Human Communication Lecture notes

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Y G O L O N H C E T & E C N E I C S F O Y T B.A. Mass Communication (I year) B.M.C. BMC-108 HUMAN COMMUNICATION Directorate of Distance Education Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology HISAR-125001 I S R E V I N U R A W H S E B M A J U R U GCONTENT No. Lesson Writer Vetter Page No. 01 Introduction to Sh. M. R. Patra Dr. P. K. Jena 1 Mass Communication 02 Elements of Sh. M. R. Patra Dr. P. K. Jena 19 Mass Communication 03 Mass Media (World Context) Sh. M. R. Patra Dr. P. K. Jena 35 04 Mass Media (Indian Context) Sh. M. R. Patra Dr. P. K. Jena 54 05 Print Media (Newspapers) Sh. M. R. Patra Dr. P. K. Jena 72 06 Electronic Media Sh. M. R. Patra Dr. P. K. Jena 91 07 Theories of Sh. M. R. Patra Dr. P. K. Jena 103 Mass Communication- I 08 Theories of Sh. M. R. Patra Dr. P. K. Jena 116 Mass Communication- II 09 Reach & Role of Sh. M. R. Patra Dr. P. K. Jena 134 Mass Media 10 Effects of Sh. M. R. Patra Dr. P. K. Jena 149 Mass Media About the Author and Vetter : Sh. M. R. Patra Senior Lecturer, Department of C M & T, GJUST, Hisar, Haryana – 125 001 Dr. P. K. Jena Senior Lecturer, Department of C M & T, GJUST, Hisar, Haryana – 125 001 st B. A. Mass Communication (1 year) MASS COMMUNICATION (BMC 108) Block: A Unit: I Lesson: 1 INTRODUCTION TO MASS COMMUNICATION Writer: Sh. M. R. Patra Senior Faculty, Department of C M & T, GJUST, Hisar. Vetter: Dr. P. K. Jena Senior Faculty, Department of C M & T, GJUST, Hisar. LESSON STRUCTURE In this lesson we shall discus about the some introductory aspects of mass communication. Specifically, we shall focus on the concept, nature, and scope of communication. We shall also briefly discuss some definitions of mass communication. The lesson structure shall be as follows: 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Presentation of Content 1.2.1 Mass Communication - An Overview 1.2.2 Concept of Mass Communication 1.2.3 Definitions of Mass Communication 1.3 Summary 1.4 Key Words 1.5 Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) 1.6 References/Suggested Reading BMC-108(E) 1 1.0 OBJECTIVES: Mass communication is the process of reaching large number of heterogeneous and dispersed people with the same message simultaneously through a technology dependent medium. It is potentially the most influential form of human communication. Mass communicators reach mass audiences via mass media through a complex process called mass communication. Mass communication and other human communication forms have the some similar fundamentals. Mass communication and other human communication forms differ in how media gatekeepers and non-media regulators influence mass media messages. There are impediments to the success of mass communication, which include noise and filters. Also the mass media amplify messages to reach large audiences. In this lesson, we shall try to discuss some major aspects of mass communication. The objectives of this lesson are: o To Have an Overview of Mass Communication o To Know About the Concept of Mass Communication o To Know About Some Definitions of Mass Communication 1.1 INTRODUCTION: Communication is a process in which people exchange information, ideas, and thoughts. This exchange takes place through a common system of symbols, signs, and behavior. We also use various means and methods for this purpose. Primarily, these are auditory means, such as speaking or singing. We also use nonverbal means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch or eye contact, etc. As a process, communication is also known as: expressing feelings, conversing, speaking, corresponding, writing, listening and exchanging, etc. BMC-108(E) 2 Compared to communication, mass communication is quite different. The term "mass communication" generally refers to the "massiveness" of the audience reached and also the "massiveness" of the mass media system. In this lesson, we shall discuss about some introductory aspects of mass communication’ Specifically, we shall learn about the concept of mass communication, and some definitions of mass communication. 1.2 PRESENTATION OF CONTENT: The content of this lesson shall be presented as follows: o Mass Communication - An Overview o Concept of Mass Communication o Definitions of Mass Communication 1.2.1 MASS COMMUNICATION – AN OVERVIEW: Mass communication is often used loosely to refer to the distribution of information, arts, entertainment, and messages by television, radio, newspapers, magazines, movies, recorded music, etc. Generally, "mass communication" refers to the activities of the mass media as a whole. Many specific features distinguish mass communication from interpersonal, small- group, and other face-to-face communication situations. Mass communication also involves the massiveness in terms of media reach and media operations. Then there are other features like size and differentiation of audience, anonymity, simultaneity of reach, and the nature of influences among audience members, etc. Live television telecasts of today are a true representation of mass communication. These transmissions are distributed simultaneously and BMC-108(E) 3 regardless of individual or group differences to audience members numbering