Canoeing and Kayaking Guide

difference between canoeing and kayaking and canoeing and kayaking fatalities and similarities between canoeing and kayaking, benefits of canoeing and kayaking
Prof.WilliamsHibbs Profile Pic
Prof.WilliamsHibbs,United States,Teacher
Published Date:28-07-2017
Your Website URL(Optional)
Comment
An Introduction to Canoeing/Kayaking A Teaching Module Iowa Department of Natural Resources Des Moines, Iowa This information is available in alternative formats by contacting the DNR at 515/725-8200 (TYY users – contact Relay Iowa, 800/735-7942) or by writing the DNR at 502 East 9th Street, Des Moines, IA 50319-0034. Equal Opportunity Federal regulations prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex or handicap. State law prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, creed, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, national origin, or disability. If you believe you have been discriminated against in any program, activity, or facility as described above, or if you desire further information, please write to the Iowa DNR, Wallace State Office Building, 502 E. 9th Street, Des Moines, IA 50319-0034. Funding: Support for development of these materials was provided through Fish and Wildlife Restoration funding. Table of Contents Introduction ....................................................................................................................................1 Objectives........................................................................................................................................1 Materials .........................................................................................................................................1 Module Overview ...........................................................................................................................1 Teaching Suggestions .....................................................................................................................1 Background Information ..............................................................................................................2 Paddling Then...A Brief History of Canoeing and Kayaking ..............................................2 Paddling Now.......................................................................................................................2 Iowa’s Aquatic Resources....................................................................................................3 Issues Facing Our Aquatic Resources ..................................................................................3 Regulations and Ethics .........................................................................................................5 Paddling Equipment .............................................................................................................7 Canoe Paddling ..................................................................................................................13 Kayak Paddling ..................................................................................................................16 Launching and Landing the Craft ......................................................................................18 Float Plan ...........................................................................................................................20 River Reading Skills ..........................................................................................................20 Safety .................................................................................................................................21 Activities A Look Back – The History of Canoeing and Kayaking ...................................................27 Looking to the Future – Our Impact on the Resources ......................................................28 Sinkers and Floaters ...........................................................................................................30 Don’t Catch that Cold .......................................................................................................31 What to Wear ....................................................................................................................32 Paddling Telephone (Float Plans) ......................................................................................34 Grab that Paddle ...............................................................................................................36 Basic Strokes ......................................................................................................................37 All Aboard: Boarding/Launching the Craft ......................................................................38 Reading the River ..............................................................................................................39 Water Obstacles .................................................................................................................40 Scavenger Hunt ..................................................................................................................41 Additional Resources ...................................................................................................................43 Credits DNR Outdoor Skills Committee: Diane Ford-Shivvers, Doug Harr, Gail Kantak, Merry Rankin, Rod Slings, Joli Vollers, Michelle Wilson, A. Jay Winter Original text and activities: Trisha Yauk, Barb Gigar Layout: Shannon Hafner Editors: Barb Gigar, Shannon Hafner Reviewers: Dale Anderson, DNR Recreational Safety Officer; Ann Burns, Jackson County Conservation Board; Dawn Chapman, Woodbury County Conservation Board; Diane Ford-Shivvers, DNR Policy and Coordination Section; Doug Harr, DNR Wildlife Diversity Program; Aaron Herschberger, Carroll County Conservation Board; Missy King, Boone County Conservation Board; Miriam Patton, Palo Alto County Conservation Board; Merry Rankin, DNR Waste Management Bureau Illustrations on pages 7-11, 13-19, 21-25 copyrighted material ©1984/1989 Boy Scouts of America. