Challenges of distributed systems ppt

communication in distributed systems ppt and distributed control system basics ppt
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Published Date:01-08-2017
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University of Tartu, Institute of Computer Science Distributed Systems MTAT.08.009 Fall 20142 Practical information Lectures: Liivi 2 - 403 WED 12:15 Lectures & Problem solving classes: Liivi 2 - 403, FRI 10:15 Eero Vainikko Homework exercises: Artjom Lind & Eero Vainikko 6 eap Lectures: 48h; Problem solving: 16h; Independent work: 92h Final grade forms from : 1. Homework (40%) 2. Exam (60%) 3. + Bonus points (groupwork and other activities) Course homepage ( Introduction 0.1 Syllabus 0 Introduction 0.1 Syllabus 0.1.1 Lectures: 7. Operating system support 0. Introduction to the course 8. Distributed objects and components 1. Characterization of distributed sys- 9. Web services tems 10. Peer-to-peer systems 2. System models 11. Security 3. Networking and internetworking 12. Distributed files systems 4. Interprocessor communication 13. Name services 5. Remote invocation 14. Designing distributed systems: 6. Indirect communication Google case study4 Introduction 0.1 Syllabus 0.1.2 Discussion seminars Introduces/enhances parts of the course syllabus above • based on individual and/or group- – may include some elements of work competition • Off-class work: – predefined groups, or – spontaneously formed groups – studying the textbook (chapter / theme) • Includes presentations, either – looking for information from the Internet – spontaneous, or – separate group meetings – prepared ——– The aim: collaborative & supportive learning experience ——–5 Introduction 0.1 Syllabus 0.1.3 Homework • 4 programming tasks with separate deadlines 0.1.4 Exam • Written exam, dates: A. 19. December 2014 at 10:15 B. 9. January 2015 at 10:15 – Course materials studied at Lectures and Discussion Seminars – Exercises6 Introduction 0.2 Literature 0.2 Literature 0.2.1 Textbook • George Coulouris, Jean Dollimore, Tim Kindberg, Gordon Blair, Distributed Systems: Concepts and Design (5th Edition), Addison-Wesley 2012. 0.2.2 Additional reading • POSIX thread programming • Fundamentals of multithreading • Pthreads API specification • Flick: The Flexible IDL Compiler Kit • Introduction to Java threads • Java IDL Technology • Synchronizing threads in Java • Java tutorial by SUN • ONC+ Developer’s Guide7 Introduction 0.2 Literature • Microsoft Interface Definition Lan- • Remote Filesystems slides guage (MIDL) • WebDAV Resources • Introduction to Java RMI • Understanding Replication in Databases and Distributed Systems • Java RMI Tutorial (PDF) • Annotated WSDL Example • Linux Virtual Server for Scalable • The NFS Version 4 Protocol Network Services (PDF) • Microsoft SMB Protocol and CIFS • NFS Security (PDF) Protocol Overview • Executive Summary: Computer • Coda File System Network Time Synchronization8 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.1 Introduction 1 Characterization of distributed systems 1.1 Introduction What is a Distributed System? A distributed system is What onecomponents? in which components What connections? located at Coordination? networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions only by passing messages A distributed system consists of a collection of autonomous computers linked by a computer network and equipped with distributed system software. This software enables computers to coordinate their activities and to share the re- sources of the system hardware, software, and data.9 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.1 Introduction How to characterize a distributed system? • concurrency of components • lack of global clock • independent failures of components Leslie Lamport :-) You know you have a distributed system when the crash of a computer you’ve never heard of stops you from getting any work done What Primeis moti thevprime ation: moti to shar vation e resour for Distrib ces uted Systems?10 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.1 Introduction What are the challenges? • heterogeneity of their components • openness • security • scalability – the ability to work well when the load or the number of users increases • failure handling • concurrency of components • transparency • providing quality of service11 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.2 Examples of distributed systems 1.2 Examples of distributed systems Distributed Systems application domains connected with networking:12 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.2 Examples of distributed systems Finance and commerce eCommerce e.g. Amazon and eBay, PayPal, online banking and trading The information society Web information and search engines, ebooks, Wikipedia; social networking: Facebook and MySpace Creative industries and online gaming, music and film in the home, user-generated entertainment content, e.g. YouTube, Flickr Healthcare health informatics, on online patient records, monitoring patients Education e-learning, virtual learning environments; distance learning Transport and logistics GPS in route finding systems, map services: Google Maps, Google Earth Science The Grid as an enabling technology for collaboration be- tween scientists Environmental management sensor technology to monitor earthquakes, floods or tsunamis13 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.2 Examples of distributed systems 1.2.1 Web search 1.2.2 Massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) An example: Google Examples Highlights of this infrastructure: • EVE online – client-server archi- • physical infrastructure tecture • distributed file system • EverQuest – more distributed • structured distributed storage architecture system • Research on completely decentral- • lock service ized approaches based on peer-to- • programming model peer (P2P) technology14 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.2 Examples of distributed systems 1.2.3 Financlial trading   • distributed even-based systems WHEN MSFT p r i c e moves o u t s i d e 2% of MSFT Moving Average FOLLOWEDBY ( MyBasket moves up by 0.5% AND ( HPQs p r i c e moves up by 5% OR MSFTs p r i c e moves down by 2% ) ) ALL WITHIN - Reuters market data events any 2 minute time period THEN - FIX events (events following the BUY MSFT SELL HPQ specific format of the Financial Informa-  tion eXchange protocol)15 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.3 Trends in distributed systems 1.3 Trends in distributed systems • emergence of pervasive networking technology • emergence of ubiquitous computing coupled with the desire to support user mobility • multimedia services • distributed systems as utility 1.3.1 Pervasive networking and the modern Internet networking has become a pervasive resource and devices can be conected at any time and any place16 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.3 Trends in distributed systems A typical portion of the Internet:17 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.3 Trends in distributed systems 1.3.2 Mobile and ubiquitous computing • laptop computers • handheld devices (mobile phones, smart phones, tablets, GPS-enabled devices, PDAs, video and digital cameras) • wearable devices (smart watches, glasses, etc.) • devices embedded in appliances (washing machines, refrigerators, cars, etc.)18 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.3 Trends in distributed systems Portable and handheld devices in a distributed system • mobile computing • location/context- aware computing • ubiquitous computing • spontaneous interoperation • service discovery19 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.3 Trends in distributed systems 1.3.3 Distributed multimedia systems • live or pre-ordered television broadcasts • video-on-demand • music libraries • audio and video conferencing20 Characterization of Distributed Systems 1.3 Trends in distributed systems 1.3.4 Distributed computing as a utility • Cluster computing • Grid computing • Cloud computing

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