How to do Project planning and Scheduling

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Project/programme planning Guidance manualstrategy2020 Strategy 2020 voices the collective determination of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) to move forward in tackling the major challenges that confront humanity in the next decade. Informed by the needs and vulnerabilities of the diverse communities with whom we work, as well as the basic rights and freedoms to which all are entitled, this strategy seeks to benefit all who look to Red Cross Red Crescent to help to build a more humane, dignified, and peaceful world. Over the next ten years, the collective focus of the IFRC will be on achieving the following strategic aims: 1. Save lives, protect livelihoods, and strengthen recovery from disasters and crises 2. Enable healthy and safe living 3. Promote social inclusion and a culture of non-violence and peace International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva, 2010 Copies of all or part of this document may be made P.O. Box 372 for non-commercial use, providing the source is CH-1211 Geneva 19 acknowledged. The International Federation would Switzerland appreciate receiving details of its use. Requests for Telephone: +41 22 730 4222 commercial reproduction should be directed to the Telefax: +41 22 733 0395 International Federation at secretariatifrc.org. E-mail: secretariatifrc.org Cover photo: International Federation Web site: http://www.ifrc.orgInternational Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Table of contents Table of contents Introduction 3 Part I Approaches to project / programme management 4 1 Focus on people: an ethical responsibility 5 2 Results-Based Management 5 2.1 The project/programme cycle 6 2.2 Tools and techniques 7 Part II What is planning? 10 3 Levels of planning 11 3.1 Strategic planning 11 3.2 Operational planning 12 Part III The planning phase in the project/programme cycle 14 4 Analysis stage 15 4.1 Situation and problem analysis 15 4.2 Development of objectives 22 4.3 Selection of objectives 23 5 Design stage 27 5.1 Defining results and objectives 27 5.2 Logical framework matrix 27 5.3 Designing objectives 29 5.4 Assumptions and risks 31 5.5 Indicators 35 5.6 Means of verification 38 6 Towards implementation 42 6.1 Activity schedule 42 6.2 Budgeting and resource planning 44 6.3 Sustainability analysis 46 7 Looking forward: monitoring and evaluation 48 1International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Project / programme planning Guidance manual Table of figures Figure 1. The project/programme cycle 6 Figure 2. The relationship between strategic and operational planning in the International Federation 12 Figure 3. Stakeholder analysis (comparative table) 18 Figure 4. SWOT analysis of a National Society 20 Figure 5. Simplified problem tree 22 Figure 6. Objectives tree 24 Figure 7. Selection of objectives 24 Figure 8. Objectives analysis table 25 Figure 9. SWOT analysis for a community capacity-building strategy 26 Figure 10. The results chain/objectives hierarchy 27 Figure 11. Logical framework: definitions of terms 28 Figure 12. “If and then” test 33 Figure 13. How to determine an assumption 34 Figure 14. Objective and indicator levels (for a livelihoods project) 36 Figure 15. Logframe for school & community disaster management (DM) project 40 Figure 16. Activity schedule (work plan) 43 Figure 17. Example of a budget structure 44 Figure 18. Project/programme cycle (with M&E highlighted) 48 Figure 19. Detailed problem tree 53 Table of annexes Annex 1 How to create a “problem tree” 51 Annex 2 How to create and use an objectives tree 54 Annex 3 Glossary of selected terms 56 2International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Introduction Introduction The aim of this guidance manual is to introduce the user to project/programme plan- ning in a Red Cross Red Crescent environment. It describes the different stages of the planning phase of the “project/programme cycle” within the context of Results- Based Management (RBM). It also gives an overview of the various components of RBM and explains how to integrate and apply this approach in practice. In addition, the manual summarizes briey fl the other key phases of the cycle (assessment, imple - mentation and monitoring, evaluation) and provides references to the key Federation manuals on these phases. The manual has been developed primarily for use by people managing projects and pro- grammes either in a National Society or the secretariat of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (International Federation). Although it is mainly designed for use at the country level, the basic principles can be applied to project and programme planning at any level. The manual draws on two International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement publications – the International Federation’s Project Planning Process (2002) and the ICRC Economic Security Unit’s Programme/ Project Management: The Results-Based Approach (2008) – reflecting the significant similarity of approach. The International Federation has developed the manual inter- nally to suit the particular needs and uses of project/programme management within the organization. The explanations in this manual are intended only as a guide, which should be ap- plied with common sense according to the particularities of the context concerned. The manual will be revised periodically to take account of learning gained from use in the e fi ld. Feedback or questions can be sent to secretariatifrc.org or P.O. Box 372, CH-1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland for the attention of the performance and account- ability department. 