, household gadgets etc. Goldin & Katz (2002) show that introduction of the birth control pill gave women greater control over their fertility & age at marriage. Increased willingness to invest in long-duration professional degrees. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 12 / 26Development to Empowerment (3) Technological advancement Frees up time for women to engage in labor markets: electri cation, easier water access, household gadgets etc. Goldin & Katz (2002) show that introduction of the birth control pill gave women greater control over their fertility & age at marriage. Increased willingness to invest in long-duration professional degrees. Decline in maternal mortality due to medical progress & improved public health systems. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 12 / 26Empowerment to development Gender empowerment can favor development if women can and do make decisions that are better for long term growth. Women tend to make decisions that favor overall household or child welfare as compared to men. Du o (2003): Between 1990-93, bene ts and coverage of the South African social pension program were expanded for the black population. Younger girls who live with a grandmother gained height faster, compared to those who live with a grandfather. More evidence needed to establish this causally. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 13 / 26Afridi et al. (2012): exploit the timing of the rollout of the employment guarantee program in India Greater participation of mothers in the program is associated with better educational outcomes of their children. Aizer (2010): estimates the impact of the gender wage gap on domestic violence by in USA. Exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female dominated industries relative to male dominated ones. Decreases in gender wage gap reduces domestic violence. Empowering women: within the household Improving the bargaining power of women through earned income can increase their ability to directly in uence outcomes. Qian (2008): uses exogenous increases in sex-speci c agricultural income caused by economic reforms in China. Increasing female income, holding male income constant, improves survival rates for girls & increases educational attainment of all children. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 14 / 26Aizer (2010): estimates the impact of the gender wage gap on domestic violence by in USA. Exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female dominated industries relative to male dominated ones. Decreases in gender wage gap reduces domestic violence. Empowering women: within the household Improving the bargaining power of women through earned income can increase their ability to directly in uence outcomes. Qian (2008): uses exogenous increases in sex-speci c agricultural income caused by economic reforms in China. Increasing female income, holding male income constant, improves survival rates for girls & increases educational attainment of all children. Afridi et al. (2012): exploit the timing of the rollout of the employment guarantee program in India Greater participation of mothers in the program is associated with better educational outcomes of their children. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 14 / 26Empowering women: within the household Improving the bargaining power of women through earned income can increase their ability to directly in uence outcomes. Qian (2008): uses exogenous increases in sex-speci c agricultural income caused by economic reforms in China. Increasing female income, holding male income constant, improves survival rates for girls & increases educational attainment of all children. Afridi et al. (2012): exploit the timing of the rollout of the employment guarantee program in India Greater participation of mothers in the program is associated with better educational outcomes of their children. Aizer (2010): estimates the impact of the gender wage gap on domestic violence by in USA. Exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female dominated industries relative to male dominated ones. Decreases in gender wage gap reduces domestic violence. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 14 / 26Empowering women: securing property rights Improving women's control over assets such as land can augment their economic security and improve child outcomes. Deininger, Goyal & Nagarajan (2013): exploit a change in inheritance law in 2 Indian states that made sons' & daughters' right to inherit family land equal. This had a positive impact on girls' educational attainment. Insecure property rights can lead to ineciencies and poverty Goldstein & Udry (2008): In Ghana, where property rights are informal, women face more risk that their land will be expropriated & are reluctant to leave plots fallow. Leads to decline in soil fertility & agri. output on women's land. Sharma (UNU-WIDER) Gender October 7, 2015 15 / 26

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