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Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Pictures © Shutterstock, 2015, pages: 1, 15, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 30, 32. 2Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Background........................................................................ 6 Goal of the policy note ................................................................ 6 Step by step guidance................................................................. 6 Background information and examples ..................................................... 7 Characteristics of urban traffic ........................................................... 7 Introduction.on.Intelligent.Transport.Systems.and.traffic.management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Definitions ......................................................................... 9 Categorization...................................................................... 9 Traffic management centre............................................................. 11 Step.1:.Policy.context. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Policy objectives.................................................................... 13 Guiding principles .................................................................. 14 Step.2:.Current.situation.and.bottlenecks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Current situation.................................................................... 14 Identification and prioritization of bottlenecks................................................ 15 Step.3:.Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Step.4:.Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Relation between measure types, services and policy goals...................................... 17 Selecting measures .................................................................. 18 Step.5:.Implementation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Stakeholder management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Building the business case or “storytelling”.................................................. 21 Specifications and procurement ......................................................... 23 Measure.catalogue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Restricted access.................................................................... 24 Road pricing ...................................................................... 25 Lane management................................................................... 26 Public transport priority ............................................................... 27 Signal control...................................................................... 28 Parking guidance................................................................... 29 Travel and traffic information ........................................................... 30 Future.developments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas 4Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Preface This is the fourth policy note in the CIVITAS Policy Analysis urban environments have increased substantially in the past series developed by CIVITAS WIKI. CIVITAS WIKI policy decade. This document provides information about recent notes are intended to inform decision makers and urban developments in ITS and traffic management. In doing professionals on relevant topics that currently play an so, the document is intended to provide support to urban important role in urban mobility planning and operations. professionals in an initial selection of measure types suitable for their situation. The authors of this policy note are aware This policy note addresses the topic of urban Intelligent of the fact that this is a very broad topic and that this note Transport Systems (ITS) and traffic management. ITS and will not answer all questions that readers might have when it traffic management applications help cities to achieve comes to the selection and implementation of ITS and traffic policy goals with regard to accessibility, livability and management measures in cities. However, we hope that this safety. Accelerated by technology and ICT developments, note offers help, guidance, insights and information to make the possibilities of using ITS and traffic management in that easier. We hope you enjoy reading this note. The CIVITAS WIKI team This publication was produced by the CIVITAS WIKI consortium. The policy note was compiled by Eline Jonkers and Teije Gorris (TNO, the Netherlands). The authors of this policy note would like to thank Mary Panagopoulou for her research, Ivo Cré, Leon Deckers, Suzanne Hoadley, Ben Immers, Jeroen Kosters, Emile Oostenbrink, Julie Raffaillac, Arjen Reijneveld, Henk Schuurman and Henk Taale for discussing with us their work and the content of this note, and Mike McDonald and Isabel Wilmink for doing all that as well as reviewing the manuscript. 5Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Introduction Background Goal of the policy note European cities are facing a number of challenges that are This policy note aims to provide information and support related to transportation. Economic costs of traffic congestion for professionals working in or for European municipalities are estimated to be 80 billion Euros annually (European (decision makers, urban/transport planners). This note can Commission, 2013-1). Urban areas account for 23% of be used to help in the initial selection of ITS and traffic all CO emissions from transport (European Commission, management measures to meet local conditions of mobility 2 2013-1). Urban areas account for 38% of Europe’s road characteristics, challenges and policy goals. fatalities, with vulnerable users such as pedestrians being particularly exposed (European Commission, 2013-1). Other Step by step guidance transportation challenges are related to the robustness and reliability of the public transportation system and increasing The first part of the policy note describes an approach to parking demands. With high population densities and a translate urban (mobility) policy goals into a logical and high share of short-distance trips, there is a great potential structured set of ITS and traffic management solutions. The for cities to contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions second part of the note provides background information from transport by 60% by 2050 and halving the use of and practical examples. “conventionally fuelled” cars in urban transport by 2030 (European Commission, 2011). The approach presented builds upon the Handbook Sustainable Traffic Management (in Dutch ‘Gebiedsgericht Managing urban traffic requires finding a balance between Benutten’) (Rijkswaterstaat, 2004), which has been applied throughput, livability, safety and sustainability. As cities extensively since 2004 mainly to interurban traffic situations. are expected to grow in the coming decades (leading to The approach has been adapted for this note to make it increased traffic demand), the challenge of managing traffic relevant for cities. A five step guide is provided to help will increase, as space to develop road networks is often develop a business case for ITS and traffic management limited or non-existing. That urban traffic is characterized by measures. The process starts with the positioning of ITS a mix of different modes of transport (pedestrians, bicycles, and traffic management in the urban mobility context and public transport, motorized vehicles) makes the challenge a structured approach to selection of services and measures even more complex. is provided. It concludes with guidance on ‘selling the story’. See the figure on the next page for an overview of the steps. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and traffic management are instruments that enable operators of urban transport networks The approach has specific advantages. Firstly, it works from to manage traffic and transport to meet policy goals. ITS and an integrated viewpoint for the city’s traffic and transport traffic management approaches can lead to positive effects system. It is not focused on one specific area or one specific on throughput, pollution, and safety. For example, (real- problem but on a coherent set of measures and solutions. time) information on eco-friendly modes of transport such as As such it is in line with the guidelines for sustainable urban walking, cycling and public transport can influence change mobility planning. Secondly, the approach starts with a to more sustainable modes, whilst optimizing control settings comprehensive analysis of the current state of the city, of traffic signals can reduce fuel consumption and emission instead of jumping immediately to possible solutions. Finally of pollutants. the approach ensures building commitment from the city stakeholders, from the operational to the strategic level. Gebiedsgericht Benutten, (Rijkswaterstaat, 2004) has been used in the description of the steps. 6Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Background information and examples Characteristics of urban traffic As well as step-by-step guidance this policy note provides The characteristics of an urban mobility system (TrafficQuest, practical background information. There is a measure 2014) can be seen in the infographic on the next page. These catalogue offering measure descriptions, benefits and characteristics are key factors when selecting measures. possible barriers, insights on expected future developments and relevant EU policies, and practical city cases. The contents of this policy note are based on evaluations of measures demonstrated in European cities as part of the Overview.of.the.steps.for.setting.a.strategy. CIVITAS Initiative, as well as from other application sources. and.defining.and.implementing.measures. Multi objective, POLICY in line with other CONTEXT policy instruments CURRENT Understanding the city, SITUATION using data & tools. & BOTTLENECKS Awareness of legacy systems E.g. redistribution, SERVICES demand control Assessment and selection of measures, using MEASURES measure catalogue ʻSelling the storyʼ, funding opportunities, IMPLEMENTATION smart partnerships 7Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Robustness More than one Parking Multimodality road operator of networks 7 IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN TRAFFIC Mixed traffic Intersections Distribution and priorities and logistics Infographic.with.important.characteristics.of.urban.traffic. 8Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Introduction on Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management This section serves as an introduction to Intelligent ITS is the application of ICT in traffic and transport, and traffic Transport Systems and traffic management. Definitions and management is an instrument to achieve (policy) goals of a explanations of both terms and their relationship are given. city. Many traffic management measures use ICT and can Further information is provided specifically related to the use therefore be called ITS, but there are exceptions (e.g. one- of Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in way streets, static access management). Just as there are ITS urban environments. systems that are not (primarily) used for traffic management, such as electric toll collection. This policy note