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission. Illustrations on pages 21-22 copyrighted material 2004 Boat Ed. i An Introduction to Canoeing and Kayaking Introduction This module is designed to acquaint students with basic information and skills for canoeing and kayaking on Iowa waters. This is a brief introduction to these outdoor activities. An annotated bibliography of additional resources related to teaching these concepts/skills is included at the end of the module. Objectives  Students will be acquainted with the history of canoeing and kayaking.  Students will develop a set of guidelines for ethical conduct for canoeing and kayaking trips.  Students will be acquainted with ways humans interact with natural resources including individual responsibility toward natural resources.  Students will become familiar with basic safety and dress guidelines for canoeing or kayaking.  Students will become familiar with terminology and equipment associated with canoeing and kayaking.  Students will become familiar with basic strokes for canoeing or kayaking and demonstrate their ability to use them.  Students will demonstrate appropriate techniques for entering, launching, and exiting a canoe or kayak.  Students will become familiar with ways to prevent hypothermia.  Students will practice river reading skills. Materials Suggested materials are listed for each activity. Module Overview This module is designed for upper elementary through adult audiences. It provides a basic introduction to canoeing and kayaking. There are many more in-depth resources to teach these topics. (See the Additional Resources section.) The Background Information provides a brief overview for the educator or leader. It discusses the history of paddling; Iowa’s aquatic resources and values related to them; types of paddling; equipment and terminology associated with canoeing and kayaking; basic strokes; and tips to plan a canoeing or kayaking trip. It also discusses paddling safety and Iowa regulations for canoeing and kayaking. Each Activity includes an overview of the activity, associated objectives, estimated time needed to complete the activity, a list of needed materials, directions to complete the activity, suggested evaluation, and extensions. Finally, a listing of Additional Resources for topics covered here is included at the end of this module. This section also includes source information for publications and other resources mentioned in the Background Information and/or Activities. Teaching Suggestions Read through the Background Information. Depending on the goals for your program, select activities that emphasize the information/skills you want to cover. 1 Background Information Paddling Then...A Brief History of Canoeing and Kayaking Paddling has played a role in human history for at least 6,000 - 8,000 years. Early canoes and kayaks were used for transportation, survival (hunting and fishing), and trade. The earliest canoes were likely dugouts. They were made through an extensive process of carving and burning trees into a hollow craft. Dugouts were used by people throughout the world, from the West Indies, Africa, and the Middle East to North and South America. Native Americans in the northern region of the continent created birchbark canoes. Bark from white birch trees composed the structure of the canoe. Roots from white pines were used to sew the birch together. The seams were sealed with pine resin. Wood from white cedars was used for the internal frame. The design and materials were lighter and more maneuverable than dugout canoes. The birchbark canoe quickly became the chosen means of transportation for Native Americans. As French explorers and fur traders arrived in North America during the 17th century, they too adopted it to navigate rivers and lakes. Marquette, Joliet, and Lewis and Clark used this style of canoe while traveling. Until the late 19th century, the birchbark canoe was the fastest way to cross the continent. Like canoes, kayaks were created by native people of North America. Eskimos used kayaks for centuries to hunt and fish. They were made by attaching seal skins over frames of wood and/or bone until they were almost completely covered. This made the kayak light and streamlined. The British brought the kayak design to Europe in the late 19th century. A few people used it for recreation, but popularity increased after John MacGregor made a lighter and smaller version that was more maneuverable on white water rivers. Canoeing, like bicycling, reached its height of popularity at the turn of the 20th century. Since style often mattered more than performance, recreational canoes often were elaborately decorated, with wide beams and long ornate decks. Canoeing and kayaking first were included in the Olympics in the 1936 Berlin Games. After World War II, Grumman Aircraft Corporation began making aluminum canoes. Fiberglass canoes followed in the 1950s. The low cost and functionality of these new crafts swept the market and they became the most popular types sold. Fiberglass kayaks became the norm around the same time, but remained less popular than canoes in America. Paddling Now... Modern kayaks and canoes share the same basic design as the birchbark ones Eskimos used. Although today’s canoes and kayaks are made differently, their popularity remains. In 2002, 20.6 million Americans paddled in canoes. The popularity of canoeing has risen 50 percent in the past seven years. Kayaking is now one of the fastest growing outdoor sports in the country. In a 2001-2003 survey, 10.2 million Americans paddled in kayaks. There are many reasons for the popularity of these sports. Many people live hectic lives and want to get away for passive recreation. Paddling allows participants to see wildlife/nature from a different perspective than hiking, biking, or motorboating. Canoeing and kayaking are family sports that can be done on a nearby lake for an hour or on a river camping at various sites along the way. The relatively low cost and ease of care for equipment are other reasons people enjoy paddling. 