3Part 1/ APPRoAcheS To PRojecT / PRogRAMMe MAnAgeMenT 4International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Part one Approaches to project / programme management 1. Focus on people An ethical responsibility The Fundamental The International Federation exists to improve the lives of vulnerable people by mobi- Principles lizing the power of humanity. Those who are vulnerable do not choose to be affected by risks, disasters or other threats to their well-being. Communities affected by such The main way in which the threats may at times require assistance from external organizations to supplement their International Red Cross and own coping mechanisms. However, there is often an uneven power balance between Red Crescent Movement humanitarian agencies and the people they seek to help. This, combined with rela- takes ethical issues into account is by ensuring that tively little regulation in humanitarian practice, has the potential to lead to a limited the seven Fundamental amount of choice exercised by those affected by risks or disasters in regard to the as- Principles are taken into sistance they receive. consideration at all stages of the intervention. Therefore, the ethical responsibility to address people’s real needs effectively and with The fundamental principles equity and dignity, through their participation, should be a key starting point in the are: Humanity, Impartiality, design of humanitarian interventions. One way in which humanitarian organizations, Neutrality, Independence, including the Red Cross Red Crescent, can fulfil this ethical responsibility is through Voluntary Service, Unity and Universality (see inside the adoption of a “results-based” approach to the management of their work. back cover for the full text of each Principle). 2. Results-Based Management The RBM approach to project/programme man- agement provides a clear “Results-Based Management” (RBM) refers to an overall approach to managing and practical framework projects and programmes that focuses on defining measurable results and the meth - to help ensure that these odologies and tools to achieve those results. RBM supports better performance and guiding principles are in- corporated into the design greater accountability by applying a clear logic: plan, manage and measure an inter- of an intervention. vention with a focus on the results you want to achieve. “Results” are the intended or unintended effects of an intervention, and they can be positive or negative, depending on multiple factors. In RBM, intended positive results are used as the basis of planning, while an effort is made to anticipate any p otential negative results so that they can best be avoided or minimized. The intended results of an intervention are often referred to as “objectives”. Results and objectives can be classie fi d according to their level of importance, with the lower-level objectives defining the changes that need to occur in order for the higher-level objec - tives to be achieved. By setting out in advance the intended results of an intervention and ways in which to measure whether they are achieved or not, we can see more clearly whether a differ- ence has genuinely been made for the people concerned. The different levels of results and objectives, how they are defined and how they t i fi nto the “logical framework” are explained in detail in Section 5, p. 27. 5International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Project / programme planning Guidance manual 2.1 The project/programme cycle There is a range of models that can be used to implement a results-based approach. The model described and recommended in this manual is based on the “project/programme cycle”, which depicts the management of an intervention through a sequence of inter- 1 related phases (see Figure 1). These phases help define and think through the design and management of an intervention. The phases are broadly progressive, with each one leading into the next. However, the phases are also interrelated and may at times overlap. The type, duration and importance of activities related to each phase will vary de- pending on the context. For example, if the initial assessment was very brief, there may be a need to obtain supplementary information during the planning phase. Similarly, information gathered during implementation and monitoring will be relevant for a later evaluation or a possible second instance of assessment, if the intervention con- tinues beyond one cycle. For the purposes of this manual, the different phases of the project/programme cycle 2 are defined as follows: Initial assessment: This phase is a process to understand the current situation and find out whether or not an intervention is required. This is done by identifying the key factors inu fl encing the situation, including problems and their causes, as well as the needs, interests, capacities and constraints of the different stakeholders. When an intervention is required, an assessment can include an initial analysis and proposal of 3 the type of intervention that could be carried out. Planning: The planning phase is the main topic of this manual and is explained in detail in Part III (pp. 15–50). It is a process to define an intervention’s intended results (objectives), the inputs and activities needed to accomplish them, the indicators to measure their achievement, and the key assumptions that can affect the achievement of the intended results (objectives). Planning takes into consideration the needs, inter- ests, resources, mandates and capacities of the implementing organization and various stakeholders. At the end of the planning phase, a project plan is produced and ready 1. Although there are to implement. differences between projects and programmes FIGURE 1 (see p. 13 for definitions), the basic principles for The project/ good management outlined programme cycle here are the same for both. Therefore, “project” and “project/programme” are at times used interchangeably in this manual. 