in several tens or even a few hundreds of millions. The audience for newspapers, magazines, and movies is less simultaneous, again smaller and more differentiated. But compared to a letter, phone calls, conversation, group discussion, or public lecture; the mass media produce more massive communication. Radio provides an excellent example of the changes taking place in mass communication. Before television, radio was a major medium of mass communication. It was available and listened to everywhere; and often national and live. Today commercial radio stations depend on local and regional sources of advertising income. Essentially all radio stations try to attract a special segment of a local or regional audience. Content on radio, whether entertainment materials such as popular songs, stations emphasize local events, personalities, weather, news, and traffic, etc.; reflect a strong local touch. Highly localized and specialized channels now characterize radio. Such channels attract relatively small, relatively differentiated audiences. A lot of emphasis is placed on the massiveness of the distribution system and the audience in mass communication. A lot of attention is given to the mass media because they are the institutional. All mass media involve technological systems capable of producing mass distributed communications for mass audiences. Communication is symbolic interaction. Mass communication is communication with masses. Mass is defined as an aggregate of non- interacting entities. Mass communication is the field of study concerned with the transmission of information by various means, such as print or broadcasting, BMC-108(E) 4 etc. It includes any of various professions involved with the transmission of information, such as advertising, broadcasting, or journalism. 1.2.2 CONCEPT OF MASS COMMUNICATION: Harold Lasswell's model of communication - WHO says WHAT in WHICH CHANNEL to WHOM with WHAT EFFECT' - is applicable to all communication situations including mass communication. Mass communication differs from other levels of communication in many ways. These include: o Multitude of receivers receive the message o Receivers receive messages simultaneously and immediately in most cases; or over a long period of time; or over centuries (as in case of the Bhagwat Gita, the Quran, the Bible or the great classics) o There is no physical proximity in mass communication between senders and receivers as they are hundreds and thousands of miles away o There is a lot of emotional proximity as we mostly identify very closely with many mass communicators o Mass communication is marked by delayed-feedback or no feedback at all. Mass communication has the same basic elements- sender, receiver, channels, etc., as in other levels of communication. They are, however, named differently. In mass communication: o The sender is called the source, o The multiple receivers are called the audience, BMC-108(E) 5 o The channels of mass communication are called media or mass media Also there are certain additional elements in mass communication. Let us discuss these elements in detail: THE SOURCE: In interpersonal and group communication the sender is usually one person. But in mass communication the situation is different. The sender or source in mass communication is usually an organization or institution. It involves a large group of people who are involved in the conceiving, collecting, processing, encoding and transmission processes. For example, we tend to think that newsreaders are the sources of news on radio and television. But there is a long chain of people through whom news passes. Thus the source in mass communication is a group of people with a lot of different expertise. And the people working for the source are all trained in some field or the other. And almost all these activities involve complex technologies, infrastructure and huge investments. THE AUDIENCE: Receivers of mass communication or the audience varies according to the medium. For any mass medium, the audience could be a few hundreds, a few thousands, or it may run into millions of viewers, etc. Whatever the size, each audience is composed of individuals. Each individual member of an audience is exposed to, receives, perceives and retains a message differently according to his or her personal self-concept or frame of reference. BMC-108(E) 6 In mass communication, there are secondary audiences in addition to the primary audiences whom the messages reach in the beginning. The secondary or indirect audiences may be larger than the original audience. So the effect of mass communication reaches far beyond the initial audience. THE MASS MEDIA: The first medium of mass communication was the book. Books came about 5,500 years ago. In the beginning, books were exquisitely designed, intricately patterned, and ornate and painstakingly hand printed works of art. All these changed in the mid fifteenth century with the invention of movable types and printing press by Johan Gutenberg. With technological advances, growth of literacy and an increased demand for knowledge and information led to large-scale production and dissemination of books. The next medium of mass communication was the newspaper. Newspapers developed through various stages. The first