2 Iowa’s Aquatic Resources Iowa’s waters offer great recreational opportunities for paddlers. They are also very productive (rich in plant and animal life). The major types of waters in Iowa include lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, and wetlands. Iowa waters are typically referred to as “flat water.” Other types of canoeing/kayaking are whitewater and sea. Natural lakes formed by glaciers are common in northwestern and north-central Iowa. A second type of natural lake, the oxbow, is formed when river channels change course and sediment blocks the ends of a meander (curve in a stream or river) in the old channel. Constructed lakes include recreational lakes, municipal water supplies, river impoundments, and surface mine lakes. Most of Iowa’s 87,000 farm ponds are in the southern half of the state because clay soils found there readily form a water-tight basin. Marshes are shallow waters dominated by cattails, sedges, and grasses. Many paddlers enjoy spending a summer afternoon traveling an Iowa river. They range in size from intermittent streams that flow for short periods of time, to the Mississippi, which drains nearly one-third of the continental United States. There are more than 19,000 miles of interior rivers and streams. They are subject to violent and sudden fluctuations because of the nature of our soils, land use, and drainage. Headwaters of streams usually are quite clear and less subject to water fluctuations. Lower stream reaches tend to be more turbid and subject to greater pollution. The Big Sioux (northwestern Iowa) and the Mississippi River are popular paddling destinations as well. You must be aware of additional safety concerns such as commercial and recreational traffic on the Mississippi. Issues Facing Our Aquatic Resources Aquatic ecosystems have been greatly affected by alterations in the landscape. These alterations have impacted water quality and limited some recreational opportunities. Some alterations (e.g. channelization straightening, removal of streambank vegetation, sedimentation from eroded soils) are apparent. Others (e.g. excess nutrients from runoff) may not be seen as easily. Following are some problems facing Iowa’s aquatic resources as a result of human actions. Destruction of Habitat Iowa has lost much of its diversity. Since Euro-American settlement, 70 percent of forests have been cleared and more than 99 percent of prairies have been plowed. Soil was exposed and natural vegetation along rivers and streams was removed. This resulted in a drastic increase in erosion in watersheds and sediments entering our waters. Wetlands have also been greatly reduced in number and size since Euro-American settlement. It is estimated Iowa had 4 million acres of wetlands in the mid-1800s (includes oxbows, floodplain wetlands, and natural lakes). Within 100 years of Euro-American settlement, approximately 95 percent of Iowa’s wetlands were drained or filled. Loss of riparian habitat has impacted Iowa streams and rivers. Urban development, highways, cropland, and other altered areas have less food and cover for wildlife. Sections of rivers that are unshaded or sediment-laden are poor habitat for fish and other aquatic organisms. 3 Streams and rivers naturally meander, changing their course over time. Pools and riffles between meanders support diverse aquatic life. Most of Iowa’s interior rivers and streams have straightened stretches–some 3,000 miles of Iowa rivers have been lost. Water in straight streams flows faster, increasing erosion and deepening the channel. Habitat is eliminated when rivers are straightened and/or streamside trees and other plants are removed. Pollution Changes to watersheds often occur far from the affected body of water, thus cause and effects are not readily apparent. A variety of pollutants (e.g., sediment, nutrients, pesticides, animal waste, litter) may be found in Iowa’s waters. Due to the potential presence of these pollutants, do not drink water directly from these sources (without going through a treatment plant). When paddling, always bring a personal supply of drinking water. Sediment The number one water pollutant in Iowa is silt (very fine soil). Most soil is carried to rivers and lakes by runoff after rains or streambank erosion. Silt decreases the amount of light that enters water, hence aquatic plants and algae suffer. It adds to bottom sediments; reduces fish habitat by filling holes and crevices where fish seek shelter; clogs gills of small aquatic animals such as insect larvae; smothers fish eggs and spawning sites; and interferes with sight feeders such as bass, which are unable to locate prey. Erosion is a natural process, but is accelerated greatly by human activity. Nutrients Nutrients are present throughout Iowa, naturally or artificially through fertilizers. Some are beneficial to aquatic ecosystems because they increase growth of plants and algae that are food and cover for smaller animals, which are food for fish and other larger animals. However, too many nutrients can cause problems in aquatic ecosystems. Manufactured fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorous are used on crop fields, golf courses, and residential/business lawns and gardens. An estimated 30 to 50 percent of nitrogen used in Iowa is applied as fertilizer on agricultural land. Nitrogen from runoff often is found in lakes, rivers, and streams. Excess nitrogen and phosphorous can cause overgrowths of algae (blooms) that sometimes cover the entire surface of a body of water, blocking sunlight from reaching the bottom. This slows photosynthesis in aquatic plants, reducing oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide as plants and algae die. This can result in fish (and other species) kills. High levels of nitrogen are dangerous to humans and animals if consumed. In drinking water, it is converted to nitrite and prevents blood from carrying oxygen. This may cause brain damage and suffocation in both infants and newborn livestock. Animal Waste Besides acting as a nutrient, large amounts of animal wastes entering a body of water can kill fish and other aquatic animals. Over 1 million Iowa fish died in kills caused by manure discharge between 1997 and 2001. Fish kills have increased dramatically in the past few years. High levels of coliform bacteria are used as an indicator that disease-causing bacteria from warm-blooded animals might also be present. In rivers, lakes, and ponds, levels often are higher than EPA standards for drinking water. Occasionally, they are higher than standards recommended for swimming or bodily contact. High levels often occur after a heavy rainfall when bacteria from feedlots, pastures, and faulty sewage treatment plants in the watershed enter water. 