concentrates Definitions on traffic management measures that use ITS and ITS systems that are relevant for cities. This is further explained in the rest Intelligent transport systems (ITS) are applications of of this section. advanced sensor, computer electronics and communication technologies which, without embodying intelligence as such, Categorization aim to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable various users ITS applications can be categorized in different ways, see to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and for example (Ecostand, 2011), (ICT for Clean and Efficient ‘smarter’ use of transport networks. ITS applications include Mobility), (Amitran, 2014) and (Spyropoulou, 2004). For telematics and all types of communications in vehicles, this note a categorization of ITS applications is chosen that between vehicles (e.g. vehicle-to-vehicle), and between is based on their expected use: vehicles and fixed locations (e.g. vehicle-to-infrastructure). 1. Demand and access management (including pricing); Traffic management applies measures to adjust the 2. Traffic management and control; demand and capacity of the traffic network in time and space, 3. Travel and traffic information; to better ‘match’ the traffic demand and supply (capacity) 4. Driver assistance and cooperative systems; (TrafficQuest, 2012). Examples of traffic management 5. Logistics and fleet management; measures are variable settings for traffic lights, variable 6. Safety and emergency systems. speed limits, parking guidance, dynamic lane management and dynamic route information. 1880 1900 1910 First traffic First recognizable First mass First mass First electric sign modern bicycle production car production bus traffic light 1880 1885 1902 1910 1912 9Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas The focus of this note lies on three fields of interest which usually related to on-board vehicle systems and the decision comprise the most relevant ITS applications for cities: to use them is made by the individual driver (although in case demand and access management, traffic management of cooperative vehicle-to-infrastructure systems infrastructure and control, and travel and traffic information. Demand equipment is also needed). The same holds for safety and and access management measures are usually applied emergency systems. Innovative cooperative systems relevant with additional enforcement strategies and the use of static to cities, such as cooperative intersections and ITS Spots as and variable messages signs. They aim at handling flows they have in Japan, have not been included in this policy in cities, especially in city centers where high levels of note, since they are experimental at the moment. Logistics congestion and air pollution occur. Traffic management and and fleet management systems are usually implemented by control measures aim at reducing transportation problems logistics companies on a level broader than just the city. by either controlling the circulation of all transport modes or Also, urban freight logistics are dealt with in a separate focusing on specific modes such as public transport. Travel CIVITAS policy note. and traffic information measures provide (real-time) data to e.g. drivers and users of public transport in order to enable The three focus categories of ITS applications can be better informed decision making and reduce transportation specified one step further. The specification we use is based problems. Both demand and access management measures on Ecostand (2011) and Amitran (2014) and is shown in and traffic management and control measures depend on the figure on the next page (encircled the categories that are the use of travel and traffic information in order to increase included in this policy note). Only sub categories relevant their efficiency. Measures in one of the three focus categories for cities are included. Navigation systems are not included, because it is not likely that the deployment of such systems can be selected by city decision makers and be applied in is in the circle of influence of city administrations. Cities can the urban area in order to fulfill the desired goals. facilitate navigation and parking apps by making certain data accessible (open data), but in the end it is a decision of Categories of ITS applications that are not included in this individual drivers to use those systems. The subcategories as policy note are driver assistance and cooperative systems, shown on the right-hand side of the figure are not yet on the logistics and fleet management, and safety and emergency level of concrete systems. systems. Driver assistance and cooperative systems are 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 First pedestrian- First Park First electronic Cruise First Adding cameras First dynamic route First car with First portable The start First traffic only area and Ride location Control for cars Matrix signs to road side systems information panel standard Brake Assist route planner of CIVITAS light control 1953 1960 1968 1977 1986 1990 1998 2002 2002 1963 Park & Ride 10Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Main categories of ITS applications Subcategories relevant for cities Restricted Road Demand and access management access pricing Public Lane Signal Traffic management and control transport Management control priority Parking Travel and traffic Travel and traffic information guidance information Driver assistance and = what is covered in this policy note. cooperative systems Logistics and fleet management ITS.categories.and.subcategories Safety and emergency systems Traffic management centre A special enabler for traffic management and ITS is the well as during unforeseen circumstances (e.g. accidents). traffic management centre (also called traffic control centre). In a traffic management centre traffic is monitored with When the number of operational tasks increases, or the size for example cameras and data from traffic detectors (e.g. and complexity of instruments and scenarios increases, a induction loops), control systems are operated, and responses traffic management centre could become necessary. A traffic can be coordinated with other crews (e.g. police). The size management center can support the management of traffic and span of control of a traffic centre differ per city and can flows in an integrated way during ‘normal’ conditions as be from very simple to very large and/or innovative. 