How to Develop Emotional Intelligence

how to measure emotional intelligence and how to improve emotional intelligence in the workplace and how to test emotional intelligence
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Dr.MattWood,United States,Teacher
Published Date:25-07-2017
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Measuring Emotional Intelligence
 People
Skills
 Team FME ©
www.free‐management‐ebooks.com
2014
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EMOTIONAL
INTELLIGENCE 5 Introduction Emotional intelligence is difficult to measure and some psychologists doubt that it can be assessed at all. However, many more believe that it can be measured but that there are obstacles to be overcome in doing so. The easiest way to measure EQ is through what are called self-report questionnaires, although these are probably the weakest way to do it. These questionnaires ask you to report on your abilities, skills, and behaviors – for example, how effective you are in recognizing emotions, understanding emotions, etc. The flaw in this approach is that you may not accurately report your own skills and abilities. Most of us have a tendency to exaggerate our accomplishments and minimize our shortcomings. The result is that self-report questionnaires often provide an inflated picture of our skills and abilities. Even if you were to be completely honest in your answers, you may lack the necessary insight to give accurate ones. Self-report questionnaires Performance tests for EQ 0 360 tests Ways to Measure EI One solution to the problem of self-report questionnaires is the use of 360 degree tests. This involves questions about your behavior being answered © www.free-management-ebooks.com 2014 5 6 MEASURING
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INTELLIGENCE by people who know you, for example, friends, co-workers, boss, and subordinates. The advantages of this approach are that other people are more likely to give an appraisal that is not inflated, and they are also more likely to report accurately how skilful you are in social interactions.

 A third approach is to use performance tests to measure your EQ. These tests present you with practical problems and ask you to work out the correct answers. In other words, they ask you to actually demonstrate your EQ skills. These tests are not as vulnerable to the problems facing self-report and 360 degree tests but they are much more difficult and expensive to construct. If any individual or organization can convince the business world that they have developed and validated an emotional intelligence test that can accurately and consistently measure EQ it will bring them considerable status and financial reward. There are various proprietary tests on the market at the moment but unfortunately they all share the same lack of rigorous scientific validation that is accepted for IQ tests. Before we can begin to make assessments of emotional intelligence, we need to know which personality traits specifically are involved. If we ignore the possible existence of business-related intelligence separate from both intellect and emotion it seems reasonable to assume that psychologists ought to be able to identify and measure accurately the qualities that determine job success. These are generally agreed to be: 6














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INTELLIGENCE 7 • Self-awareness – Your ability to control and to understand your own feelings • Resilience – Your ability to work under pressure and to cope with changing demands • Motivation – How much energy and effort you’re prepared to put in to achieve your goals • Interpersonal sensitivity – Your awareness of the needs and feelings of others and the ability to use it effectively in interactions and decision-making • Influence – How well you are able to persuade others to agree with your point of view • Decisiveness – The ability to arrive at a decision when faced with ambiguous information • Integrity – Your willingness to do what is right and to stick to a course of action The question is, should you try to measure and improve your emotional intelligence? Decisiveness Integrity Resilience Personality traits needed Interpersonal Influence for success sensitivity Self- Motivation awareness The use of psychological measurement has always been rather controversial, and the measurement of emotional intelligence is no different. © www.free-management-ebooks.com 2014 7 8 MEASURING
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INTELLIGENCE This may be due to the view that emotions are unpredictable, irrational, and something to be suppressed in favor of logic and reason. Theories of emotional intelligence have helped to counter this view and offered the promise of a more balanced analysis of what it means to be intelligent about emotions. This has, in turn, expanded our understanding of the role that emotions play. The use of emotional intelligence assessment in organizations has also been controversial. The definition of emotional competencies and the subsequent focus on work performance and assessment has led some critics to label the whole process as a return to an outmoded mechanistic way to increase performance and efficacy at the expense of the well-being of individual employees. However, the core principles of emotional intelligence make clear that individuals are a complex combination of emotion and reason. Without a specific theory of emotional intelligence and the methods to assess it, employees may be limited to vague criticism related to their ‘people skills.’ In order to improve on any emotional competence, people need to see quantifiable measurement of their baseline abilities and any improvement from it. In conclusion, reliable and valid measurement of specific emotional competencies, so long as it is provided in a positive way, helps to provide employees with insight into their strengths and areas for development. Key Points • Tests that attempt to measure emotional intelligence use either self- report questionnaires, 360 degree questionnaires, or performance questionnaires. 8