4 Pesticides Pesticides (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, etc.) commonly are used in agriculture, businesses, gardening/lawn care, and residential homes. Improper use can negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. The most widely-used herbicides may be detected in Iowa’s rivers, lakes, and streams. However, DNR biologists collect samples of fish for analysis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and no samples have ever contained levels of pesticides above USFDA standards. Levels of contaminants in fish in Iowa continue to decrease since persistent pesticides were banned. Litter Litter is one of the most visible forms of pollution. Not only does litter make rivers and lakes ugly, it may also pose dangers to wildlife and humans. Plastic six-pack rings can catch on waterfowl necks and choke them. Aluminum cans and glass may cut wildlife or people. Always “pack out” what you “pack in.” Aquatic Invasive Exotic Species Plants and animals introduced into habitats are exotic species. They may “take over” their new habitat. For more information on invasive aquatic exotic species, visit the Iowa Department of Natural Resources aquatic nuisance species website: http://www.iowadnr.gov/Fishing/AboutFishinginIowa/FightingInvasiveSpecies.aspx. Eurasian watermilfoil is an aquatic plant that forms dense mats in shallow areas and can interfere with fishing, boating, and swimming. Brittle naiad is another invasive aquatic plant that forms thick stands, out- competing or replacing native vegetation. Both can reproduce by stem fragments transported from one body of water to the next by boats, motors, trailers, or even birds. Check all equipment and remove and properly dispose of any “hitch-hiking” vegetation before you leave the body of water. Purple loosestrife has invaded prairie wetlands and some Mississippi River backwater areas. It was introduced as a landscape plant because it has pretty purple flowers. It can crowd out all other plants leaving only a sea of purple. Zebra mussels are small, striped mussels that attach to just about any surface and form huge colonies. They may be very small so can go unseen on wet equipment. Check all equipment before and after leaving any body of water. Regulations and Ethics Iowa has several boating regulations. For more information, see the Iowa Boating Regulations. Registration Canoes and kayaks must have an Iowa Registration Certificate and decals to be operated legally on public waters. An exception to this rule are canoes and kayaks 13 feet or shorter with no engine or sail. Registration numbers and decals must be:  painted, decaled, or otherwise affixed to the forward half of each side of the craft;  placed for maximum visibility;  read from left to right on both sides; and  at least three-inch high, bold, BLOCK letters. The craft should be registered with the county recorder in the county of residence of the owner or county where the craft is principally used. There is a registration fee. 5 Required Equipment Personal Floatation Device (PFD) All canoes and kayaks must have at least one United States Coast Guard (USCG) approved wearable (Type I, II, or III) PFD (“life jacket”) for each person on board. If the canoe or kayak is 16 feet or longer, one throwable (Type IV) USCG approved PFD also must be on board. If paddlers are on the Mississippi or Missouri Rivers, or on federal reservoirs, children under 13 must wear an approved PFD. See “Personal Floatation Devices” in the Safety section for more information about PFDs. To be “approved,” a PFD must:  have a legible USCG approval tag;  be in good and serviceable condition (no torn or missing straps, punctured floatation bag, missing hardware, etc.);  be readily accessible (paddlers can put them on quickly in an emergency); and  be of the proper size for the intended wearer. (Sizing is based on body weight and chest size.) Navigation Lights Navigation lights are needed between sunset and sunrise and in periods of restricted visibility (fog or heavy rain). For canoes and kayaks, a lantern or flashlight shining with a white light will suffice. Rules of Lakes and Rivers Right of Way The most frequently reported accident is a collision with another boat or object in the water. Carelessness or inattention is the most common cause for these collisions. Accidents can be avoided if paddlers pay attention and learn the rules of the “road.” If two crafts are meeting head-on or nearly so, both operators should alter their course to the right and pass at a safe distance. Unpowered crafts, like kayaks and canoes, generally have the right-of-way over powered crafts. However, large commercial crafts on the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers have the right away over smaller crafts because of their limited ability to maneuver. U.S. Aids to Navigation System (ATON) Buoys and markers are used as “traffic signals” on some waterways. They also can identify dangerous or controlled areas or give information. L La atte er ra all M Ma ar rk ke er rs s These are used to mark the edges of safe water areas (e.g., to direct travel within a channel). They use a combination of color and numbers on buoys or permanent markers. Nonlateral Markers Nonlateral Markers The most common nonlateral markers are white with orange markings and black lettering. They provide information, identify controlled areas (e.g., no fishing, no skiing, no wake), note areas off limits to crafts, or identify hazards (e.g., rocks, dams, stumps). Paddling Ethics Taking Care of the Resource Part of the enjoyment of paddling is getting out in nature to observe scenery and wildlife. To some, this is the sole reason for paddling. Paddlers must protect natural resources so we can enjoy them today and tomorrow. 6 Wildlife is scared easily by humans. If animals are nesting, breeding, or seeking shelter, scaring them can create a dangerous situation for them or their young. Observe the following guidelines when watching wildlife:  Paddle quietly.  Don’t splash paddles near wildlife.  Keep a respectful distance (approximately 20 feet).  