full-fledged newspaper was brought out in 1625. By the beginning of the 19th century, newspapers had developed into a full-fledged mass medium. Cinema came in 1895. It soon flourished in to a major mass medium. The next mass medium was radio that came in the early 1920s. A decade later, in the 1930s came television. Audiocassettes and videocassettes came later. And finally, in the 1990s came the Internet. All these mass media have become part and parcel of our lives. And they play important roles in our lives. From disseminating information in the form of news, to educating us, to entertaining us, and also persuading us, mass media are playing important roles. Some mass media reach us instantaneously. Some perform multiple functions. We admire some mass media for their credibility. All mass media BMC-108(E) 7 together have over come the boundaries of time and space, and turned the world in to a global village. THE MESSAGE (CONTENT): Mass media provide us information, news, views, education, entertainment and persuasion. All these form the content of mass media. The content of mass media are designed and developed to fulfill the different needs of the audiences. Often the content or message in mass communication is very general in nature. Sometimes, there is very specific and specialized content in the mass media. This happens when directed at any specific group. But mass media are meant for highly diverse, dispersed and heterogeneous mass audiences. So mass media try to cater to the different needs, varying wants and divergent attitudes of the audiences. Mass media try to satisfy all audience members through simplicity and commonality. Research is conducted to find out about the wants and needs of audience members. And accordingly, mass media content packages include information, entertainment, persuasion, and education. This has led to the concepts of infotainment or info-edutainment. DELAYED FEEDBACK: Mass communication is linear and one-way. And there is no or very little response or feedback. Feedback in mass communication is usually very less and rarely instantaneous. Delayed feedback is an unavoidable and problematic aspect of mass communication. To over come this problem, mass media try to introduce an in-built system of feedback in to the programmes. BMC-108(E) 8 NOISE: Distortion or noise is another problematic factor in mass communication. Distortion or noise in mass communication is of two types - channel noise and semantic noise. Channel noise is any disturbance within the media. This is mostly technical or technology-related. In the printed mass media, channel noise ranges from typographical errors, misspellings, scrambled words, omitted lines or paragraphs, misprinting, etc. Noise in the electronic media includes static (sounds during rain or lightening, etc.). One solution for channel noise is repetition. Also television programmes are mostly repeated at least twice. Some programmes, in fact, have more than two repeat telecasts. Repetition works on the Law of averages, i.e. if something is missed or not understood the first time, repetition will solve these problems. However, too much of repetition leads to boredom and the message effectiveness is diminished or lost. Another solution for channel noise is 'perfecting the channel performance'. Checking and rechecking or proofreading newspaper and magazine stories, reducing static in radio, clearing up hazy pictures on television, etc., are examples of attempts at noise reduction. Semantic noise or psychological barriers are as common as channel noise. They are also equally or more problematic. Semantic noises are related to understanding of the message. Language is a major semantic problem. In fact, linguistic, cultural, and social differences lead to semantic noises. Mass media content developers try to solve this problem of semantic noise through simplicity. Clarity, completeness, conciseness, credibility, comprehensiveness, coherency, continuity, etc. help solve the problem of semantic noise to a great extent. BMC-108(E) 9 GATE KEEPING: Mass media content passes through many persons within the source organization before it reaches the audience. Different personnel are involved in the processes of collection, compilation, presentation, processing, production and finally dissemination of mass media content. All these personnel are referred as gates. And mass media content is regulated at each of these stages. Different media and particularly media organizations adopt specific formats of gate keeping. 1.2.3 DEFINITIONS OF MASS COMMUNICATION: Mass communication is omnipresent. Mass media are found everywhere. Mass communication is intrusive. Mass communication is attractive and alluring. And mass communication is often excessive and repulsive. Many consider mass communication to be omnipotent or all-powerful. Let us now try to understand mass communication through some definitions. Here is a simple definition: Mass communication a process whereby mass produced messages are transmitted to large, anonymous and heterogeneous masses of receivers. Here: 'Mass produced’ means putting the content in a form suitable to be disseminated to large masses of people using technological means for producing and transmitting the message. 