2. These phases are referred to by other terms and formulated differently by different organizations, but the broad logic is the same. 3. For more information on assessment, refer to the International Federation’s Guidelines for Assessment in Emergencies, 2008, and Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (VCA), 2006, both available at http://www. ifrc.org/what/disasters/ resources/publications.asp. 6International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Part one Approaches to project / programme management Implementation and monitoring: During implementation, activities are car- ried out to achieve the intended results (objectives). Implementation is specic fi to each particular area of intervention, be it water and sanitation, first aid, organizational development, emergency response or humanitarian advocacy. Detailed guidance on implementation can therefore be found in manuals dedicated to the area of inter- vention concerned. “Monitoring” is defined in this manual as “the routine collec - tion and analysis of information in order to track progress, check compliance and make informed decisions for project/programme management”. Monitoring systems should be established during the planning phase to allow collection of information on the progress made in achieving the objectives during implementation. The re- sulting progress reports inform decisions on whether or not an intervention needs to be changed or adapted as the situation evolves. evaluation: The “evaluation” phase is defined as “an assessment, as systematic and ob - jective as possible, of an ongoing or completed project, programme or policy, its design, implementation and results. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfilment of objectives, developmental efc fi iency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. An evalu - ation should provide information that is credible and useful, enabling the incorporation 4 of lessons learned into the decision-making process of both recipients and donors.” As with monitoring, it is critical that reliable indicators are identie fi d during the plan - ning phase for the purposes of evaluation at various stages of the project/programme. Evaluation in turn informs the new planning process, whether it is for the continu- ation of the same intervention, for the implementation of a new intervention or for ending the intervention. 2.2 Tools and techniques For an intervention to be successful, it is important that each phase of the cycle in- cludes the involvement of the people the intervention seeks to help. It is also important to ensure the relevant participation of all those involved in different aspects of the planning and implementation of the intervention, as well as of decision-makers in gov- ernance and management and of stakeholders in other organizations or neighbouring communities. During each phase of the project/programme cycle, various tools and techniques that encourage analysis and ree fl ction are used to support well-informed and participatory decision-making at every stage. Part III of this manual describes the planning phase of the project/programme cycle, outlining some of the analytical tools and techniques commonly used in developing an intervention. These include analysis of stakeholders, problems and their causes, objectives, and alternative options for intervention. The methods described can help project managers identify the factors that may affect the success of an intervention. However, it is important to remember that the usefulness 4. This definition is from the of these methods will depend on how well they are adapted to each specic fi situation. International Federation’s Evaluation Policy, adopted from the OECD/DAC In this manual, certain tools are recommended, some with specific step-by-step in - (Development Assistance Committee), Working structions. These are provided in particular for those new to project/programme design Party on Aid Evaluation, Glossary of Key Terms in and who require detailed guidance. In every case, the methods and steps are intended Evaluation and Results Based only as a guide, which can and should be adapted as necessary for different situations. Management, 2002. 