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 First pedestrian- First Park First electronic Cruise First Adding cameras First dynamic route First car with First portable The start First traffic only area and Ride location Control for cars Matrix signs to road side systems information panel standard Brake Assist route planner of CIVITAS light control 1953 1960 1968 1977 1986 1990 1998 2002 2002 1963 Park & Ride 11Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Traffic.management.centre.in.the.Netherlands Source https://beeldbank.rws.nl, Rijkswaterstaat / Tinelou van der Elsken Infographic.timeline.with.important.traffic,.traffic.management.and.ITS.moments 2005 2010 20XX First commercial car London First First state permitting First commercially with Park Assist congestion charging iPhone autonomous Google cars available self-driving car 2003 2003 2007 2012 Google Cars 12Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Step 1: Policy context The first step is to position ITS and traffic management in initiated in the context of the development of a SUMP (top- the relevant urban mobility policy context. The writing down), but it could also be initiated bottom-up. For example down of this in a document is what we call an (ITS and) when certain traffic management or control systems reach traffic management strategy. This strategy defines what the end of their life time and there is a need for upgrading policy ambitions will be achieved through ITS and traffic and replacement. Updating the traffic management strategy management. It comprises the rationale and guiding might then be necessary and should be the starting point for principles to deploy a set of effective and efficient ITS and this process. traffic management measures. In the traffic management strategy, specify the contribution Policy objectives ITS and traffic management could have in achieving the policy goals. In order to do this, make the policy goals as The purpose of traffic management is to inform, guide and if concrete as possible. For example, identify targets, indicators necessary direct road users. It is a management process that and criteria (value of the indicator that is strived for or that contributes to achieving policy objectives. Policy objectives should not be exceeded). These are, in the end, political in the urban context that ITS and traffic management can choices and can be part of the policy plan or SUMP. If such contribute to are for example: choices have not been made yet, the planners and analysts could determine values based on legislation or values they ■■ Accessibility of the city think are acceptable, and these values should be discussed and agreed upon by decision makers and/or politicians. ■■ A clean environment Examples of indicators, targets and criteria are: ■■ Low energy use■■ Public transport should have a modal share of at least 30% for all trips within the city ■■ A safe city ■■ The minimum average speed at city transit links should ■■ Attractiveness of the city for tourists be 40 km/h ‘Traditional’ transportation goals include more efficient ■■ Average waiting time for pedestrians at urban and effective traffic (less congestion, shorter travel times, shopping areas should not exceed 70 seconds larger network capacity), higher service quality (higher 3 public transport punctuality and reliability, more parking ■■ PM10 levels should be below 40 µg/m in housing places, shorter waiting times), improved travel patterns areas in the city (volume of travel or movement of goods by modes, modal split, modal integration) and improved transport safety ■■ Transport related CO production should be reduced 2 (less casualties and incidents) (Hall and Van de Lindt, by 25% 2009). Environmental goals that could be achieved through means of traffic management comprise improvement of the Traffic management is (just) one of the tools (policy environment (CO ), air quality (NO , PM , PM , EC) and instruments) in a broader mobility toolkit policy makers 2 2 10 2,5 noise. Whether traffic management is aimed at traditional or have at hand. Other instruments that could contribute to sustainable goals, to make it successful measures should be the same objectives are urban planning, infrastructure clearly embedded in the relevant policy framework. planning, public transport policies and cycling policies. In order to be effective, instruments and measures should be Policy ambitions are normally set down in local mobility plans, properly aligned. Having insight into the landscape of policy for example in a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP). ambitions and related instruments helps to identify and scope The development of a traffic management strategy could be specific traffic management measures in the next steps. 13Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Step 2: Current situation and bottlenecks Guiding principles Second part of the first step is the definition of guiding In step 1 traffic management has been framed in the urban principles. Guiding principles are used as a common set of mobility policy context. As such the ambition (or desired rules to rely upon in making decisions in next steps and putting situation) has been defined. Step 2 is about understanding measures into practice (deployment). Guiding principles can the mobility characteristics in your city. In step 2 a structured be established on several aspects. Some examples: problem analysis has to be carried out to define the situation as it is now and identify the bottlenecks. These bottlenecks ■■ Prioritization of modes. For example to prioritize can be for example traffic performance related (delays, sustainable transport modes. In this way, when safety, performance of the public transport system) or related developing measures, measures will be oriented to such to air quality and noise. This will form the path for later steps modes first. A more varied approach is also possible, that elaborate on ways to go from the current situation (step where mode oriented priority could be established 2) to the desired situation (step 1): based on the type and depending on the area in the city. location of bottlenecks, ITS and traffic management services can be explored that are most suitable to tackle the problems. ■■ Prioritization of segments. Priorities can be put on trip purposes or destinations of traffic. In that way It is possible that an analysis as described below is already accessibility to jobs, leisure locations and tourist (partly) performed in setting up the urban mobility plan. It is attractions can be secured. worthwhile to explore this and use the work already done. ■■ Strategy type. When it comes to behaviour of travellers, Current situation one can try to change this on different levels. The most relevant choices in the urban context are: First, make a structured inventory of the current network or supply side of the system. This could be organized in 1. Prevent people from travelling (too far) structured way by using a GIS tool or traffic model suite, and/or by using local knowledge combined with data that 2. Mode shift: traffic that cannot be avoided should are available or can be collected. It is relevant to have insight be as sustainable as possible in the following characteristics (this is not an exhaustive list): 3. Change departure time■■ Road network 1. Road capacities 4. Change in route choice / 2. Speed limits Change in driving behaviour 3. Intersection characteristics 4. Important parking locations (including capacity) ■■ ITS/ICT. Developments in ITS and related topics (ICT, big/open data, mobile applications) have progressed ■■ Public transport rapidly over the past decade, and developments will 1. Routes continue. Cities should think about their position when it 2. Important transfer points/stops comes to the level of market involvement in development 3. Frequency and deployment, data accessibility (open data), data 4. Intersection priorities standards, and dealing with in-house advisors and prevention of vendor lock-ins. ■■ Cycling 1. Cycling lanes and their characteristics ■■ Legacy systems. Often cities have systems in place. 2. Intersection priorities Choosing between upgrading or replacement of systems is a difficult decision. At this stage ‘rules’ could ■■ Legacy systems be established on how the city in general wants to deal 1. Traffic lights and type of control with legacy systems. Systems that need replacement 2. Information panels could actually be a driver to speed up developments. 3. Parking information systems 14Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Identification and prioritization of bottlenecks 4. Static and dynamic signs (e.g. for environmental There are various ways to identify bottlenecks and it zones) is recommended to use different sources. Throughput bottlenecks can be identified by confronting supply and Second, acquire insight in the demand side (mobility demand, for example by using a (multimodal) traffic patterns). In other words, how is the urban transport system model. If this is combined with environmental models to get being used. Relevant indicators include: insight into air quality and noise levels, also environmental bottlenecks/hot spots can be identified. Identify bottlenecks ■■ Identification of areas of trip generation (residential for all modes (cars, public transport, cycling, walking) and areas) and trip attraction (jobs, retail, leisure, hospital, also for parking, and see where these overlap (in time and parking) space). When extensive data sets are available the actual situation in the city can be visualized based on the most ■■ Origin-destination relations, if possible differentiated by recent data. time of day (morning peak, evening peak, weekend, rest of the day) When using a model, bottlenecks can be derived by comparing the results of the traffic model assignment to ■■ Modal split figures a reference situation, using indicators and criteria for classification of the current situation into e.g. ‘acceptable’ ■■ Traffic volumes on important routes, if possible and ‘problematic’. Identification of indicators and criteria differentiated by time of day was part of the first step. These figures can be compiled using statistical data, When bottlenecks are identified priorities need to be monitoring systems (e.g. from cameras or detectors at traffic assigned. This can help to identify the order by which lights), and traffic models. It is recommended that cities bottlenecks should be tackled (short term and long term). monitor and generate numbers. Sources of information There are different inputs for making the prioritization such that can be added to this are data from Google Maps as the political situation. (‘typical traffic’), service providers, social media and local knowledge. 15Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Step 3: Services The previous steps explained how traffic management and ITS can contribute to realizing the policy goals for the city and how to acquire insights in the current situation in the 1 .. Flow.control:.this is an option for relatively minor city (problem analysis). This step, Services, is about selecting (throughput) bottlenecks, for which you want to approaches to resolving the bottlenecks and achieving the achieve a calmer traffic situation by smoothening policy goals. The suitable type of solution – called ‘service’ the traffic flow. – is selected (the selection of detailed measures takes place in the next step). The selection of services is done in order 2 .. Traffic. flow. redistribution: this is an option to concentrate on the desired outcome and the method of when there are throughput bottlenecks, and there achieving the outcome instead of getting lost in technical and are alternative roads and routes available. physical (in)possibilities that come with concrete measures. It is recommended to have a map of the city with a visualization 3 .. Traffic. and.travel.demand.control: this goes of bottlenecks at hand. This makes it easier to come to a a step further than the previous two services in that selection of services. you want to control traffic and travel directly, e.g. by discouraging people to travel, encouraging First, for each bottleneck, identify the location (if there is one) them to use another mode of transport or choose as specifically as possible and specify when this bottleneck another departure time. occurs (e.g. morning peak, weekend, etc.). Note that a distinction can be made between technical/operational 4 .. Road. capacity. control: this service goes bottlenecks (e.g. an intersection not functioning properly) furthest. Extra capacity is offered to (part of) the and bottlenecks related to traveller behaviour (e.g. too many road users. Usually the local effect on traffic flow people using a short cut through a residential area). When will be considerable, but there may also be effects it comes to behaviour of travellers, one can try to intervene on other parts of the network. on different levels: 5 .. Information: this category comprises services ■■ Encourage people to avoid travelling (e.g. by working (not falling under one of the other service groups) from home instead of going to work). that provide information to travellers. ■■ Achieve a mode shift. Trips that cannot be avoided should be as sustainable as possible. For example The services can be connected to the behaviour levels. through promoting preferred modes such as public Service 1 (flow control) contributes to achieving a calmer transport and cycling. A precondition for such a strategy traffic situation. As a consequence this part of the network or is that infrastructures for alternative modes are in place, city could become more attractive for other modes. Service so that there is a minimum resistance for mode change. 2 (traffic flow redistribution) is aimed at influencing route choice of road users. Service 3 (traffic and travel demand ■■ Change in departure time (e.g. from peak hour to non- control) is about motivating people to avoid travelling peak hour). (working at home), choose other modes and/or departure times. Service 4 (road capacity control) could influence all ■■ Change in route choice. levels, but is expected to have the largest impact on route choice, and on the longer term on mode choice as well. ■■ Change in driving behaviour. Service 5 (information) could have an effect on all levels. A change in driving behaviour is more difficult to achieve with Next, the general approach how to tackle each bottleneck services that cities can provide (although it is tried with speed and how to reach each policy goal in terms of services needs bumps and traffic cameras). Cities can deploy promotion to be discussed. Five types of services can be distinguished and awareness campaigns to influence the behaviour (Rijkswaterstaat, 2004): of travellers, and they can use enforcement instruments (e.g. cameras). 16Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Step 4: Measures Since there is not such a thing as ‘the most effective service’, In the previous step, services have been selected as a consider a broad range of services when exploring services general indication of the intended measures to tackle the to tackle bottlenecks. Try to combine conventional and new identified bottlenecks and achieve policy goals. This step services. It is helpful to indicate the intended services on is about translating the services into measures and listing a map, and when the ‘picture’ is complete, check with all specific properties of the measures such as feasibility, people involved whether as a group you are satisfied with expected costs and expected effects (if possible). This the services chosen. Describe the selected set of services and will result in a comprehensive overview of the total set of include the following information: measures that is required to achieve the policy goals and solve the bottlenecks. In many cases available budgets and ■■ Location resources will define if and to what extent the package of measures can be implemented. This is why measures have ■■ Type of service and effect aimed at to be prioritized. ■■ The type of bottleneck(s) and/or policy goal the service This section of the policy note provides further guidance for refers to selecting measures. It does not prescribe detailed, specific measures that have to be chosen, since there are too many ■■ Time period (e.g. peak, off-peak, recreational) of them and it is impossible to