'Mass’ means a large aggregate of people spread over vast geographical areas. And masses in mass communication are heterogeneous, anonymous, separated from each other, and loosely organized. BMC-108(E) 10 ‘Heterogeneous’ means that the individual members of the mass are from a wide variety of classes and categories in society. ‘Anonymous’ means the individuals in the mass do not know each other. Also the source or sender of messages in mass communication does not know the individual members of the mass. Eliot Friedson (1953) defined mass as follows: Mass is an aggregation of individuals who are separate, detached and anonymous. Here is another definition of mass communication: "Mass communication" refers to the activities of the mass media as a whole, and also refers to the massiveness of certain kinds of communication. Here is another definition of mass communication: “Mass Communication is the term used to describe the academic study of various means by which individuals and entities relay information to large segments of the population all at once through mass media.” Mass communication can be defined as: “The process of reaching large number of heterogeneous and dispersed people with the same message simultaneously through a technology dependent medium.” BMC-108(E) 11 Here are a few definitions of mass communication: o Mass communication occurs when a small number of people send messages to a large anonymous and usually heterogeneous audience through the use of specialized communication media. o The units of analysis for mass communication are the messages, the mediums, and the audience. o Mass Communication represents the creation and sending of a homogeneous message to a large heterogeneous audience through the media. Mass communication studies the uses and effects of the media by many as opposed to the study of human interaction as in other communication contexts. POINTS TO PONDER OVER: The Five Core Concepts of Mass Media: o All media messages are constructed. o Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules. o Different people experience the same messages differently. o Media have embedded values and points of view. o Media messages are constructed to gain profit and/or power. Five Key Questions to Ask: o Who created this message? o What techniques are used to attract my attention? o How might different people understand this message differently? BMC-108(E) 12 o What lifestyles, values, and points of view are represented in or omitted from this message? o Why was this message sent? Let us now learn about some key terms: Mass Communication: Communication (Message) sent from a person/group through a transmitting device (A Medium) to a large audience (Market). Medium: The means by which a message is delivered to an audience. (Singular) – Example - Internet, radio broadcast etc. Media: Plural form of the word medium. Mass Media Industries: The eight types of media businesses: Print Media: Newspapers, Books, and Magazines; Sound Media: Radio and Recordings; Visual Media: Movies, Television, and the Internet. Convergence: The combining of the communications, electronics and computer industries. This also involves the co-operation of various media industries with each other in order to take advantage (economically) of the newest technology. Conglomerates: Companies that own media companies as well as unrelated businesses. Deregulation: The government removal of restrictions on industry and business operations. Demographics: Demographics covers consumer characteristics including age, sex, income, marital status, occupation, etc. Viral Marketing: Creating an online message so entertaining that consumers pass it along like a virus. BMC-108(E) 13 Public Relations: Creating an interest, understanding or good will towards a company, product or person. Disinformation: The intentional planting of false information by organizations, agencies or sources. 1.3 SUMMARY: o Communication is a process in which people exchange information, ideas, and thoughts. This exchange takes place through a common system of symbols, signs, and behavior. As a process, communication is also known as: expressing feelings, conversing, speaking, corresponding, writing, listening and exchanging, etc. o "Mass communication" refers to the "massiveness" of the audience reached and also the "massiveness" of the mass media system. o Mass communication is the field of study concerned with the transmission of information by various means, such as print or broadcasting, etc. It includes any of various professions involved with the transmission of information, such as advertising, broadcasting, or journalism. o In mass communication, multitude of receivers receive the message; receivers receive messages simultaneously and immediately in most cases; or over a long period of time; or over centuries (as in case of the Bhagwat Gita, the Quran, the Bible or the great classics); there is no physical proximity in mass communication between senders and receivers as they are hundreds and thousands of miles away; there is a lot of emotional proximity as we mostly identify very closely with many mass communicators, and mass communication is marked by delayed- feedback or no feedback at all. BMC-108(E) 14 o The sender or source in mass communication