Lean six sigma overview ppt

principles of six sigma ppt and six sigma approach ppt and six sigma metrics ppt
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Prof.WilliamsHibbs,United States,Teacher
Published Date:28-07-2017
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Six Sigma Implementation Tools Application Rules Checklist th 20 June2007 Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 1SIX SIGMA • 3 Sigma Level- Tolerance= 6σ • 3 Sigma Level- Tolerance= 6σ Defect Rate= 2700ppm Defect Rate= 2700ppm • 6 Sigma Level- 50% of Tolerance= 6σ • 6 Sigma Level- 50% of Tolerance= 6σ Defect Rate= 3ppb Defect Rate= 3ppb Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 3Six sigma – General understanding • Key to the success of Six Sigma: • Process knowledge • Knowledge in selection and application of DOE tools • Top Management Commitment • Strong Review Mechanism • Six Sigma was first developed by: Mr Bill Smith, Motorola, 1986 • Six Sigma Improvement Process structure adopted: DMAIC • Funneling for identification of cause is done till it is found that cause is controllable. • Cause which is controllable is the root cause of the problem. • Six Sigma is all about reducing & eliminating wastes in all processes. • Methodology adopted for six Sigma is Funneling. • Objective of Six Sigma is to improve RTY and operate all processes at “Six Sigma level”. • Objective of Six Sigma is to operate all measurable outcome of the processes at “Six Sigma level” and attribute outcomes of the processes at “Zero Defect.” • Key to achieving Six Sigma Level is “ Process knowledge, correct selection and application of DOE Tool and innovative solutions in improving the process” • Six sigma is the estimated Part to Part variation at 99.73% CL Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 4Selection of Six sigma Projects Problem Solving Process Optimization Critical to Critical to Critical to Quality Cost Satisfaction (CTQ) (CTC) (CTS) Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 5Unknown Known Solution How to select Problem solving BB projects Six sigma project Types of Problems – Priority 3 2 4 Six sigma project Cause Unknown – Priority 1 Cause known Solution Unknown Solution Unknown 1 3 Six sigma project Cause Unknown Cause known – Priority 2 Solution known Solution Known Known Unknown Cause Always check the Basic machine condition for any obvious abnormalities and correct it before selecting the project. Select it as a project only if the problem persists after ensuring basic machine condition Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 6Source of Variations Process Input Material Poor Process Poor Product Variation Variation Design Design Environment Machine Processing Material Tooling Parameter Method Variation Variation Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 7DMAIC Process - Provide full information about the problem such as the Define the rejection %, Suspected sources of variations for the problem, Problem type of response Apply DOE techniques and arrive at the “Root cause” Measure & (Controllable cause) for the problem Analysis Validate the Root cause using B vs C Improve Identify and Implement solution for eliminating the root causes Identify and Implement control measures for the root cause to Control make sure that the problem is prevented from occurring again Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 8Define the Problem Start st List out 1 level Yes Is problem Suspected Source Problem Statement known? of Variation( SSV’s) SSVs only related to No Input material Variation. Name of the process will be Attribute Select one Product Type of listed as SSV /Assembly Response Variable X Use RTY Technique Note Specification List instruments Note: Map the Process Used LC≤10% of tolerance R&R study is needed only when there is chance of error in measurement due No Is R&R Calculate RTY to man. Required? Yes Yes No Is RTY Do Study 100%? Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 9Suspected Source of Variation (SSVs) To start with List down only First Level source of variation •Last Process in which the response is generated •Do not brainstorm and list down the detailed sources of variations within the process •Input Material Parameters which can technically create the problem Do not list down SSV related to Process and Product design. ( SSV which can not vary during process) - Some examples are Speed of spindle, Feed Rate, Time, Injection pressure, Limit switch position Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 10M&A phase: Selection of Tools for SSV DOE Tools Situation/ Condition •When SSV can be measured on Good and Bad Products/Parts/Components T1 •Process parameter whose Paired Comparison data is available for Good/Bad •Response can be either attribute or Variable •M&A Phase •When SSV can not be measured on Good and T2 Bad Products//Parts Process/ Product •Response can be either Search attribute or Variable •M&A Phase Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 11M&A phase: Selection of Tools for SSV DOE Tools Situation/ Condition •When problem is on an assembled product & the assembly can be dis-assembled and re-assembled T3 without damaging parts Component search •Response can be either attribute or Variable •M&A Phase •When problem is on an assembled product & if some T4 parts get damaged during Modified disassembly Component search •Response can be either attribute or Variable •M&A Phase Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 12M&A phase: Selection of Tools for SSV DOE Tools Situation/ Condition When input material