How Public Relations helps a business

what public relations can do for an organization and what is public relations business dictionary and what are public relations strategies and tactics
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chapter M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 1 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. Part 1 What Is Public Relations? 1 After reading this chapter, you will be able to: Be familiar with the global scope of the Know the difference between public public relations industry relations, journalism, advertising, and marketing Have a good definition of public relations Assess the skills needed for a public relations career and what salary Understand that public relations to expect is a process, not an event Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 2 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. 2 Part 1 Role The Challenge of Public Relations It is 9 A.M. and Anne-Marie, a senior account executive in a San Francisco public rela- tions firm, is at her desk getting ready for a full day of busy activity. She takes a few min- utes to answer some text messages, scan her e-mails, and Tweet a printing firm about the status of a brochure. She also quickly flips through the local daily and checks RSS feeds from client companies and various trade groups. She downloads a Wall Street Journal article about the increasing risk of tainted food from foreign suppliers and makes a note to have her student intern do some more research about this issue. One of Anne-Marie’s clients is a restaurant chain, and she senses an opportunity for the client to capitalize on the media interest by informing the press and the public about what the restaurant chain is doing to ensure the quality and safety of their meals. She then finishes a draft of a news release about a client’s new tablet computer and e-mails it to the client for approval. She also attaches a note that an electronic news service can deliver it to newspapers across the country later in the day. Anne-Marie’s next activity is a brainstorming session with other staff members in the conference room to generate creative ideas about creating a Facebook page for a yogurt company. When she gets back to her office, she finds more text messages, Tweets, and voice- mails. A reporter for a trade publication needs background information on a story he is writing; a graphic designer has finished a rough draft of a client’s new logo; a cater- ing manager has called about final arrangements for a VIP reception at an art gallery; and a video producer asks whether Anne-Marie can preview a video news release (VNR) that will be uploaded to YouTube and distributed by satellite to television stations throughout the nation. Lunch is with a client who wants her counsel on how to position the company as environmentally conscious and dedicated to sustainable development. After lunch, Anne-Marie walks back to the office while talking on her phone to a colleague in the New York office about an upcoming news conference to announce a new celebrity clothing line. She also calls an editor to “pitch” a story about a client’s new product. He’s interested, so she follows up by sending some background material via her BlackBerry. Back in the office, Anne-Marie touches base with other members of her team, who are working on a 12-city media tour by an Olympic champion representing Nike. Then it’s back to the computer. She checks several online databases to gather infor- mation about the industry of a new client. She also reviews online news updates and postings on popular blogs to find out if anything is being said about her clients. At 5 P.M., as she winds down from the day’s hectic activities, she reviews news stories from an electronic monitoring service about another client, an association of strawberry pro- ducers. She is pleased to find that her feature story, which included recipes and color photos, appeared in 150 dailies. But the day isn’t quite done. Anne-Marie is on her way to attend a chapter meet- ing of the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA), where the speaker will discuss trends in reputation management. It’s her way of continuing her education since her graduation from college four years ago with a public relations major and a minor in marketing. After the meeting, she networks with several other members over a glass of wine and a quick dinner. It’s a nice respite from the bulging briefcase, text messages, and e-mails that must be dealt with before she calls it a day. As this scenario illustrates, the profession of public relations is multifaceted and quite challenging. A public relations professional must have skills in written and Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 3 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. Chapter 1 What Is Public Relations? 3 interpersonal communication, media relations and social media, research, negotiation, creativity, logistics, facilitation, and problem solving. Indeed, those who want a challenging career with plenty of variety often choose the field of public relations. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that the field already employs almost 300,000 people nationwide, and its 2010–2011 Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH) projects a 24 percent growth rate through 2018. The hand- book also gives an excellent description of a public relations specialist, which is high- lighted in the Insights box below. More good news: Public relations is somewhat recession-proof. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported a national unemployment rate of 9.5 percent in June 2009, but an analysis by the professional recruiting firm Robert Half International found that the unemployment rate among public relations managers was less than half of 1 percent. Jim Rutherford, executive vice president (EVP) of private equity firm Veronis Suhler Stevenson (VSS), quipped to PRWeek, “The economy may have been in a downturn, but even companies in bankruptcy protection had to communicate to their stakeholders.” on the job The Nature of Public Relations Work he Occupational Outlook universities, hospitals, and other relations specialists must under- Handbook 2010–11, published by organizations, and build and stand the attitudes and concerns of Tthe U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics maintain positive relationships with community, consumer, employee, (www.bls.gov/oco), describes various the public. As managers recognize and public interest groups to jobs. The following is the description for the link between good public rela- establish and maintain cooperative public relations specialists: tions and the success of their organizations, they increas- An organization’s reputation, prof- ingly rely on public relations The need for good public itability, and its continued exis- specialists for advice on the tence can depend on the degree to strategy and policy of their relations in an increasingly which its targeted public supports communications. competitive business envi- its goals and policies. Public rela- Public relations specialists tions specialists—also referred to handle organizational func- ronment should spur as communication specialists and tions, such as media, commu- media specialists, among other nity, consumer, industry, demand for PR specialists titles—serve as advocates for and governmental relations; in organizations of all clients seeking to build and main- political campaigns, interest- tain positive relationships with group representation; conflict types and sizes. the public. Their clients include mediation; and employee businesses, nonprofit associations, and investor relations. Public —U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (continued) Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 4 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. 