7International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Project / programme planning Guidance manual 2.2.1 Limitations The practice of RBM may be limited if the tools are not used as intended. The logical framework (logframe) matrix is often used in the planning phase (see Section 5.2, p. 27). The logframe is probably the planning tool that is best known and most used by humanitarian and development agencies and donors. As a result, it can often be cre- ated in a mechanical or bureaucratic way rather than as a practical, logical and e fl xible tool to define the key elements of a potential intervention. To counter this problem, it is important to focus as much on the “analysis stage” (Section 4, pp. 15–26 as the “design stage” (Section 5, pp. 27–42) and ensure mean- ingful participation in both stages. Moreover, logframes should be adapted to the changing situation when necessary and not be allowed to trap a project/programme into a fixed way of working that has ceased to be relevant. Lastly, it is useful to remember that the project/programme cycle methodology is pri- 5 marily designed for an intervention that has the following characteristics: It is a mechanism to solve a specic fi ally defined problem. It has a specie fi d timeframe, completion date and performance parameters. It takes advantage of existing opportunities in the context and of local capacities. It has a fixed amount of resources. It benet fi s a specic g fi roup. It is carried out by a team with a team leader. The core logic of RBM is useful in many models of working but may often need to be applied differently for ongoing, non-project “service-delivery” models, such as running a blood donor clinic or providing long-term primary health care. Key message The project/programme cycle model provides an appropriate set of methods, tools and principles to put the “results-based management” approach into practice in humanitarian and other interventions. 5. See also definitions of “project” and “programme” in Section 3.3.1, p. 13. 8International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Part one Approaches to project / programme management 9Part 2/ WhAT IS PLAnnIng? 10International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Part two What is planning? Introduction Planning consists of determining solutions to an unsatisfactory situation by identi- fying the results that will best address identie fi d problems and needs, and the actions and resources required to achieve those results. It is the foundation of good perform- ance management and accountability. Planning can also be seen as a process of choosing from the different courses of action available and of prioritizing the steps to take in order to change a particular situation for the better. Usually, time and resources (material, financial, human) are limited. These two limitations have a direct consequence on an organization’s ability to im- prove or resolve a problematic situation. This is why planning is so crucial, especially in small organizations with limited capacity. Frequently, planning is considered a difficult exercise, complicated and inaccessible – a matter reserved for specialized technicians with specific qualifications. But, in reality, we plan all the time in our daily lives: who has never had to move house or organize a party or a trip? In these and many other aspects of our lives, we have to plan what we want to do and with whom, which steps to follow and what we need to get things done. 3. Levels of planning Although almost anything can be planned, the ways in which we make plans and implement them are not always the same. Different levels of planning have to be estab- lished according to the aims of the planning process. In the International Federation, a distinction is made between “strategic” and “oper- ational” planning. Both are integral parts of the overall process of setting priorities and targets for the organization. 3.1 Strategic planning Strategic planning is the process of deciding where an organization wants to get to and why, then choosing from the different courses of action available to ensure the best chance of getting there. It helps an organization to define a clear way forward in response to emerging opportunities and challenges, while maintaining coherence and long-term sustainability. It usually covers the long term (roughly a minimum of three or four years, up to ten years). It guides the overall direction of an organization by defining its vision and mission and the goals or strategic objectives necessary to achieve them. The strategic objectives should be linked to prioritized sectors of intervention based on the capacities of the organization and other stakeholders and should include a time- frame and outline evaluation mechanisms. Strategic planning also includes choosing and designing a framework which sets out the best courses of action to achieve the stated objectives. 11International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Project / programme planning Guidance manual A “strategic plan” is the document resulting from this process. One of the key func- tions of the strategic plan is to guide and inu fl ence the development of more detailed planning at the operational level. Therefore, a strategic plan is a key reference for project/programme managers when designing, implementing and evaluating a Red Cross Red Crescent intervention. 