is not the T5 Cause of the problem and process Is the only cause of the problem Multi Vari Response has to be Variable Analysis •M&A Phase •When the problem can come at any location on the product and we T6 have to study the defect pattern Concentration •Response can be either charts attribute or Variable •M&A Phase Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 13M&A phase: Selection of Tools for SSV DOE Tools Situation/ Condition When root cause of the problem Or optimal setting for a process T7 is identified and it has to validated B Vs C Improvement Phase When the problem is due to design parameters of Product/ Process & parameters are 3 T8 Process to be optimized for 3 Variable Search design parameters M&A Phase Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 14Selection of Tools for SSV DOE Tools Situation/ Condition When the problem is due to design parameters of Product/ Process & parameters are ≤ 3 T9 Process to be optimized for =3 Full Factorial Design parameters M&A Phase When the action on root cause is implemented and type of control T10 to be decided for monitoring. Variation Analysis This can be done both for Root X as well as Big Y Control Phase Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 15Selection of Tools for SSV DOE Tools Situation/ Condition When the measurement variation can come due to T11 method of checking and we have to R&R study find out the variation due to the person who is checking Define phase When the variation can come due to Instrument and we have to find out T12 the variation of the instrument only Calibration Define phase Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 16Steps after selection of Tools for SSV during M&A Phase 1. Data Collection ( Minimum data collection without affecting the production processes) 2. Analysis (Simple analysis without using calculators and big jargons so that anybody can do it) 3. Conclusion (Accurate conclusion on the cause(s)) Root Cause Identification Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 17DOE Tool 1 Paired Comparison Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 18M&A Phase DOE 1 –Paired Comparison Application: • Is used when SSV is measurable on both good and bad products • Good & Bad are selected based on the response defined in the problem definition • Response can be Variable or attribute • SSV can be Variable or attribute • Is applicable to input material related SSV or to the process parameter variation provided the historic data is available with traceability Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 19M&A Phase: DOE1- Paired Comparison rules Checklist Data Collection Analysis Conclusion Select 8 BOB and 8 WOW if the response is If the maximum and minimum value belong to the If the Total count is =6, then the SSV is the “variable” same category, then the cause is eliminated and the confirmed cause for the problem Total count is 0 Select 8 Good and 8 WOW if the response is If the maximum and minimum value belong to For one problem, we can have more than one “attribute” different category, do the counting as per the flow SSV with counts =6. In this case, all are the diagram given in the next slide confirmed causes If the response is attribute and WOW selection is not We cannot prioritize causes with Total count possible, select 8 Good and 8 Bad =6, based on the Count value. If the rejection percentage is =0.5%, select 6 BOB If we have to prioritize the causes with Total and 6 WOW instead of 8 BOB and 8 WOW count =6, then apply Variable Search or Full factorial tool Measure the SSV’s on the Good and Bad products For all the causes with Count =6, fix the and record the data if the SSV is variable specification based on the “GOOD” band If the SSV is attribute, scale on a scale of 0-3, 0 – Fine tune the specification by adding or SSV not present 1- SSV present with less severity, 2- subtracting the existing tolerance depending on SSV present with medium severity, 3- SSV present where the GOOD band is located with high severity and record the data If the Problem statement is “Parameter variation”, For geometrical parameters, Do not do fine select the BOB as the product with less variation tuning, Fix only USL based on the data, since from target and WOW as the product with maximum the LSL is always zero variation from the target value Remember – The BOB and WOW are selected Calculate the variation as the maximum – based on the Response minimum of all the 12 or 16 data If the Variation is =75% of the New tolerance, then the Confirmed cause is a “ROOT CAUSE” If the Variation is 75% of the New tolerance, then the Confirmed cause is only a “CAUSE” and this should be taken as Y and drilled down further Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 20M&A Phase: DOE1- Paired Comparison Flow diagram for finding total count No Count is “0” Does the minimum value and the Arrange values in ascending order Yes and this is not maximum value belong to the the reason for same category From the top, check for the first problem time a transition is happening and draw the line and similarly from the bottom at the first transition, draw the line Only 2 How many repetitions are there ?? No Are the value repeating at the 2 transition line Is the Do analysis as per Yes arrangement Step 5 correct, if not No Does the repeated values belong to Do normal rearrange (follow the same category counting as per step 4) Step 3 Yes Count and reduce 0.5 Key skills of BB : Process knowledge, Good observation and correct selection of tools 21

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