4 Part 1 Role People who handle publicity relationships between them and for officials. These media specialists for an individual or who direct representatives from print and represent employers at community public relations for a small organ- broadcast journalism. projects; make film, slide, and other ization may deal with all aspects visual presentations for meetings of the job. These public relations Public relations specialists draft and school assemblies; and plan specialists contact people, plan press releases and contact people conventions. and research, and prepare mate- in the media who might print or In government, public relations rial for distribution. They also may broadcast their material. Many specialists may be called press sec- handle advertising or sales pro- radio or television special reports, retaries. They keep the public motion work to support marketing newspaper stories, and magazine informed about the activities of efforts. articles start at the desks of public agencies and officials. For example, In addition to the ability to com- relations specialists. Sometimes, public affairs specialists in the U.S. municate thoughts clearly and sim- the subject of a press release is Department of State alert the pub- ply, public relations specialists an organization and its policies lic of travel advisories and of U.S. must show creativity, initiative, and toward employees or its role in the positions on foreign issues. A press good judgment. Decision-making, community. For example, a press secretary for a member of Congress informs constituents of the repre- problem-solving, and research release might describe a public sentative’s accomplishments. skills also are important. People issue, such as health, energy, or the In large organizations, the key who choose public relations as a environment, and what an organi- public relations executive, who often career should have an outgoing zation does to advance that issue. is a vice president, may develop over- personality, self-confidence, an Public relations specialists also all plans and policies with other exec- understanding of human psychol- arrange and conduct programs utives. In addition, public relations ogy, and an enthusiasm for moti- to maintain contact between departments employ public relations vating people. They should be organization representatives and specialists to write, research, prepare assertive but able to participate as the public. For example, public rela- materials, maintain contacts, and part of a team and be open to new tions specialists set up speaking respond to inquiries. ideas. engagements and prepare speeches A Global Industry Public relations, however, is not just an American activity. It is also a worldwide indus- try. The global dimensions of public relations can be illustrated in several ways. The fol- lowing gives some background on (1) the global market, (2) the number of practitioners, (3) regions of major growth, and (4) the growth of public relations as an academic discipline. Global Expenditures on Public Relations In terms of economics, the public relations field is most extensively developed in the United States. Private equity firm Veronis Suhler Stevenson (VSS), which has been tracking the communications industry for the past 15 years, reported that spending on public relations in the U.S. grew more than 4 percent in 2008 and nearly 3 percent in 2009 to 3.7 billion. In addition, VSS also predicts that spending on public relations will top 8 billion by 2013. The projected spending, according to PRWeek reporter Chris Daniels, includes “...3 billion that will be spent on word-of-mouth marketing, which includes social media outreach as well as offline brand ambassador programs.” The Economist adds, Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 5 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. Chapter 1 What Is Public Relations? 5 “The rise of the Internet and social media has given PR a big The rise of the Internet and boost. Many big firms have a presence on social networking sites, social media has given PR a such a Facebook and Twitter, overseen by PR staff. PR firms are increasingly called on to track what consumers are saying about big boost. their clients online and to respond directly to any negative commentary.” The Economist The amount spent on public relations for the rest of the world is somewhat sketchy and not well documented. One major reason is that public relations can include a number of activities that overlap into such areas as marketing, promotion, direct mail, and even advertising. The 2008 president of the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA), Michael Cherenson, estimated that the industry was a 6 billion global business. It’s also been estimated that European spend- ing on public relations is currently about 3 billion annually, but continues to increase due to the expansion of the European Union (EU) and the developing market economies of Russia and the other nations of the former Soviet Union. There is also considerable growth in other regions of the world, particularly China, which will be dis- cussed shortly. Despite the billions spent on public relations around the world, it should be noted that it’s still a cottage industry compared to advertising. The Financial Times reports that global spending on advertising was more than 450 billion in 2009. An Estimated Three Million Practitioners The Global Alliance (www.global alliancepr.org), with about 60 national and regional public relations associations representing 160,000 members, estimates that some 3 million people worldwide practice public relations as their main professional activity. This includes the estimated 300,000 practitioners in the U.S., and also the estimated 50,000 located in the United Kingdom (UK). It’s also estimated that there are between 7,000 and 10,000 public relations firms in the United States, and the directory Hollis Europe 2009 lists almost 3,000 public relations firms (consultancies) in 40 European nations. Many of these firms are one-person operations, but also included are firms with several hundred employees. There are, of course, literally thousands of companies, governmental organizations, and nonprofits around the world that also have in-house public relations departments and staffs. There are also an estimated 200 national and regional public relations organiza- tions around the world. A partial list that shows the geographic diversity includes the following: Public Relations Institute of Southern Africa (PRISA), the Spanish Association of Communicators (DIRCOM), the Public Relations Institute of Australia (PRIA), the Public Relations Society of Serbia, the Canadian Public Relations Society (CPRS), the Public Relations Society of Kenya (PRSK), the Institute of Public Relations (United Kingdom), the Romania Public Relations Association (RPRA), the Public Relations Agencies Association of Mexico (PRAA), Relaciones Publigas America Latina (ALARP), the Consejo Professional de Relaciones Publicas of Argentina, the Public Relations Society of India (PRSI), and the Middle East Public Relations Association (MEPRA). An Explosion of Growth in China, Other Nations Major growth is also occurring in Asia for several reasons. China is literally the “new frontier.” Since opening its economy to market capitalism 30 years ago, China today is the world’s second largest economy after the United States. And the public relations industry is thriving. The China International Public Relations Association (CIPRA) reports that there are Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 6 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. 