Mobile ad hoc network ppt seminar

Eliminating Gray Holes in Mobile Ad hoc Network Discovering a Secure Path by Threshold Mechanism active and passive attacks in network security ppt
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Published Date:09-03-2017
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Eliminating Gray Holes in Mobile Ad hoc Network Discovering a Secure Path by Threshold MechanismABSTRACT Problem Statement: In this thesis firstly we study the effects of Black hole attack in MANET using both Proactive and Reactive routing protocols and then discovering a Secure Path in MANET by Avoiding Black/Gray Holes. Thesis Aims and Objective ▪ This study focus on analysis of black hole attack in MANET and its consequences. Analyzing the effects of black hole attack in the light of throughput and end-to-end delay in MANET. ▪ Simulating the black hole attack using Proactive and Reactive routing protocols. ▪ Comparing the results of both Proactive and Reactive protocols to analyze which of these two types of protocols are more vulnerable to Black Hole attack. ▪ Then Discovering a Secure Path in MANET by Avoiding Black/Gray Holes.MANET The term MANET(Mobile Ad hoc Network)refers to a multihop packet based wireless network composed of a set of mobile nodes that can communicate and move at the same time, without using any kind of fixed wired infrastructure.Characteristics of an Ad-hoc Network - Collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network – Network topology changes frequently and unpredictably – No centralized administration or standard support services – Number of nodes 10 to 100 or at most 1000Black hole Attack ▪ In this type of attacks, malicious node claims having an optimum route to the node whose packets it wants to intercept. On receiving the request the malicious node sends a fake reply with extremely short route . ▪ Once the node has been able to place itself between the communicating nodes, it is able to do anything with the packets passing between them.Gray Hole Attack  A grey hole attack (GH) is a special case of the BH attack, in which an intruder first captures the routes, i.e. becomes part of the routes in the network (as with the BH attack), and then drops packets selectively. For example, the intruder may drop packets from specific source nodes, or it may drop packets probabilistically or drop packets in some other specific pattern.  BH and GH attacks on the other hand comprise two tasks:  The attacker first captures routes and then either drops all packets (BH attack)  or some packets (GH attackProposed Algorithm Notations SN : Source Node DN : Destination Node IN : Intermediate Node TH : Threshold D_Seq : Destination Sequence Number Seq : Sequence Number 1. SN broadcasts RREQ to all Nodes 2. IN receives RREQ and forwards until reach DN 3. DN receives RREQ from SN or IN 4. DN gets Seq from RREQ and verifies with Seq in its routing table 5. If Seq of RREQ is greater than Seq of its routing table 6. DN selects Seq of RREQ and plus one 7. Else 8. DN selects Seq of its routing table and plus one9. End if 10. If Seq is greater than or equal TH 11. Seq = 0 12. Else 13. Seq = Seq 14. End if 15. DN generates RREP by using Seq as D_Seq and sends back to SN 16. If SN receives RREP for RREQ 17. SN checks the RREP message for D_seq 18. If D_Seq is greater than TH 19. Discard this message 20. Else 21. Route is established 22. End if 23. End IfLiterature Review  Lu et al. 3 proposed the SAODV black hole detection scheme for MANETs that is designed to address some of the security weaknesses of AODV and withstand black hole attacks.  Deswal and Singh 4 created an enhanced version of the SAODV protocol that includes password security for each of the routing nodes and routing tables that are updated based on timeliness.  Ramaswamy et al. 5 proposed a method for identifying multiple black hole nodes. They were the first to propose a solution for cooperative black hole attacks. They modified the AODV protocol slightly by introducing a Data Routing Information (DRI) table and a cross checking mechanism. Each entry of the node is maintained by the table. This method uses the reliable nodes to transfer the packetsSimulation Tool Used  This Dissertation work using OPNET Modeler16.0 Network Simulator.  OPNET Modeler16.0 is a Commercial Network Simulator.  Designed for modelling communication devices, technologies, and protocols and to simulate the performance of these technologies. Figure : OPNET 16.0 Scenarios Name No. of Mobile Nodes Protocol Used Scenarios Normal Network 100 AODV Under Gray Hole 100 AODV Used Attack Mitigation of Gray 100 AODV Hole Attack Normal Network 150 AODV Under Gray Hole 150 AODV Attack Mitigation of Gray 150 AODV Hole Attack Table1: Scenario UsedExamined Protocols Cases AODV with and without Gray Hole Attack Number of Nodes 100 and 150 Simulation Types of Nodes Vehicular Simulation Area 5555 km Statistics Simulation Time 1800 seconds Mobility Uniform(50-100) m/s Pause Time 100 seconds Performance Parameters Throughput, Delay, Network load No. of Gray Hole Node 10 Trajectory VECTOR Data Type Constant Bit Rate (CBR) Packet Size 1024 bytes Traffic type FTP, Http Active Route Timeout(sec) 3 Hello interval(sec) 1,2 Hello Loss 3 Timeout Buffer 2 Physical Characteristics Extended rate IEEE 802.11g (OFDM) Data Rates(bps) 54 MbpsContinued… Transmit Power 0.005 RTS Threshold 1024 Packet-Reception Threshold -95 Performance Parameters Throughput, Delay, Network load Trajectory VECTOR Long Retry Limit 4 Max Receive Lifetime (seconds) 0.5 Buffer Size(bits) 25600Scenario of Without Gray HoleScenario of With Gray HoleRESULTSThroughput  Throughput is one of the more important and common network performance metrics. Measured in bits/sec or in packets/sec, it represents the amount of bits or packets that are successfully transferred over a link.  High throughput values indicate efficient network function as packets sent reach their destination without being dropped and retransmitted for various reasons.  In first scenario of our experimentation, packets travels are shown as throughput with peak value of approx. 268678 and it is represented as bits per second.  In second scenario which is with gray hole attack, packets drops which are represented as throughput, decreases to value of approx. 188933 bits per second.▪ Throughputs of all three scenarios at 100 nodesThroughput of all three scenarios at 150 nodes

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