3.2 Operational planning Operational planning is the process of determining how the objectives spelt out in the strategic plan will be achieved “on the ground”. This is done by working through a series of steps (outlined in Part III), identifying or refining more detailed objectives at each level, linked to the objectives in the strategic plan. These objectives can then be grouped and organized into “plans”, “programmes” and “projects”. Operational plan- ning usually covers the short term (between several months and three years). In order to translate strategic objectives into practical results, the required actions need to be planned (in a work plan), along with their costs (in a budget), how the work will be funded (in a resource mobilization plan) and who will carry out the work (see Section 6, Towards implementation, p. 42). FIGURE 2 The relationship between strategic and operational planning is also a cyclical process, The relationship with the experience from operational planning being used to inform strategic plan- between strategic ning, and strategic planning then informing the general direction of operational plan- and operational ning. Operational plans are often made up of several “programmes”, which are in turn planning in the International made up of several “projects”. Projects and programmes consist of several activities, Federation which are the smallest elements for which we plan. High level Federation-wide strategic (Strategy 2010 / 2020) The broad Experience direction from in strategic National Society strategic plans, Secretariat strategic plans operations planning (e.g. for a geographical area or technical sector) influence guides strategy Operational (1-3 year) plan operational development (e.g. for geographical area country, zone or technical sector) planning Programmes Disaster Organizational Experience Health (groups together management development programme learned Broad several project plans) programme programme at the programme project level directions influences guide project programme development Projects development (includes objectives, activity plan, budget) 3.3 Defining “projects” and “programmes” What constitutes a “programme” and what constitutes a “project” depends to a large extent on the context. An intervention that is seen as a “programme” in one context, such as a National Society’s HIV/AIDS programme, may be considered a “project” in another context, for example when a health programme incorporates an HIV/AIDS project, a TB project and a first-aid training project. 12 Operational Strategic Preparedness Response Recovery HIV/AIDS First Aid TB treatment Leadership training Legal base strengtheningInternational Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Part two What is planning? To avoid confusion, it is important to describe a project or a programme in the same way consistently within one context and to maintain a logical hierarchy of plans, pro- grammes and projects. Guiding definitions are given below: Plan Definition Example A plan (e.g. for a geographical area or for a techni- Examples include the annual or two-year plans of Na- cal area) is the highest level of operational planning. It tional Societies or International Federation delegations. groups several programmes (and their respective pro- These plans represent the overall operation to be imple- jects, activities, etc.) with a view to achieving part of an mented through various programmes. organization’s strategic objectives. Programme Definition Example A programme is a set of coordinated projects imple- Examples include a health and care programme consis- mented to meet specific objectives within defined time, ting of an immunization project and a community-based cost and performance parameters. Programmes aimed first-aid project or a disaster management programme at achieving a common goal are grouped under a com- consisting of a community-based capacity building pro- mon entity (country plan, operation, alliance, etc.). ject, a school-based awareness-raising project and a project to develop a National Society’s disaster mana- gement functions. 6 Project Definition Example A project is a set of coordinated activities implemented An example would be a community-based first aid pro- to meet specific objectives within defined time, cost and ject to expand the reach of first aid in a region or a di- performance parameters. Projects aimed at achieving a saster risk reduction project to increase awareness of common goal form a programme. disaster preparedness and response measures. These projects would consist of various activities, like those described below. Activity Definition Example An activity is a combination of several tasks, all of which Examples of activities include organizing a community target the same objective. Activities are the lowest level meeting (scheduling the time, finding a location), deve- of actions that need to be planned. loping communication materials, training volunteers in certain techniques, or organizing the distribution of relief Tasks are the simplest actions that make up activities. supplies. Examples of tasks include writing a letter, checking a warehouse inventory or ordering stock. As described in the “results chain” (see Section 5.1, p. 27), the activities to be undertaken 6. Also called “programme component” in International in an intervention are organized according to the different levels of intended results an Federation secretariat annual intervention sets out to achieve (outputs, outcomes and goal) within that intervention. planning 13Part 3/ The PLAnnIng PhASe In The PRojecT/ PRog RAMMe cycLe 14International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Part three The planning phase in the project/planning programme cycle Introduction As mentioned earlier, the aim of the planning phase is to define an intervention’s intended results (objectives), the inputs and activities needed to accomplish them, the indicators to measure their achievement, and the key assumptions that can affect the achievement of the results (objectives). Planning takes into consideration the needs, interests, resources, mandates