6 Part 1 Role more than 20,000 practitioners in the country and that every major global public relations firm has offices in the country. According to the Economist, an estimated 1.8 billion was spent on public relations in China in 2010, second only to Japan in the region. China’s membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO) opened the flood- gate for more public relations activity by international companies engaged in a fierce competition for the bonanza of reaching more than a billion potential customers. The biggest trend, according to the Economist, is now a soaring demand for public relations among Chinese companies as they actively seek local consumers, foreign investments, and international outlets for their goods. The 2008 Beijing Olympics and the 2010 Shanghai World Expo further fueled the dynamic growth of public rela- tions in China. Other nations, such as Malaysia, Korea, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, and India, are also rapidly expanding their domestic and international markets, which creates a fer- tile environment for increased public relations activity. India has great economic and public relations potential because, like China, it has over 1 billion people and is also moving toward a more robust market economy. Africa and Latin America also present growth opportunities, stimulated in part by hosting international events. South Africa hosted the World Cup soccer championship in 2010 and Brazil will host the Summer Olympics in 2016. A more detailed discussion of international public relations is found in Chapter 20. A Proliferation of University Courses Large numbers of students around the world are studying public relations as a career field. One study by Professor Elizabeth Toth and her colleagues at the University of Maryland surveyed English-only websites and found 218 degree, certificate, and diploma programs offered in 39 countries. In another study by Chunhui He and Jing Xie at Zheijiang University’s Communications Studies Institute, they report that more than 300 universities in China have now added public relations to their course offerings. An estimated 600 American universities and colleges also offer a curriculum in public relations. There are also courses in departments of communication and schools of business, but most students are enrolled in departments or schools of journalism. In these units, the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communications’ (AEJMC) annual enrollment survey for 2007–2008 reported there were more than 30,000 students majoring in public relations In Europe, an estimated 100 universities also offer studies in the subject. Unlike the United States, however, many courses are taught in a faculty of economics or business. Public relations study is popular in such nations as the Netherlands, Germany, Serbia, Romania, Latvia, Estonia, and Finland. Many Asian universities, particularly those in Thailand, Korea, Indonesia, India, and the Philippines, also offer major programs. Australia and New Zealand have a long history of public relations education. In South America, particularly in Argentina, Chile, and Brazil, public relations is taught at many universities. South African universities have the most developed pub- lic relations curriculum on the African continent, but programs of study can also be found in Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya. The Middle East, particularly the United Arab Emirates, introduced public relations into university curriculums during the mid-1990s. In sum, public relations is a well-established academic subject that is taught and practiced on a global scale. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 7 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. Chapter 1 What Is Public Relations? 7 A Definition of Public Relations Public relations has been defined in many ways. Rex Harlow, a Stanford professor and founder of the organization that became the Public Relations Society of America, once compiled more than 500 definitions from almost as many sources. The definitions ranged from the simple, “Doing good and getting credit for it,” to more verbose definitions. Harlow’s collective definition, for example, is almost 100 words. One early definition that gained wide acceptance was formulated by the newslet- ter PR News: “Public relations is the management function which evaluates public atti- tudes, identifies the policies and procedures of an individual or an organization with the public interest, and plans and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and patience.” Public relations is the man- Other definitions are provided by theorists and textbook authors. One of the first textbooks in the field, Effective Public agement of communication Relations by Scott Cutlip and Allen Center, stated, “Public relations between an organization is the management function that identifies, establishes, and main- tains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and and its publics. the various publics on whom its success or failure depends.” The management function was also emphasized more than 25 years ago James E. Grunig and Todd Hunt, in Managing Public Relations by James E. Grunig and Todd Hunt. Managing Public Relations They said, “Public relations is the management of communication between an organization and its publics.” National and international public relations organizations, including the PRSA, also have formulated definitions. Here are two examples: ■ “Public relations is influencing behaviour to achieve objectives through the effec- tive management of relationships and communications.” (British Institute of Public Relations, whose definition has also been adopted in a number of Commonwealth nations) ■ “Public relations practice is the art and social science of analyzing trends, predict- ing their consequences, counseling organization leaders, and implementing planned programs of action which serve both the organization’s and the public’s interest.” (1978 World Assembly of Public Relations in Mexico City and endorsed by 34 national public relations organizations) A good definition for today’s modern practice is offered by Professors Lawrence W. Long and Vincent Hazelton, who describe public relations as “a communication function of management through which organizations adapt to, alter, or maintain their environment for the purpose of achieving organizational goals.” Their approach promotes the idea that public relations should also foster open, two- way communication and mutual understanding, with the idea that an organization— not just the target audience—changes its attitudes and behaviors in the process. Although current definitions of public relations have long emphasized the build- ing of mutually beneficial relationships between the organization and its various publics, a more assertive approach has emerged over the past decade. Professor Glen Cameron, at the University of Missouri School of Journalism, defines public relations as the “strategic management of competition and conflict for the benefit of one’s own organization—and when possible—also for the mutual benefit of the organization and its various stakeholders or publics.” Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 8 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. 