Stay at least 100 feet from nesting sites. Paddlers help aquatic resources when they leave the place better than they found it. Pick up all litter (yours and others). Note: Do not attempt to pick up hazardous substances or disturb a meth lab. If something seems suspicious, don’t touch anything. Note the location and contact local law enforcement officials immediately. Etiquette Respect other paddlers. Keep voices down; sound carries over water. Obey all regulations for a particular body of water. Paddling Equipment Canoes and Kayaks Before getting started, it is important to become familiar with common boating terminology. This will help you choose a craft appropriate for your program and teach the essentials of paddling. Basic Paddling Terms aft back part of craft astern back part of craft amidship center of craft ballast weight that lowers center of gravity and adds stability forward ahead; toward the front of the craft leeward away from the wind offside direction of a maneuver in which the craft moves away from the bow; designated paddling side onside direction of a maneuver in which the craft moves toward the bow; designated paddling side port left side of craft when facing the bow powerface side of paddle blade pressed against the water during a forward stroke starboard right side of craft when facing the bow stern back part of craft trim balanced from end to end and side ©Boy Scouts of America to side; center of gravity over keels, below gunwales, and as near bottom as possible windward toward the wind 7 Parts of Canoe and Kayak C Ca an no oe e deck panels at the front and back of the canoe freeboard distance between surface of water and gunwale at the middle of the canoe gunwale (pronounced “gunnel”) - top edge/outside rim keel reinforcing fin that runs along the centerline of the bottom; may be inside or outside thwarts (pronounced “thorts”) - braces that reach across top © ©B Bo oy S y Sco cou ut ts s o of f A Am me er ri ica ca Kayak Kayak braces/support walls made of waterproof foam; keeps deck from collapsing onto legs from pressure floatation bag buoyant material that prevents kayak from filling with water foam knee pads protect your knees and keep them from sliding around foot peg used to place feet; may be adjusted to brace knees under side of deck ©Boy Scouts of America 8 Characteristics of Crafts F Flla ar re e a an nd d T Tu um mb blle eh ho om me e Flare and tumblehome refer to the shape of the craft above waterline. The gunwales of canoes with flared sides are curved outward to maximize stability. Canoes with tumblehome have gunwales that curve inward. This increases efficiency. Kayaks with a flared bow prevent waves from rolling into the craft. Modern kayaks typically do not have tumblehome. V Ve ee es s,, R Ro ou un nd db bo otttto om ms s,, a an nd d F Flla attb bo otttto om ms s Vees, roundbottoms, and flatbottoms refer to the shape of the bottom of the craft. Flatbottom crafts feel stable upon entry, but may capsize easily in waves. Round and vee-bottom crafts are less stable initially, but become more predictable and controlled than flatbottom crafts. They also are easier to propel. ©Boy Scouts of America Types of Canoes & Kayaks There are three basic types of paddling: sea, flat water, and whitewater. Generally, Iowa’s waters are flat water (lakes/ponds or slower rivers and streams). There are four types of canoes for flat water paddling: recreational, touring, racing, and freestyle. Flat water kayaks can be split into three types: recreational, touring, and racing. Type Canoe Description Kayak Description Recreational designed for a variety of purposes; stable, designed for a variety of purposes; stable, maneuverable, durable; lower maneuverable, durable; lower performance performance than specialized crafts; low than specialized crafts; low maintenance; maintenance; can handle a moderate can handle a moderate amount of gear; amount of gear; used by most educational used by most educational programs; programs; lengths vary typically 15 feet long Touring faster, longer, & more narrow than can carry large amounts of gear; handle recreational canoes; not as maneuverable; well; most have good stability; typically 16 can carry a large amount of gear; typically - 18 feet long 17 -18 feet long Racing longer & more narrow than other canoes; built for speed; asymmetrical, widest point more streamlined; less maneuverable & is just behind the cockpit; most have little stable; used by skilled canoeists for fitness stability; designed for skilled kayakers and/or racing Freestyle used in freestyle paddling (strokes and maneuvers used to create a series of acrobatic moves);usually shorter than other types; often have more secondary stability to perform difficult moves 9 Materials used in Canoes and Kayaks Today’s canoes and kayaks are more specialized than in the past. Both crafts now are available in natural and synthetic materials. The creation of Kevlar® and other plastic composites have increased maneuverability, lightness, and durability. Paddlers can choose from a variety of materials. The following chart compares materials used in canoes and kayaks. Material Comment Advantages Drawbacks Royalex® thermoplastic laminate tough; excellent memory expensive; doesn’t handle with plastic core (pops back in shape if hits repeat abrasion (scratching) rocks); withstands severe well impact Kevlar® tire cord fabric; used in very strong; lightweight expensive; limited interior bulletproof vests strength Fiberglass combinations of materials durable; strong; can be expensive ® (Kevlar included); much lightweight depends upon how built Aluminum commonly used in lightweight; inexpensive; shorter than 17’ may paddle education programs takes abrasion sluggishly; tends to “hang up” on rocks ® Polyethylene plastic; recent design good durability; tough & heavier than Royalex ; includes foam core to forgiving to impact; more expensive (although less than ® make more durable abrasion resistant than Royalex ) ® Royalex Wood Canvas many educational appreciate in value; expensive (may be less programs use for maneuverable expensive than plastics) historical purposes Cedar Strip often used in racing light; attractive; strong expensive; less maneuverable