and capacities of the implementing organization and various stakeholders. At the end of the planning phase, a project plan is produced and ready to implement. The planning phase can be divided into several stages and steps, in a number of dif- ferent ways. For the purposes of this manual, the phase is organized as follows: Analysis stage Situation and problem analysis – This involves identifying the main strengths, interests, needs, constraints and opportunities of the implementing team and of key stakeholders and identifying the problems that need to be solved and their causes and consequences. Development of objectives – This involves developing objectives based on the identified problems and verifying the cause-effect relationships. Selection of objectives – This involves identifying the different options available to achieve the main objective and determining which one the implementing team or agency is best suited to tackle. Design stage Logical framework (logframe) matrix – This involves refining the intervention’s objectives, identifying the assumptions, indicators and means of measuring them, and developing a summary of activities. Activity scheduling – This involves determining the sequence of activities, esti- mating their duration, setting milestones and assigning responsibilities. Resource planning – This involves determining the inputs needed and budget on the basis of the activity schedule. Developing a monitoring system for the intervention. 4. Analysis stage 4.1 Situation and problem analysis The aim of the first steps in the analysis stage is to understand in more detail the information gathered during the assessment phase. It is often a transitional step between initial assessment and design, but exactly what steps are necessary will depend on how the initial assessment was carried out. 7. See International Federation, The conclusions and recommendations of the assessment should be used as the basis Guidelines for assessment for a more detailed analysis of the problems to be tackled. If the information collected in emergencies, 2008, and Vulnerability and capacity appears to be inaccurate, incomplete or biased, it may be necessary to redo some of the assessment (VCA), 2006, 7 available at http://www. assessment steps, using the relevant methodology and tools. ifrc.org/what/disasters/ resources/publications.asp. 15International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Project / programme planning Guidance manual It is therefore useful for the people who carried out the initial assessment to partici- pate in this stage of the planning phase. As a general rule, if the assessment team has already completed some of the steps outlined here (e.g. stakeholder analysis or problem analysis) and there is a consensus on the conclusions and recommendations between all those involved in the assessment and the planning of the intervention, these steps do not need to be repeated or supplemented. 4.1.1 Tools for analysis Situation analysis requires tools to summarize, compare, prioritize and organize data. Many different tools can be used – those provided here are examples only and are not necessarily the best tools to use in every situation. Minimum criteria for situation analysis Whatever tool is used for situation analysis, it should, as allow room for creativity, to plan the changes a minimum: needed to improve the situation foster participation, including of the people the gather both qualitative and quantitative data, as intervention aims to help, the whole planning team well as objective and subjective information and other National Society staff and volunteers con- cerned note: In the cases where National Society interventions allow the team to take decisions on how to inter- are being implemented in partnership with the Inter- vene national Federation, with the ICRC or with a sister Na- include self-assessment, to identify the imple- tional Society, it is important that the analysis is carried menting agency’s or team’s own capacity to inter- out by the host National Society, with the full participation vene of its partners. A tool is only useful if used at the right time and in the right way. The same tool can also be used at different times. This manual proposes three tools to analyse the situation in which a team intends to intervene: 1. Stakeholder analysis – to assess the problems, interests and potential of dif- ferent groups in relation to the conclusions of the assessment 2. SWoT analysis – a tool with a wide range of uses, including, as suggested here, to assess the capacity of the implementing agency or team 3. Problem tree analysis – to get an idea of the main problems and their causes, focusing on cause-effect relationships The above tools can be supplemented or replaced by other tools, as long as the min- imum criteria are met. 4.1.2 Stakeholder analysis A “stakeholder” in this context is a person or group of people who have an interest in the intervention that is being planned. “Stakeholder analysis” is a technique used to identify and assess the interests of the people, groups or insti- tutions that the intervention seeks to help and of others who may signic fi antly inu fl ence the intervention’s success. The overall aim of stakeholder analysis is to ensure that the intervention takes place in the best possible conditions, by aligning it realistically with the needs and capacities of the stakeholders. 