8 Part 1 Role It isn’t necessary, however, to memorize any particular definition of public rela- tions. It’s more important to remember the key words that are used in most definitions that frame today’s modern public relations. The key words are: ■ Deliberate. Public relations activity is intentional. It is designed to influence, gain understanding, provide information, and obtain feedback from those affected by the activity. ■ Planned. Public relations activity is organized. Solutions to problems are discov- ered and logistics are thought out, with the activity taking place over a period of time. It is systematic, requiring research and analysis. ■ Performance. Effective public relations is based on actual policies and perfor- mance. No amount of public relations will generate goodwill and support if the organ- ization has poor policies and is unresponsive to public concerns. ■ Public interest. Public relations activity should be mutually beneficial to the organization and the public; it is the alignment of the organization’s self-interests with the public’s concerns and interests. ■ Two-way communication. Public relations is not just disseminating information but also the art of listening and engaging in a conversation with various publics. ■ Management function. Public relations is most effective when it is a strategic and integral part of decision making by top management. Public relations involves counseling, problem solving, and the management of competition and conflict. To summarize, you can grasp the essential elements of effective public relations by remembering the following words and phrases: deliberate . . . planned...perfor- mance . . . public interest . . . two-way communication . . . strategic management function. The elements of public relations just described are part of the process that defines today’s public relations. Other Popular Names Public relations is used as an umbrella term on a worldwide basis. Most national mem- bership associations, from the Azerbaijan Public Relations Association to the Zimbabwe Institute of Public Relations, identify themselves with that term. Individual companies and other groups, however, often use other terms to describe the public relations function. The most popular term among Fortune 500 companies is corporate communications. This description is used by such companies as McDonald’s, BMW of North America, Toyota, Walt Disney, and Walgreens. Other companies, such as GM and United Technologies, just use the term communications. A number of corporations also use combination titles to describe the public rela- tions function within the organization. IBM, for example, has a senior vice president (SVP) of marketing and communications. At Facebook, the public relations executive is in charge of communications and public policy. Johnson & Johnson goes with public affairs and corporate communications, while L’Oreal USA uses corporate communications and exter- nal affairs. Other companies think in more global terms. The public relations executive at Coca-Cola, for example, is in charge of worldwide public affairs and communications, and FedEx uses worldwide communications and investor relations. The use of corporate communications is based, in part, on the belief that the term is broader than public relations, which is often incorrectly perceived as only media relations. Corporate communications, many argue, encompasses all communications of the Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 9 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. Chapter 1 What Is Public Relations? 9 company, including advertising, marketing communications, public affairs, community relations, and employee communications. Others believe that such terms as corporate communications sound more impressive and get away from some of the negative stereo- types about “public relations,” which will be discussed shortly. Public information and public affairs are the most widely used terms by nonprofits, universities, and government agencies. The implication is that only information is being disseminated, in contrast to persuasive communication, generally perceived as the pur- pose of public relations. Social services agencies often use the term community relations, and the military is fond of public affairs. Increasingly, many nonprofits are also using the term marketing communications, as they reorient to the idea that they must sell their services and generate donations in a highly competitive environment. Other organizations use a term that better describes the primary activity of the department. It is clear, for example, that a department of investor relations deals pri- marily with stockholders, institutional investors, and the financial press. Likewise, a department of environmental affairs, community relations, or employee communica- tions is self-explanatory. A department of marketing communications primarily emphasizes product publicity and promotion. The organization and functions of communications departments are discussed in Chapter 4. Like departments, individuals specialize in subcategories of public relations. A per- son who deals exclusively with placement of stories in the media is, to be precise, a publicist. A press agent is also a specialist, operating within the subcategory of public rela- tions that concentrates on finding unusual news angles and planning events or “happen- ings” that attract media attention—a stunt by an aspiring Hollywood actress, for example, or an attempt to be listed in the Guinness Book of Records by baking the world’s largest apple pie. Publicist is an honorable term in the entertainment and celebrity busi- ness, but is somewhat frowned on by the mainstream public relations industry. Chapter 18 discusses the work of New York and Hollywood publicists. Stereotypes and Less Flattering Terms Public Relations Hollywood Style Unfortunately, the public often has a much different image of public rela- Samantha Jones (Kim Cattrall) leads a tions. A common stereotype is that public relations is a glamorous field glamorous life as the owner of a public because public relations practitioners meet exciting and interesting peo- relations firm in the television series ple, go to parties, and generally spend the day doing a lot of schmoozing. Sex and the City. In the second movie On the more sinister side, many people think public relations is a syn- sequel, she even goes to Abu Dhabi to onym for propaganda, manipulation, and even lying on behalf of special plan a public relations campaign for a interests such as corporations and politicians. luxury hotel. Public relations work, Many people gain their perceptions from television programs such as however, requires more than wearing Sex and the City, which is now in reruns and even became two movies. designer clothes and going to dinner Ellen Tashie Frisna, a professor at Hofstra University, writes in Tactics, parties. “Samantha Jones (Kim Cattrall), the sexiest of the show’s characters, owns a PR agency. And she is—shall we say—experienced. She talks about her career as a way to meet men. (Her conquests include clients and temps.) Sorry, kids—the real world of public relations isn’t like that.” Of course, other television programs and movies also give somewhat negative stereotypes about public relations. ABC’s Spin City, for example, featured Michael J. Fox as the deputy mayor of New York, who protected his bumbling boss from the media and public. More recently, Bravo launched a reality show, Kell on Earth, that the New York Times described as “a reality show that follows a publicist, Kelly Cutrone, as she bullies and cajoles her Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 10 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. 