Paddles Paddles are made of wood, aluminum, plastic, fiberglass, or combinations thereof. They should be light and strong. Canoe and kayak paddles are quite different in appearance. Canoe Paddles Canoe paddles are single bladed. The blade ranges from five to eight inches wide, and ©Boy Scouts of America from 18 to 24 inches long. There are two types of shafts (a.k.a. looms), straight and bent. Straight shafts are easy to manipulate. Bent shafts are more efficient and powerful due to the built-in angle. This module assumes a straight shaft is used. The grip of the paddle should fit smoothly and comfortably in your hand. There are two types of grips: T- grip and palm grip. The T-grip allows a firm grasp with precise control that can be used in all waters. The palm grip creates a better platform for hands and typically is used only on flat water. The end of the blade is the tip. Tips sometimes are made of a stronger material than the rest of the paddle because it comes into contact with rocks, stream bottoms, snags, etc. The throat is where the blade attaches to the shaft. 10 Sizing the Canoe Paddle Paddles should fit their handler. The American Canoeing Association (ACA) recommends the following method for sizing an appropriate canoe paddle. On the water: • Sit comfortably in a canoe. • Place the paddle perpendicular to the water surface with the blade submerged to the throat. The top of the paddle grip should reach between eye and nose level. Without water: • Sit upright on a flat surface. • Place paddle grip between legs (on lap) and extend the blade upward. • The throat of the paddle should reach the top of ©Boy Scouts of America the head. Kayak Paddles Kayak paddles are long and double bladed. There are two types of kayak paddles: touring and whitewater. Whitewater paddles have a rigid shaft, wide blades, and typically are feathered (blades set at an angle to each other). This allows the paddler to have control while traveling through rapids. Touring paddles are designed for efficiency and comfort and are good for traveling Iowa’s waters. They have a more narrow and smaller blade. Blades may be cupped (spoon) or flat. Flat blades are better for beginners. Kayak paddles have either right-hand or left-hand control. This allows a designated hand to maintain a firm grasp on the paddle while controlling the angle of the blades. It also allows the shaft to rotate within the other hand between strokes and maintain a firm grasp during the stroke. Hand control is determined by the powerface of the blade. For example, if the power stroke is on the right side of the kayak, and the powerface of the opposite blade is facing up, then it is a right-hand control paddle. Most paddles sold are right-hand control. Straight and bent shafts also are available in kayak paddles. Most beginners use straight shafts. There are two throats and tips in a kayak paddle because they are double bladed. Sizing the Kayak Paddle When sizing a kayak paddle, consider the type of paddling you will be doing, the width of the kayak, and your torso length. A general rule is that an average size paddler (5’2” - 6’2”) in an average sized solo boat can use a 200-220 cm (80-88 inches) paddle. Clothing Dressing appropriately for paddling can mean the difference between a fun-filled float trip and a completely miserable experience. Paddlers should always dress for water temperature, not mid-afternoon air temperature. Dress includes both clothing and accessories. The following chart lists items needed for paddling. 11 Dressing for Paddling Item Benefits personal flotation device (pfd) keeps you afloat following unexpected accidents loose layers of clothing keep in heat in cold weather; can be shed or added as temperature changes wool and synthetic clothes good insulation, even when wet; dry much more quickly than cotton light-colored cotton clothes reflect sun’s rays in warm or hot weather & absorb perspiration hat keeps in heat in cold weather; protects head from sun’s rays in hot weather; shades eyes sunglasses block reflected sunlight, protect eyes, & help vision sunscreen partially blocks sun’s rays, especially ultra violet (U-V); helps prevent sunburn shoes protect feet from rocks and other obstructions; help prevent slipping helmet protects head from hitting rocks & other obstructions while kayaking or canoeing rivers wet suit keeps body warm and dry when kayaking Miscellaneous Equipment Item Description spray skirts attached to the cockpit in kayaks; prevent water from flooding the craft; made of nylon or neoprene; fit around the paddler’s waist; a quick-release tab allows a quick bail out painters ropes that may be tied to the bow or stern of the craft; should be made of nylon to hold up in water; should be secured somewhere in the boat while not in use (e.g. tied to the nearest thwart, coiled and secured to the breastplate) to ensure safety of the paddler bailers used to take water out of the bottom of a canoe; can be buckets, the bottom of a gallon plastic jug, or a large sponge; should be tied to a thwart in case of capsize knee pads may be used when paddling in the kneeling position; rest on the bottom or are secured to paddlers’ legs; should not slip on the bottom or soak up water; may be purchased or made duct tape may be the paddler’s best friend; can be used to repair tears, holes, or splintered paddles or secure painters waterproof all gear should be stored in these; may be plastic bags closed with a containers gooseneck (twist and bend over the top, wrap with a rubber band) or specialty purchased canoe packs; gear should be kept in the center of the canoe with its weight distributed evenly; in case of capsize, gear tied to a thwart will be easier to recover 12 Canoe Paddling One or two people (solo or tandem) can paddle a canoe. Most instructors feel tandem canoeing should be mastered before trying to paddle solo. For this reason, this module focuses on tandem paddling. In tandem paddling, one person is in front (bowman) and the other is in back (sternman). Each paddler has duties she is responsible for. The bowman reads the immediate route on the water, makes necessary commands or maneuvers to avoid hitting obstacles, and sets the pace for strokes. The sternman matches the timing and speed of the bowman’s