16International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Part three The planning phase in the project/planning programme cycle One way to conduct this analysis is by drawing up a comparative table. First, the stakeholders must be identie fi d. In the example given in Figure 2, the stakeholders are categorized as follows: a) Institutions that will potentially be involved in the intervention: the imple- menting National Society, sister National Societies, United Nations agencies, gov- ernment ministries, the Federation delegation, etc. b) Target groups, for example vulnerable groups or potential benec fi iaries, such as “mothers with young children”, “youth population under 30 years old” or, for a capacity-building project, “the National Society’s youth members”, etc. c) o thers, for example various associations, local groups, schools, local NGOs, community leaders, the media, etc. Second, the problems, interests, needs, potential, interaction and other relevant factors are identie fi d and analysed for each stakeholder. The factors to be considered for each stakeholder may vary from context to context, but some key factors would normally include: a) Problems: What are the key problems identie fi d in the assessment and affecting the stakeholder in question? (e.g. poor health care/education, poor crop yield, high unemployment, etc.) b) Interests: What motivates the stakeholder group? (e.g. music and dance, sport, technology, recognition, etc.) c) Potential: How can the stakeholder group contribute to resolving the issues iden- tie fi d? (e.g. high level of commitment in areas of interest, voluntarism, idealism, free time, knowledge of the environment, etc.) d) Interaction: How can the implementing team relate to this group? Which chan- nels of communication can be used? (e.g. youth associations, community centres, Red Cross Red Crescent members or trainers, school, families, etc.) e) o thers’ actions: Is any other association, organization, group, etc. already im- plementing a project or action that targets the selected group? If so, identify them and their actions to avoid any overlap, as well as to establish the basis for a possible collaboration and to save effort and resources. f) Red c ross Red c rescent actions: Is there any previous or current Red Cross Red Crescent project/programme or service targeting this group? If so, the team should discuss with those implementing the project/programme to see if it is sufc fi ient as it is or if it needs to be reinforced, improved or replaced. Ideally, the whole exercise would be carried out in a participatory session with rep- resentatives of potential stakeholder groups, including potential beneficiaries, Red Cross Red Crescent staff and volunteers, and government ofc fi ials. The effective use of participatory planning methods and group facilitation tools can help ensure that the views and perspectives of different stakeholder groups are adequately represented and understood. The example in Figure 3 is based on assessment information from a disaster-prone community in the (c fi tional) country “Xland”, in the “Eastern District”. The aim of the analysis is to find out more about the roles of the various stakeholders in relation 17International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Project / programme planning Guidance manual 18 FIGURE 3 Stakeholder analysis (comparative table) Institutions Target groups o thers Women’s groups, Community leaders, women’s groups, National Society local authorities s choolchildren, other people in the community v olunteers c ommunity Women’s Schoolchildren n ational Society Local leaders groups volunteers authorities Problems Have some responsibility Do not have enough Vulnerable to disaster Need better links with Have to ensure the safety to ensure the safety of the information to prepare for and health risks community to reduce of the community community disaster disaster risk Interests Want to ensure safer Want to get a better Want to be better Want to be able to work Want to demonstrate community understanding of disaster protected from risk well with the community improvements in risk community safety Potential Knowledge of the local In-depth knowledge of the Keen to learn and pass on Committed and skilled Cooperation and support situation and power community (weather and messages facilitators and community greatly facilitate project relations harvest patterns) motivators Interaction Through monthly local Through monthly women’s Arrange school visits Through National Society Through National Society committee meetings group meetings through teachers who branch structures branch structures are linked to the National Society Others’ Also work with the INGO Some groups have Many children attend Good relations between Generally good relations action “Disaster Relief Action” relations with church church group activities other NGOs and church and several church groups groups groups Red Cross The National Society Xland Red Cross has No ongoing projects, Good regular relations ICRC and Xland Red Red Crescent (Xland Red Cross) has agreements in place with good relations with all with the ICRC and the Cross have carried out a action been working for many main groups Red Cross Red Crescent International Federation dissemination campaign years across the country actors through Xland Red Cross recently with community leaders Zland Red Cross (partner National Society) Currently no active work supporting mothers’ clubs on disaster management

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