10 Part 1 Role way through the underbelly of the New York fashion world.” Mad Men, a series about an advertising firm in the 1960s, has also portrayed public relations as a somewhat dubious activity. The movies Phone Booth, The Sweet Smell of Success, and even The Devil Wears Prada also add to the portrayals of sleazy publicists who have virtually no personal or professional moral compass. Some films are satires, but still project a negative image of public relations. Thank You for Smoking, a movie adapted from the book by Christopher Buckley, is a partic- ularly good satire about a public relations person defending the tobacco industry. Wag the Dog, starring Dustin Hoffman and Robert DeNiro, is also a satire focusing on how an embattled president creates a fake war with the help of public relations pros to improve his image. A more recent film, Bruno, with leading actor Sacha Baron Cohen, played up the “dumb blonde” syndrome. At one point in the film, Sacha’s fictional character asks two sis- ters who run a public relations firm in Los Angeles, “What charities are hot now?” They replied, “Darfur.” He then asked them where Darfur is, and they didn’t have a clue. Other negative stereotypes are perpetuated by journalists who use terms such as “PR gimmick” or “PR fluff.” One journalist once described public relations as “the art of saying nothing.” Frank Rich, an influential columnist for the New York Times, has used a number of adjectives over the years to describe public relations. They include “marketing,” “sales,” “sloganeering,” “propaganda,” and “lacking in principles and sub- stance.” Gene Weingarten, a columnist for the Washington Post, seems to agree, once calling public relations people “pathetic, desperate dillweeds.” Joe Norcera, a business columnist for the New York Times, used less colorful language to describe his frustration Public Relations as “Image Building” The image of an organization is made up of many factors, and public relations is only one of them. (Copyright © The New Yorker Collection 2004. Mick Stevens from cartoonbank.com. All rights reserved.) Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 11 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. Chapter 1 What Is Public Relations? 11 with Apple public relations reps. He wrote, “This is another Apple innovation: the robotic spokesman who says only what he’s programmed to say.” Journalists often express frustration when they feel that public relations personnel are stonewalling, providing misleading information, or not being readily accessible to fully answer questions. This is traditionally a problem of effective media relations and, quite frankly, incompetence occurs in all fields, including public relations. Chapters 14 and 15 discuss the responsibilities of public relations personnel to provide assistance to media personnel. Public relations is also referred to as spin. This term first appeared in a 1984 New York Times editorial about the activities of President Ronald Reagan’s reelection cam- paign. In the beginning, the meaning of spin was restricted to what often were consid- ered the unethical and misleading activities and tactics of political campaign consultants. Today, however, the media widely use the term to describe any effort by an individual or organization to interpret an event or issue according to a particular viewpoint. On occasion, however, spin can lead to a question of ethics, which is high- lighted in the Ethics box below. A more academic term for spin is the concept of framing. Multiple research studies show how journalists, as well as public relations per- sonnel, “frame” issues. See Chapter 9 for more on the theory of framing. Another term with a long history is flak or flack. These words are derisive slang terms that journalists often use for a press agent or anyone else working in public rela- tions. It’s like calling a journalist a “hack.” Although in recent years most publications, including the Wall Street Journal, have refrained from using the “F” word in news sto- ries, columnists still occasionally use the word. on the job Canada Outed for Scenery Theft he Canadian province of photo, which was Beadnell Bay on the relations bureau, who was managing Alberta launched an image north coast of England, 8,000 kilome- the public relations campaign, issued Tcampaign to somewhat offset ters away from landlocked Alberta. the statement, “This represents Alber- the controversy over oil extraction in Martin Wainwright, a reporter for tans’ concern for the future of the Alberta’s wetlands. The campaign art- the Guardian Weekly, asked Canadian world. There’s no attempt to make work included a photo of two children officials about using the photo. The people think that the place pictured is playing on a seaside beach with the head of media relations for the Cana- Alberta.” The PR firm Calder Bateman, slogan, “Alberta: Freedom to Create. dian prime minister told him that the which devised the campaign, issued a Spirit to Achieve.” photograph merely symbolized the “no comment.” The only problem was that Alberta fact that “Albertans are a worldly peo- What do you think of the rationale has no coastline and is 800 kilometers ple. There’s no attempt to mislead given for using the photo? Do you from the nearest body of water, the here. The picture used just fitted the think the use of such a picture was Pacific Ocean. A sailing enthusiast mood and tone of what we were misleading, unethical, or OK? tracked down the actual site of the trying to do.” And the Alberta public Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 12 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. 12 Part 1 Role The term has a mixed history. According to Wes Pedersen, a former director of communications for the Public Affairs Council, the term flack originated in 1939 in Variety, the show business publication. It began using flack as a synonym for press agent, he says, “in tribute to the skills of Gene Flack in publicizing motion pictures.” Others say the word flak was used during World War I to describe heavy ground fire aimed at aircraft. At times, journalists consider the barrage of daily news releases they receive a form of flak that interferes with their mission of informing the public. Within the public relations community, feeling also exists that PR is a slang term that carries a somewhat denigrating connotation. The late Sam Black, a public rela- tions consultant in the United Kingdom and author of several books on public relations, said, “The use of ‘PR’ probably originated as a nickname for ‘press relations,’” the pri- mary activity of public relations in its early years (see Chapter 2). Although PR is now more than press relations, the nickname is commonly used in daily conversation and is widely recognized around the world. A good compro- mise, which this book uses, is to adopt the style of spelling out “public relations” in the body of a text or article but to use the shorter term, “PR,” if it is used in a direct quote. Public Relations as a Process Public relations is a process—that is, a series of actions, changes, or functions that bring about a result. One popular way to describe the process, and to remember its compo- nents, is to use the RACE acronym, first articulated by John Marston in his book The Nature of Public Relations. Essentially, RACE means that public relations activity con- sists of four key elements: ■ Research. What is the problem or situation? ■ Action (program planning). What is going to be done about it? ■ Communication (execution). How will the public be told? ■ Evaluation. Was the audience reached and what was the effect? Part Two of this text (Chapters 5–8) discusses this key four-step process. Another approach is to think of the process as a never-ending cycle in which six components are links in a chain. Figure 1.1 shows the process. 1. Step 1: Research and Analysis. This consists of inputs that determine the nature and extent of the public relations problem or opportunity. These may include feedback from the public, media reporting and editorial comment, analysis of trend data, other forms of research, personal experience, and government pressures and regulations. 2. Step 2: Policy Formulation. Public relations personnel, as advisors to top management, make recommendations on policy and what actions should be taken by the organization. 