Microprocessor basics ppt

intel microprocessor history ppt and microprocessor 8086 ppt lecture notes
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Dr.DouglasPatton,United States,Teacher
Published Date:26-07-2017
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2.996/6.971 Biomedical Devices Design Laboratory Lecture 5: Microprocessors I Instructor: Dr. Hong Ma Sept. 26, 2007Analogy: A Complex Machine with Lots of Knobs Courtesy of NASA.Æ Microprocessor vs. PCs • Microprocessors – Optimized to keep track of time – MSP430: 16MHz clock 62.5ns timing •PCs – Optimized to process large amounts of data – Windows: 100Hz timing – Linux: 1kHz timing • Timing accuracy can be leveraged for measurement functionsÆ Trends in Sensor Architectures • Single processor distributed processorsThe MSP430F2xx Family • Optimized for low-power and versatility • Modern architecture, simple to program • Many peripheral devices – designed to not require input from the CPU • Unified address space, no paging • Device emulates itself • Inexpensive development tools • Highly optimized code, designed for C compiler • Low cost, price 0.50MSP430F2xx ArchitectureMSP430F2274 PinoutPort Functions • Digital input • Digital output • Pulled-up / Pulled-down • Peripheral input / output • Interrupt on edgeKey: Locate the right control bitsMemory Map Von Neuman Architecture “Software” (Instructions for flipping the switches) Hardware Registers (Switches and I/O)Hex Numbers and Memory MSP430 Memory • 8-bit addressing resolutionThe Header File (msp430x22x4.h) • Assigns aliases for registers • Specific to each processor sub-groupÆ Æ Æ Æ Bit-wise Operators • Bit-wise “OR”: – 1000 0101 1101 • Bit-wise “AND”: & – 1001 & 0101 0001 • Bit-wise “NOT”: – 1001 0110 • Bit-wise “XOR”: – 1001 0101 1100Assigning Individual Bits • Assigning all 8-bits at once – P1OUT = 0xA7 • Assigning individual bits high – P1OUT = 0x81 • Assigning individual bits low –P1OUT &= 0x81 • Toggling individual bits – P1OUT = 0x81How to Assign Individual Bits (Better) • Assign all 8-bits at once – P1OUT = BIT7 + BIT5 + BIT2 + BIT1 + BIT0 • Assign individual bits high – P1OUT = BIT7 + BIT0 • Assign individual bits low – P1OUT &= (BIT7 + BIT0) • Toggling individual bits – P1OUT = BIT7 + BIT0Configuring Ports Main() ... P1DIR = BIT0 + BIT1 + BIT2 + BIT3 + BIT4 + BIT5; //Set output mode P1SEL = BIT1 + BIT2; //Output Timer_A1 and Timer_A2 P1REN = BIT6 + BIT7; //Enable pull-up/down resistors for BIT6 and BIT7 P1OUT = BIT0 + BIT6 //Output high on BIT0; Pull-up BIT6 P1OUT &= BIT3 + BIT4 + BIT5 + BIT7 //Output low on BIT3, BIT4, and BIT5; Pull-down BIT7 ... Next Topic: ClocksMSP430 Clocking SchemeCrystal Oscillators • Extremely accurate – standard frequency tolerance = 20ppm • Many frequencies: 20kHz – GHz • Real Time Clock: 32.768kHz • Requires 2 external capacitors • LFXT1 has integrated capacitors • Ceramic resonator Photo removed due to copyright restrictions. – Smaller, cheaper cousin – Frequency tolerance 0.5%DCO (Digital Controlled Oscillator) • 0 to 16 MHz • Fast start-up 1uS • ±3% tolerance • ±6% tolerance over temperature Images removed due to copyright restrictions. • Factory calibration in Flash • Good enough for UART • Application: watch

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