strokes to make paddling more efficient and easier to control. She follows the general course of the river/lake, maintains or changes craft alignment, and maintains adequate spacing between other crafts. Positions There are two basic positions for paddling in a canoe, sitting and kneeling. When kneeling, the paddler wedges his knees against the sides and rests his weight against the front edge of the seat. When sitting, the paddler sits on the seat, bracing his knees against the gunwales. Both positions have benefits and drawbacks. Kneeling increases the canoe’s stability by lowering the center of gravity. It allows paddlers to use thigh and trunk muscles more efficiently in conjunction with their arms and shoulders. It also allows paddlers to get a wider reach and a more powerful stroke. However, kneeling may not be comfortable, making paddling less enjoyable. Sitting is more comfortable and is good on quiet water. Sitting raises the center of gravity and reduces the canoe’s stability. When sitting, paddlers primarily use their arm and shoulder muscles and have a harder time using muscles in their thighs and trunk. Most of these disadvantages can be overcome by practice and paddling correctly. For the purposes of this module, paddling will be taught in the sitting position. Holding the Paddle  One hand goes on the grip, the other on the shaft near the throat.  To hold the grip, lay your hand on top with palm down and fingers outstretched. Close your hand so fingers are on one side, the base of your hand is on the opposite side, and your thumb wraps around.  To hold the shaft, open your other hand, with palm down and fingers spread. Lay the throat of the paddle between thumb and index finger and close your hand. Hands should be shoulder width apart.  To paddle on the port side, place your right hand on the grip and your left hand near the throat. To paddle on the starboard side, do the opposite. ©Boy Scouts of America Parts of a Stroke The ACA recognizes three parts to every stroke: 1. Catch - blade is first inserted into the water, power has not been applied 2. Propulsion - working part of the stroke that should accomplish the objective (makes progress, performs the maneuver); paddler uses her torso more than her shoulders or arms 3. Recovery - the blade exits the water and is moved to the catch position of the next stroke; paddlers should feather the blade (twist the wrist to align the blade with the surface of the water) to minimize resistance 13 Basic Strokes The basic concept of a stroke is simple. When the paddle is planted in the water and the paddler pulls, he is pulling self and canoe to the paddle. Many strokes may be performed to move the canoe in the proper direction. Forward Stroke - moves the canoe forward; should be kept short to maximize power; paddle should be parallel to keel and as close to keel as possible; if done properly, canoe will go the opposite direction of the side the sternman paddles Catch: paddler rotates torso 45° offside; both arms forward and hands across gunwale; shaft arm should be outside gunwale with shaft vertical; paddle should be two feet in front of onside knee with full length of blade in water Propulsion: paddler uncoils his torso to face forward; lower arm pulls paddle while upper hand pushes; stroke kept parallel to keel, not gunwale ©Boy Scouts of America Recovery: stroke ends at paddler’s hips; blade taken out of water and feathered; paddler gets ready for next catch position Back Stroke - stops forward motion and/or moves canoe backward; essentially the opposite of forward stroke; stern paddler should be able to steer canoe as it moves backward Catch: paddler rotates 45° onside; paddle placed in water just behind her hip; shaft vertical and both arms slightly bent Propulsion: paddler uses her torso to drive backface of paddle forward toward bow; stroke is parallel to keel, not gunwale Recovery: stroke ends at paddler’s knees; blade is left in the water for recovery; turn paddle by rotating thumb to ©Boy Scouts of America slice through water back to catch position Draw Stroke - moves craft sideways toward paddle; has a righting effect which makes it hard to capsize the canoe; basically forward stroke done perpendicular to keel (not parallel); when teaching, have students imagine paddle as a broom sweeping water underneath the canoe Catch: paddler turns onside, lining shoulders with centerline of boat; both arms extended away from body at paddler’s hips; blade parallel to keel, powerface toward canoe Propulsion: paddler uses torso to pull onside hip toward paddle; lower arm pulls paddle and upper arm pushes Recovery: stroke ends before paddle touches canoe; blade may either be left in or out of water ©Boy Scouts of America 14 Pry Stroke - moves canoe forcefully away from paddle; essentially the opposite of draw stroke; should not be used in shallow water because paddle may catch on rocks, capsizing the canoe Catch: paddler turns onside, lining shoulders with centerline of boat; both arms slightly bent; paddle kept close to canoe; blade parallel to keel and shaft angled under canoe Propulsion: paddler uses torso to push onside hip away from paddle; lower arm pushes away from, while the upper arm pulls toward paddler; canoe pried away from blade Recovery: stroke kept short with shaft nearly vertical throughout; ends away from canoe; blade may either be left in or out of water ©Boy Scouts of America J-Stroke - performed by sternman; used to keep canoe going straight during forward movement; similar to forward stroke with a variation at end of propulsion stage; should be kept short; paddlers should be aware it will slow their momentum a bit; sometimes more difficult for students to learn Catch: paddler rotates torso 45° offside; both arms forward and hands across gunwale; shaft arm outside gunwale with shaft vertical; paddle approximately two feet in front of onside knee with full length of blade in water Propulsion: paddler uncoils his torso to face forward; lower arm pulls paddle while upper hand pushes; stroke kept parallel to keel, not gunwale; when paddle reaches paddler’s hips, he twists upper hand so his thumb points forward; shaft hand pushes blade away from boat; makes shape of the letter “J” Recovery: blade lifted out