3. Step 3: Programming. Once a policy or action is agreed on, public rela- tions staff begin to plan a communications program that will further the organiza- tion’s objectives. They will set objectives, define audiences, and decide on what strategies will be used on a specific timeline. Budget and staffing are also major considerations. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 13 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. Chapter 1 What Is Public Relations? 13 Figure 1.1 The Public Relations Process Research and The conceptualization of public relations as a analysis cyclical process, feedback, or audience response leads to assessment of the program, which becomes an essential element in the development of another public relations Policy project. formation Program Programming assessment and adjustment Communication Feedback 4. Step 4: Communication. Public relations personnel execute the program through such vehicles as news releases, media advisories, newsletters, Internet and Web postings, special events, speeches, and community relations programs. 5. Step 5: Feedback. The effect of these efforts is measured by feedback from the same components that made up the first step. Did the media mention the key mes- sages? Did people change their attitudes or opinions? Did sales go up? Did the organi- zation preserve or enhance its reputation? 6. Step 6: Assessment. The cycle is then repeated. The success or failure of the policy or program is assessed as a way of determining whether additional efforts are needed, or whether new issues or opportunities must be addressed. Thus, it is a con- tinuing loop process. Note that public relations plays two distinct roles in We provide a voice in the market- this process, thus serving as a “middle ground” or “link- place of ideas, facts, and view- ing agent.” On one level, public relations interacts directly with external sources of information, including points to aid informed public the public, media, and government, and relays these inputs to management along with recommendations. On debate. a second level, public relations becomes the vehicle Public Relations Society of America, defining through which management reaches the public with assorted messages. the role of public relations in today’s society Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 14 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. 14 Part 1 Role The Diversity of Public Relations Work The basic process of public relations, just described, is manifested in a variety of ways. The PRSA Foundation lists the various aspects of public relations activity that are done by individuals working in the field. ■ Counseling. Providing advice to management concerning policies, relationships, and communications. ■ Research. Determining attitudes and behaviors of publics in order to plan pub- lic relations strategies. Such research can be used to (1) generate mutual under- standing or (2) influence and persuade publics. ■ Media relations. Working with journalists and bloggers in seeking publicity or responding to their interests in the organization. ■ Publicity. Disseminating planned messages through selected media, including social media, to further the organization’s interests. See the Insights box on page 15 for a job posting for a publicity assistant for Animal Planet. ■ Employee/member relations. Responding to concerns, informing, and motivat- ing an organization’s employees or members. ■ Community relations. Planned activity with a community to maintain an envi- ronment that benefits both the organization and the community. ■ Public affairs. Developing effective involvement in public policy and helping an organization adapt to public expectations. The term is also used by government agencies to describe their public relations activities and by many corporations as an umbrella term to describe multiple public relations activities. ■ Government affairs. Relating directly with legislatures and regulatory agencies on behalf of the organization. Lobbying can be part of a government affairs program. ■ Issues management. Identifying and addressing issues of public concern that affect the organization. ■ Financial relations. Creating and maintaining investor confidence and building good relationships with the financial community. Also known as investor relations or shareholder relations. ■ Industry relations. Relating with other firms in the industry of an organization and with trade associations. ■ Development/fund-raising. Demonstrating the need for and encouraging the public to support an organization, primarily through financial contributions. ■ Multicultural relations/workplace diversity. Relating with individuals and groups in various cultural groups. A good example is the Bank of America’s out- reach to the Hispanic community on page 16. ■ Special events. Stimulating an interest in a person, product, or organization by means of a well-planned event; also, activities designed to interact with publics and listen to them. ■ Marketing communications. Combination of activities designed to sell a prod- uct, service, or idea, including advertising, collateral materials, publicity, promo- tion, direct mail, trade shows, and special events. These components, and how they function, constitute the substance of this text- book. The next sections, however, will help you more fully understand the differences between public relations and the related fields of journalism, advertising, and marketing. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 15 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. Chapter 1 What Is Public Relations? 15 on the job Wanted: A Publicity Assistant for Animal Planet ntry-level jobs in public rela- (via e-mail lists, PR Newswire, ■ Execute multiple press tions often focus on media PressWeb, and new online distri- campaigns. Erelations and logistics. A good bution methods. ■ Perform other duties as example is a job posting for a public- ■ Tracking of press coverage and required. ity assistant by Discovery Communica- preparation of press research tions, a media company that owns reports and analyses. multiple cable channels such as the Job Requirements ■ Managing publicity stills on Discovery Channel and Animal Planet. ■ One-year of hands-on PressWeb and Virtual Library. The following job description was communications and media ■ Compiling, writing, editing, and posted on prnewsonline.com: relations work experience and distributing monthly program appropriate number of highlights. internships in the field. Position Summary ■ Submitting event photos/ ■ Demonstrated ability to work Support communications activities captions to the press. under pressure, meet tight for Animal Planet. The Publicity ■ Drafting of executive personnel deadlines, and work on multiple Assistant position reports to the announcements and bios. projects simultaneously. manager of publicity or director, ■ Other press release writing, edit- communications (pending loca- ■ Superb written, verbal, and ing, and pitching. tion) and supports team managers interpersonal skills. on various projects. Discovery ■ Special events support. ■ Ability to juggle a myriad of Communications is the number- ■ Talent management and tasks simultaneously. one nonfiction media company staffing. ■ Must be independent, strategic reaching more than 1.5 billion sub- ■ Manage upkeep of press web- thinker who is a strong team scribers in over 170 countries. site and materials including boil- player (no job is too small or too erplates and fast facts, network large) and willing to take on Responsibilities overview, and executive bios additional responsibilities if ■ Provide administrative and photos. necessary. support and project support ■ Maintain long lead and seasonal ■ Ability to cultivate and sustain on projects in a timely and programming documents. strong relationships with efficient manner. members of the media and with ■ Maintain editorial and PR ■ Press lists and database devel- coworkers. calendars, which include opment and maintenance. upcoming special reports ■ Strong computer skills, ■ Distribution and formatting of in key trade and business including proficiency in social news releases and press materials publications. networking skills. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 16 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. 16 Part 1 Role on the job Bank of America Reaches Out to the Hispanic Community ore than half of the Hispan- ics living in the United MStates regularly send money to loved ones in their home countries. At the same time, 70 per- cent of them use wire transfer services that charge relatively high fees. The Bank of America (BofA), realizing the potential market of the 25 million Latin Americans living in the United States, had a better idea. The bank launched a program called SafeSend, which allowed Hispanics to send remittances free if they opened a BofA checking account. Fleishman-Hillard public relations A Better Way to Send Money was engaged to generate awareness A 10-foot-high Mexican piggy bank symbolized the Bank of America’s SafeSend among the Hispanic community about program at an event in Los Angeles. the SafeSend program. The kickoff focused on Mexican Mother’s Day because that traditionally was the time that potential customers could As a result, the SafeSend program of year when remittances were the become better acquainted with its received considerable coverage in the highest. A national news release, a products and services. Other events Hispanic press. More important, BofA radio news release, and a video news also were used. At a Los Angeles event, opened 3,295 new direct-deposit release (VNR) were distributed to for example, a 10-foot-high Mexican accounts with SafeSend in the initial major Spanish-language media out- piggy bank was used to symbolize the weeks. Before this campaign, the bank lets, as well as the general press. savings that SafeSend could offer. had already been the first one to intro- In addition, the bank began host- Piggy banks were also used at regional duce Spanish-language ATMs, bilin- ing Fiesta Fridays in its various facilities Cinco de Mayo festivals in California gual customer service, and a and provided materials in Spanish so and Texas. Spanish-language website. Public Relations vs. Journalism Writing is a common activity of both public relations professionals and journalists. Both also do their jobs in the same way. They interview people, gather and synthesize large amounts of information, write in a journalistic style, and are trained to produce good copy on deadline. In fact, many reporters eventually change careers and become public relations practitioners. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 17 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. Chapter 1 What Is Public Relations? 17 This has led many people, including journalists, to the incorrect conclusion that little difference exists between public relations and journalism. For these people, pub- lic relations is simply being a “journalist-in-residence” for a nonmedia organization. However, despite the sharing of many techniques, the two fields are fundamentally different in scope, objectives, audiences, and channels. Scope Public relations, as stated earlier, has many components, ranging from counseling to issues management and special events. Journalistic writing and media relations, although important, are only two of these elements. In addition, effective practice of public relations requires strategic thinking, problem-solving capability, and other management skills. Objectives Journalists gather and select information for the primary purpose of providing the public with news and information. Public relations personnel also gather facts and information for the purpose of informing the public, but the objective is not only to inform but also to change people’s attitudes and behaviors in order to further an organization’s goals and objectives. Harold Burson, chairman of Burson-Marsteller, makes the point: “To be effective and credible, public relations messages must be based on facts. Nevertheless, we are advocates, and we need to remember that. We are advocates of a particular point of view—our client’s or our employer’s point of view. And while we recognize that serving the public interest best serves our client’s interest, we are not journalists. That’s not our job.” Audiences Journalists write primarily for a mass audience—readers, listeners, or viewers of the medium for which they work. By definition, mass audiences are not well defined, and a journalist on a daily newspaper, for example, writes for the general public. A public relations professional, in contrast, carefully segments audiences into various demographic and psychological characteristics. Such research allows messages to be tailored to audience needs, concerns, and interests for maximum effect. Channels Most journalists, by nature of their employment, reach audiences through one channel—the medium that publishes or broadcasts their work. On the other hand, public relations professionals use a variety of channels to reach the audiences previously described. The channels employed may be a combination of mass media outlets— newspapers, magazines, radio, and television. Or they may include direct mail, brochures, posters, newsletters, trade journals, special events, podcasts, blogs, websites, and even video postings on YouTube. Public Relations vs. Advertising Just as many people mistakenly equate publicity with public relations, there is also some confusion about the distinction between publicity (one area of public relations) and advertising. Although publicity and advertising both utilize mass media for dissemination of messages, the format and context each uses are different. Publicity—information about an event, an individual or group, or a product—appears as a news item or feature story in the mass media or online. Material is prepared by public relations personnel and submitted to the news department for consideration. Editors, known as gatekeepers, determine whether the material will be used or simply thrown away. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 18 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. 18 Part 1 Role Advertising, in contrast, is paid space and broadcast We’re beginning to see research time. Organizations and individuals typically contract with that supports the superiority of PR the advertising department of a mass media outlet for a full- page ad or a one-minute commercial. An organization writes over advertising to launch a brand. the advertisement, decides the type and graphics, and con- trols where and when the advertisement will be run. In other Al and Laura Ries, authors of The Fall of words, advertising is simply renting space in a mass medium. Advertising and The Rise of Public Relations The lion’s share of revenue for traditional media and even Google comes from the selling of advertising space. Other differences between public relations activities and advertising include: ■ Advertising works almost exclusively through mass media outlets; public relations relies on a number of communication tools—brochures, slide presentations, spe- cial events, speeches, news releases, feature stories, and so forth. ■ Advertising is primarily directed to consumers of goods and services; public rela- tions presents its message to specialized external audiences (stockholders, vendors, community leaders, environmental groups, and so on) and internal publics (employees). ■ Advertising is readily identified as a specialized communication function; public relations is broader