do this without knowing the local situation. Guidance is given on the type of measure, ■■ Time horizon (now, in five years’ time, etc.) and the steps in detailing this further. Later in this note a so called ‘measure catalogue’ is provided that can help in 1 ■■ Interaction with other services exploring measures. The CIVITAS knowledge base contains a more extensive set of measures that has been implemented ■■ Stakeholders involved in European cities. In addition, check the overall set of services for logic and In the first part of this step information is provided on the consistency, and keep the following things in mind when relation between the measure types and the services and selecting the services: policy goals, so that the right measure types can be selected. The second part gives guidance on how to make a list of ■■ Is the effect of the service proportional to the severity of more specific measures. the bottleneck? For example, a service such as calming traffic will probably have a relatively small contribution Relation between measure types, services when there is a large amount of congestion due to and policy goals overload of the network. In that case other – more effective – services might be preferable. In step 3 of this policy note five types of services were introduced. These services have to be further specified into ■■ Is the service a realistic option? This depends on the measure types. These are not yet concrete measures in the available physical space, legal aspects, costs, etc. For sense that the exact implementation is specified; this is very example, offering extra lanes is not always possible in dependent on the circumstances and cannot be advised on an urban environment. in this policy note. ■■ Are negative side effects to be expected? For example In the table on the next page an overview can be found of traffic starting to use residential streets. In this case it services and measure types and the relation (strong in dark can be wise to implement additional services to counter green, weaker in light green) between them. This overview the negative side effects. In some cases it might even be was made based on expert judgement of the authors of better to not resolve the bottleneck. this note. 1 http://civitas.eu/search-the-kb 17Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Overview.of.services.and.measure.types.and.the.connection.between.them Service Traffic Road ITS.category Measure.type Traffic flow and travel Flow control capacity Information redistribution demand control control Restricted access Demand and access management Road pricing Lane management Traffic. Public transport management. priority and.control Signal control Parking guidance Travel. and.traffic. Travel and traffic information information No or weak relation Average relation Strong relation To give some examples, for the service traffic flow The measure types discussed in this note have also been redistribution traffic has to be spread over the network compared on parameters such as costs, public acceptance, in a better way. This could be achieved by providing stakeholder issues and proof of functioning. Measure specific information (about routes or parking) to drivers either via issues are described in the measure catalogue. Variable Message Signs or smartphone applications. For traffic demand control people could be encouraged to Selecting measures travel during off-peak hours (by road pricing or rewards) or not to travel at all (e.g. teleworking). Road capacity control There are a number of intermediate steps to be taken. First, could be effectuated by offering extra lanes or distribute for each service identified in step 3 select one or more them differently (e.g. shared lanes, priority lanes). measure types to effectuate that particular service. The table given in the previous section can serve as a starting The expected effect sizes of the different measure types point. Then specify the measure types to actual measures, are compared regarding the main city policy objectives using the information in the measure catalogue in this note, (transportation and environment) as considered for this the CIVITAS knowledge base, and other sources you have note. The comparison is shown in the table on the next available as point of reference. Several measures may be page. Some findings that are shown in the table: from the required for a single service. In this case make sure that the selected measures, road pricing has the largest expected measures can actually be combined, both from a physical impact on transportation problems. It has been proved to and from a traffic control point of view. On the other hand, reduce congestion significantly, but the measure could also it is possible that one single measure can serve a number of be deployed to contribute to road safety and modal shift different services (e.g. restricted access can achieve traffic policies. More intelligent settings of signal control have shown flow redistribution and traffic and travel demand control). If improvements in congestion and travel times and at the same relevant, determine the exact location in the network where time contribute to road safety and reduction of pollutant the measure is to be deployed. emissions. Travel and traffic information measures could reduce congestion as well as encourage people to use public Second, indicate the effect you intend to achieve with the transport instead of the car. Measures that are expected to measure. You can grade the effectiveness for example on a have a large contribution to environmental policy objectives scale from 1 (minimal effect) to 3 (highly effective). Estimate are road pricing, restricted access and lane management. whether the measure