is usually an organization or institution. It involves a large group of people who are involved in the conceiving, collecting, processing, encoding and transmission processes. o For any mass medium, the audience could be a few hundreds, a few thousands, or it may run into millions of viewers, etc. Whatever the size, each audience is composed of individuals. Each individual member of an audience is exposed to, receives, perceives and retains a message differently according to his or her personal self-concept or frame of reference. o The first medium of mass communication was the book. Books came about 5,500 years ago. In the beginning, books were exquisitely designed, intricately patterned, and ornate and painstakingly hand printed works of art. o Newspapers developed through various stages. The first full-fledged newspaper was brought out in 1625. By the beginning of the 19th century, newspapers had developed into a full-fledged mass medium. o Cinema came in 1895. It soon flourished in to a major mass medium. The next mass medium was radio that came in the early 1920s. A decade later, in the 1930s came television. Audiocassettes and videocassettes came later. And finally, in the 1990s came the Internet. All these mass media have become part and parcel of our lives. And they play important roles in our lives. o Some mass media reach us instantaneously. Some perform multiple functions. We admire some mass media for their credibility. All mass media together have over come the boundaries of time and space, and turned the world in to a global village. BMC-108(E) 15 o The content of mass media are designed and developed to fulfill the different needs of the audiences. Mass media are meant for highly diverse, dispersed and heterogeneous mass audiences. So mass media try to cater to the different needs, varying wants and divergent attitudes of the audiences. Mass media provide us information, news, views, education, entertainment and persuasion. o Distortion or noise in mass communication is of two types - channel noise and semantic noise. Channel noise is any disturbance within the media. This is mostly technical or technology-related. Semantic noise or psychological barriers are as common as channel noise. They are also equally or more problematic. Semantic noises are related to understanding of the message. Language is a major semantic problem. In fact, linguistic, cultural, and social differences lead to semantic noises. 1.4 KEY WORDS: Communication: Communication is a process in which people exchange information, ideas, and thoughts. We communicate by: expressing feelings, conversing, speaking, corresponding, writing, listening and exchanging. Mass Communication: Mass communication is often used loosely to refer to the distribution of information, arts, entertainment, and messages by television, radio, newspapers, magazines, movies, recorded music, etc. Mass communication is characterized by the massiveness in terms of media reach and media operations. Elements of Mass Communication: In mass communication: the sender is called the source, the multiple receivers are called the audience, and the channels of mass communication are called media or mass media. BMC-108(E) 16 Source in Mass Communication: The sender or source in mass communication is usually an organization or institution. It involves a large group of people who are involved in the conceiving, collecting, processing, encoding and transmission processes. The Audience: Receivers of mass communication or the audience varies according to the medium. For any mass medium, the audience could be a few hundreds, a few thousands, or it may run into millions of viewers, etc. The Message (Content): Mass media provide us information, news, views, education, entertainment and persuasion. The content of mass media are designed and developed to fulfill the different needs of the audiences. Mass media try to satisfy all audience members through simplicity and commonality. Delayed Feedback: Mass communication is linear and one-way. And there is no or very little response or feedback. Feedback in mass communication is usually very less and rarely instantaneous. Delayed feedback is an unavoidable and problematic aspect of mass communication. To over come this problem, mass media try to introduce an in-built system of feedback in to the programmes. Noise: Distortion or noise is another problematic factor in mass communication. Distortion or noise in mass communication is of two types - channel noise and semantic noise. 1.5 SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS (SAQs): 1. Write a detailed note on mass communication. 2. Discuss the major elements of mass communication. 3. Discuss the concept of mass communication with the help of definitions. BMC-108(E) 17 1.6 REFERENCES / SUGGESTED READING: o Mass Communication Theory; By. Stanley J. Baran and Dennis K. Davis. Wadsworth, 1997 o Theories of Mass Communication; By. Melvin L. Defleur and Sandra J. Ball-Rokeach. Longman, 1997 o Text book of Mass Communication and Media; By. Uma Joshi. Anmol, 1997 o Mass Communication in India; By Keval J. Kumar. Jaico, 1997 o Mass Communication: Theory & Practice; By Uma Narula. Har-Anand, 1997 BMC-108(E) 18

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