in scope, dealing with the policies and performance of the entire organization, from the morale of employees to the amount of money given to local community organizations. ■ Advertising is often used as a communication tool in public relations, and public relations activity often supports advertising campaigns. Advertising’s primary func- tion is to sell goods and services; public relations’ function is to create an environ- ment in which the organization can thrive. The latter calls for dealing with economic, social, and political factors that can affect the organization. The major disadvantage of advertising, of course, is the cost. A full-page ad in the national edition of the Wall Street Journal, for example, costs 164,000 for black and white and 220,000 for full color. Advertising campaigns on network television, of course, can run into the millions of dollars. For example, advertisers paid 2.5 to 3 million for a 30-second Super Bowl ad in 2010. Consequently, companies often use a tool of public relations—product publicity—that is more cost effective and often more credible because the message appears in a news context. One poll by Opinion Research Corporation, for example, found that online articles about a product or service were more persuasive than banner ads, pop-up ads, e-mail offers, and spon- sored links. Public Relations vs. Marketing Public relations is distinct from marketing in several ways, although their boundaries often overlap. Both disciplines deal with an organization’s external relationships and employ similar communication tools to reach the public. Both also have the ultimate purpose of ensuring an organization’s success and economic survival. Public relations and marketing, however, approach this task from somewhat different perspectives or worldviews. Objectives The purpose of marketing is to sell goods and services through attractive packaging, competitive pricing, retail and online promotions, and efficient distribution Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 19 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. Chapter 1 What Is Public Relations? 19 systems. The purpose of public relations is to build relationships Marketing is transaction ori- with a variety of publics that can enhance the organization’s ented. While public relations reputation and establish trust in its policies, products, and services. can be part of a marketing Audiences The primary audiences for marketing are consumers and customers. Public relations deals with a much broader array of strategy, it has a much larger audiences, or publics. They may include investors, community responsibility within the leaders, environmental groups, vendors, government officials, and even employees, who can affect the organization’s success and organization. profitability through boycotts, legislation, and the generation of unfavorable publicity. Dave Imre, an executive at Imre Communications, Baltimore Competition vs. Opposition Marketing professionals tend to rely exclusively on competitive solutions, whereas public relations professionals often perceive the problem as effectively dealing with opposition. When meeting opposition to a product, marketing often thinks the solution is lower pricing or better packaging. However, public relations professionals realize that pricing doesn’t make any difference if a consumer group is opposed to the product because they think it is unsafe. See the PR Casebook in Chapter 4 about the Toyota product recall. Role in Management Marketing is a distinct function primarily dealing with product positioning and sales. Public relations, however, deals with all departments of the organization to advance overall business goals and objectives. An organization, to be successful in the marketplace, must pay constant attention to its reputation and have policies that enhance trust and credibility among its multiple publics. Public relations, in its ideal form, directly deals with upper management to shape and promote the organization’s core values. How Public Relations Supports Marketing Philip Kotler, professor of marketing at Northwestern University and author of a lead- ing marketing textbook, says public relations is the fifth “P” of marketing strategy, which includes four other Ps—Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. As he wrote in the Harvard Business Review, “Public relations takes longer to cultivate, but when ener- gized, it can help pull the company into the market.” When public relations is used to support directly an organization’s marketing objectives, it is called marketing communications. Thomas Harris, author of The Marketer’s Guide to Public Relations, prefers the term marketing public relations. This, he says, distinguishes the function from corporate public relations that define the corpora- tion’s relationships with its non-customer publics. Dennis L. Wilcox, in his text Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques, lists eight ways in which public relations activities contribute to fulfilling marketing objectives: 1. Developing new prospects for new markets, such as people who inquire after see- ing or hearing a product release in the news media 2. Providing third-party endorsements—via newspapers, magazines, radio, and television—through news releases about a company’s products or services, com- munity involvement, inventions, and new plans 3. Generating sales leads, usually through articles in the trade press about new products and services Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. M01_WILC0885_10_SE_C01.qxp 12/16/10 6:24 PM Page 20 Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution. 20 Part 1 Role 4. Paving the way for sales calls 5. Stretching the organization’s advertising and promotional dollars through timely and supportive releases about it and its products 6. Providing inexpensive sales literature, because articles about the company and its products can be reprinted as informative pieces for prospective customers 7. Establishing the corporation as an authoritative source of information on a given product 8. Helping to sell minor products that don’t have large advertising budgets Toward an Integrated Perspective Although well-defined differences exist among the fields of advertising, marketing, and public relations, there is an increasing realization that an organization’s objectives can be best accomplished through an integrated approach. This understanding has given rise to such terms as integrated marketing communi- cations (IMC), convergent communications, and integrated communications. Don Schulz, Stanley Tannenbaum, and Robert Lauterborn, authors of Integrated Marketing Communications, explain the title of their book as follows: A concept of marketing communication planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines—e.g., General Advertising, Direct Response, Sales Promotion, and Public Relations—and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maxi- mum communication impact. Several factors have fueled the trend toward IMC. (See the IMC model in Figure 1.2.) First is the downsizing of organizations. Many of them have consoli- dated departments and have also reduced staff dedicated to various communication disciplines. As a result, one department, with fewer employees, is expected to do a greater variety of communication tasks. Marketing Objectives Figure 1.2 The IMC Model This illustration shows Coordinated Communication Strategies the components of an Targeting Big Idea Media Timing integrated marketing communications model. Direct Public Sales Advertising Packaging Relations Promotion Response Program Evaluation Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sample Copy Only. Not for Resale or Public Distribution.

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