offers the ‘desired strength’ that is 18Intelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas Comparison.of.measure.types.for.the.policy.goals.transportation.and.environment Measure.types Urban.policy.goals Congestion Travel time Accessibility Transportation Road safety Waiting times Modal split Reliability of PT Air quality Environment Fuel savings Noise reduction + + + No effect Small Average Large needed for the service. If this strength cannot be achieved, as well as aspects that characterize the city) should be additional measures or enforcement may help. Find out if looked at (this is not an exhaustive list): there are (unwanted) side-effects the measure could bring about. If this is the case explore alternatives or compensatory ■■ Technical aspects services and measures. Consider a broad range of measures looking at all modes and assess their impact on ■■ Geographical, environmental, demographic, socio- mobility patterns as well as on related economic, social and economic and cultural backgrounds environmental concerns. ■■ Legal feasibility (e.g. procedures, noise and air quality Third, check whether the measure is already available, limits) and whether it can be used immediately for the intended purpose. Also check whether minor modifications to an ■■ Institutional framework existing measure will suffice, or whether a completely new measure has to be provided. Using an existing measure ■■ Support from stakeholders such as executive bodies, generally saves time and money. road users, residents (public acceptability) Fourth, assess the feasibility of the measure. This will provide ■■ Monitoring systems requirements insight into the amount of effort that will be needed to realize the measure. The following aspects (aspects of the measure ■■ Enforcement issues 19 Restricted access Road pricing Lane management Public transport priority Signal conrtol Parking guidance Travel & traffic informationIntelligent Transport Systems and traffic management in urban areas In addition to the factors mentioned above , it would be good Prioritizing.measures to consider current urban trends such as urbanization (the population of Europe’s cities continues to grow and further The first step in prioritizing the measures is to find out whether increases demand for urban transport), the e-society (new any arrangements have already been made regarding any ways of organizing work, e-shopping) and technological of the measures. When such arrangements have already progress (connectivity, e-mobility, in-car systems). If the been made (or even obligations have been entered into), this measure appears to be partially or completely unfeasible, will probably mean that the realization of those measures an alternative has to be found. If a measure, though feasible, will no longer be a point of discussion. Such measures can involves large risks or requires additional effort, this should be put at the top of the programme of measures. be included in the description of the measure. Second, prioritize the remaining measures per bottleneck. Finally, describe the properties of the measure that are Use the prioritization of the bottlenecks as a starting point. required for setting the priorities, such as: The measures intended for the bottleneck(s) with the highest priority will come at the top of the programme of measures ■■ Completion time (but after the measures for which arrangements have already been made). They are followed by the measures related to ■■ Costs estimation, including investments for civil the bottleneck(s) with the next highest priority, and so on. engineering and electrical work, maintenance and running costs, wages, management costs, research Further prioritization, fine tuning and detailing can be done costs and enforcement costs. by looking at the most important goals you want to reach, limitations (e.g. with regard to budget), timing of measures ■■ Estimation of the effects to be achieved through the (starting and completion date of implementation), expected measure. Indicators can be used for this, see for example effectiveness, costs, etc. It is hard to prescribe this precisely, (Conduits, 2011). Keep in mind that estimated effects since it depends on the city. It is also worth investigating usually apply for average conditions that may differ whether measures that are later in the programme can from the actual conditions in your specific situation. be realized earlier by ‘riding along’ with major measures earlier in the programme. ■■ Relevant service(s). To which service(s) does the measure contribute? A general estimate of the overall effectiveness of all measures regarding traffic flow, safety, and quality of the The result of all these steps is a basic list of realistic measures, living environment can usually be derived from the effects with properties of those measures. It is important to estimate of the separate measures. Estimating effectiveness regarding which criteria will be considered relevant by the executive accessibility is more difficult since it involves network effects. body involved whenever a choice has to be made between Possibly a traffic model can be used. different measures. These criteria can be used when giving priorities to the measures. For achieving a balance in the set of measures it is important to have both ‘push’ measures (e.g. road pricing) and ‘pull’ measures (e.g. increased access to and incentives for public transport). Below is a (simplified) example of such a list. Bottleneck Service Measure Expected.impact Costs Risks Dynamic A Flow control high high Technological complexity speed limit Traffic and travel Access B medium low Acceptance demand control restriction 20

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