of water ©Boy Scouts of America Minnesota Switch or Hut Stroke - used by both paddlers to maintain a straight course; paddlers switch sides every six to eight strokes while performing forward stroke; remove paddle from water, reverse hand positions, (shaft hand goes to grip and grip hand goes to shaft) and place paddle on other side of canoe; stern paddler calls the switch because she can see better and more quickly the canoe’s changing course; sternman also can see if bowman has heard command and switched Stern Rudder - another way to keep canoe going in a straight line; sternman places paddle in water parallel to canoe and angled back; turn grip hand in direction canoe should go 15 Kayak Paddling Like canoe paddling, each stroke has three parts; catch, propulsion, and recovery. However, there are many differences with paddling a kayak: • Kayaks are typically solo crafts. • The kayak paddler must assume responsibility for duties of both tandem canoeists. • Kayaks are more likely to tip. • The double blade of the kayak paddle allows kayakers to paddle on both sides without having to switch. Paddling Positions Paddlers should sit straight when kayaking. This allows a broader range of movement and an increase in strength to perform strokes and maneuvers. Boat lean helps kayakers feel the stability of their craft. It occurs when a paddler pulls one knee up, while simultaneously pushing down with the opposite hip and keeping his body weight above the kayak. This transfers weight to the hip and allows the paddler to balance on that hip. This will move the craft underneath him. Paddling a kayak involves a push-pull action against the paddle (similar to boxing). When going forward, kayakers punch out with their upper arms and pull back with their lower arms. This creates a need for kayakers to rotate their body, while keeping their trunk and shoulders facing their hands. Holding the Paddle Grip the paddle in the palm of your hands rather than your fingers. This makes it easier to cock your wrists and gives you better control over the paddle. Your hands should be at a greater width than your shoulders. Your elbows are at a 90° angle to your forearms, which are approximately a 70° to 90° angle to the paddle shaft. An easy way for beginner kayakers to remember their hand position is to tape their proper grip location on the paddle. Basic Strokes Kayak strokes follow the same basic concept as canoe strokes: when the paddle is planted in the water and the paddler pulls, she is pulling self and canoe to the paddle. The power in kayak strokes comes from the push of the upper hand, twist of the torso, and pull of the lower hand. The use of all three will provide smooth, quick, strong strokes. Forward stroke - moves kayak forward; blade should be completely in water and paddle parallel to centerline; paddler’s upper hand should not cross center line or stroke will be too long; craft will naturally turn, so beginners need to practice timing and power Catch: paddler’s torso rotates with right shoulder forward; blade inserted in water close to kayak Propulsion: upper hand punches out toward grab loop on bow while lower arm pulls, rotating paddler’s body; upper hand continues to punch out to full extension of her arm while ©Boy Scouts of America upper body follows through to full rotation; lower arm comes to paddler’s hip Recovery: paddle blade removed from water by quickly lifting wrist and elbow to shoulder level allowing a clean exit and quick recovery; torso rotated with left shoulder forward and ready for catch position on opposite side 16 Back stroke - slows/stops moving kayak and/or moves it backward; essentially the reverse of forward stroke; beginners should look back over one shoulder to ensure paddle stays parallel to centerline Catch: paddler’s torso rotates with left shoulder back; upper hand in front of head with arm bent approximately 90°; lower arm at paddler’s hips; left paddle blade in water close to craft Propulsion: lower hand pushes forward while upper hand simultaneously pulls back; left shoulder rotates to forward position; right arm moves to paddler’s shoulders Recovery: paddle blade removed from water by quickly lifting wrist ©Boy Scouts of America and elbow to shoulder level; torso rotated with right arm at paddler’s hips and ready for catch position on opposite side Forward sweep stroke - turns bow of kayak to opposite direction paddled while maintaining forward movement (e.g. a sweep on the right turns the bow to the left); paddle moves in an arc from bow to stern; paddle blade should be fully submerged throughout propulsion; useful for moving around obstacles; encourages paddlers to use good boat lean Catch: paddler’s torso rotates with right shoulder forward; blade inserted in water close to kayak; lower (right) arm more straight than upper arm, making torso “wound up” Propulsion: the upper hand pushes forward while lower simultaneously pulls paddle back in a wide half circle; shoulders face paddle shaft while maintaining a parallel position Recovery: paddle removed from water similarly to forward stroke ©Boy Scouts of America Reverse sweep stroke - slows forward motion of kayak as it turns craft toward side on which stroke performed; essentially the reverse of forward sweep stroke Catch: paddler’s torso rotates with left shoulder back; left blade inserted in water close to kayak and behind paddler; beginners should look over their shoulder to see where blade is inserted Propulsion: upper hand pulls back while lower simultaneously pushes forward in a wide half circle Recovery: paddle removed from water similar to back stroke ©Boy Scouts of America Draw stroke - pulls boat sideways without slowing forward momentum; done at midship Catch: both of paddler’s hands extended over water; upper hand reaches farther out, making paddle nearly perpendicular to water; blade face turned toward kayak before it is inserted in water Propulsion: paddler pulls boat to blade using both arms, keeping paddle nearly vertical; lower hand applies most of the force Recovery: stroke ends when blade is near craft; blade feathered out of ©Boy Scouts of America water and placed in catch position 17

Advise: Why You Wasting Money in Costly SEO Tools, Use World's Best Free SEO Tool Ubersuggest.