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INTELLIGENCE 9 • Self-report questionnaires ask you to report on your abilities, skills, and behaviors. • 360 degree questionnaires ask your boss, co-workers, and subordinates about your behavior. • Performance questionnaires ask you to provide a solution to a practical problem. • There is some argument as to whether or not emotional intelligence can be measured and if so, how accurately. © www.free-management-ebooks.com 2014 9 10 MEASURING
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INTELLIGENCE Emotional Intelligence Models There are three types of models available to measure an individual’s level of emotional intelligence: • Ability • Trait • Mixed models. Some are self-assessment, such as EIQ, EQ-I, MSCEIT, TEIQue, and WEIS. Some assess groups’ or teams’ EI, such as GEC and WEIP, while others can only be used by accredited professionals who have been trained how to interpret and feed back the results, such as ESCI and GenosEI. Measuring Emotional ® MEIS MSCEIT WEIS Intelligence ® ECI Genos EI OVS™ WEIP EIQ ESCI SEI™ TEIQue ® ® EQ-i EQ Map SSEIT SSRI ® Some models, such as MEIS and MSCEIT , test the ability of the individual rather than produce a self-report measure. When using MEIS (Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale) the individual performs a series of tasks that are designed to assess their ability to perceive, identify, understand, and work with emotion. ® The MSCEIT (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test) model requires the individual to use their abilities with questions such as looking at 10














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INTELLIGENCE 11 faces in order to identify what emotions are present. This model helps you understand the actual intelligence behind emotions. With such a wide variety of models available it is important when you are selecting a tool to ensure that you select one that is appropriate to your task. Some are specifically designed for staff development, while others can also be used for selection and recruitment. It is essential to ensure that whichever tool you use it is empirically reliable and evaluated. © www.free-management-ebooks.com 2014 11 12 MEASURING
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INTELLIGENCE The Ability-Based Model This model describes four separate but interrelated abilities that together determine your level of emotional intelligence. These are the ability to: • Perceive emotions • Reasoning with emotions • Understand emotions • Manage emotions. By assessing the ability of an individual in each category each of these facets can be identified, measured, and enhanced. 1. Perceiving Emotions The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions. This is the basic skill involved in EI because unless you can perceive emotions you cannot manage them. 2. Reasoning With Emotions The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Someone with high EI can use their emotions in order to help them think through a situation and solve problems. Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention. Having a good system of emotional input, therefore, should help direct thinking toward matters that are truly important. Secondly, a number of researchers have suggested that emotions are important for certain kinds of creativity to emerge. 3. Understanding Emotions Appreciating that the emotions we perceive can carry a wide variety of 12














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INTELLIGENCE 13 meanings helps us to understand the emotional state of the other person and why it has occurred. If someone is expressing angry emotions, for instance, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean. EMOTION Anger REASONING Feel treated unfairly POSSIBLE Peace- With- Revenge Attack ACTIONS making draw Your degree of understanding of such emotions has to include your ability to perceive the shades of emotion that exist and how different emotions interact with each other and evolve over time. Each emotion conveys its own pattern of possible messages, and actions associated with those messages. For example, • A message of anger may mean that the individual feels they have been treated unfairly. • This anger may be associated with a specific set of possible actions: • Peacemaking • Attacking • Retribution • Seeking revenge • Withdrawal to seek calmness Understanding emotional messages and the actions associated with them is one important aspect of this skill area. 4. Managing Emotions The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence. The important aspects of emotional management include: © www.free-management-ebooks.com 2014 13 14 MEASURING
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INTELLIGENCE • Regulating emotions • Responding appropriately • Responding to the emotions of others. Someone with a high level of this ability can harness positive or negative emotions and manage them in a way that facilitates the completion of required tasks. A person needs to understand emotions in order to convey information. must to convey An understand information Individual emotions successfully To the extent that it is under voluntary control, a person may want to remain open to emotional signals as long as they are not too painful, and block out those that are overwhelming. In between, within the person’s emotional comfort zone, it becomes possible to regulate and manage one’s own and others’ emotions so as to promote one’s own and others’ personal and social goals. The means and methods for emotional self-regulation have become a topic of increasing research in this decade. 14














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INTELLIGENCE 15 The Trait Model One of the most recent models of EI was published in 2009 by Petrides and colleagues and marks a break from the idea that EI is ability-based. Instead, it proposes that people have, as part of their personalities, a number of emotional self-perceptions and emotional traits. Emotional Self- perceptions Part of an Individual's Personality Emotional Traits These traits aren’t measured in the scientific sense, but are instead measured by the respondent’s self-report. Of course, this assumes that the respondent is able to accurately describe his or her own traits. The TEIQue model that is available on the Consortium’s website was developed by K.V. Petrides Ph.D. The abbreviation stands for ‘Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire.’ This model forms an integral part of University College London’s (UCL) Psychometric Laboratory and is one aspect of its research program. See ‘ Understanding Emotional Intelligence’ for the background information on this. You can either complete the full TEIQue model with over 150 items or the 30 items of the short-form version questionnaire. The questionnaire covers 15 facets in the sampling domain as shown in the diagram below. To understand how someone would score highly for each facet click on this link http://www.eiconsortium.org/measures/teique.html. © www.free-management-ebooks.com 2014 15 16 MEASURING
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INTELLIGENCE TEIQue Impulsiveness Relationships Optimisim Trait (low) facets Emotion Adaptability Self-esteem Happiness Trait Regulation Management of Assertiveness Self-motivation Empathy Trait Others' Emotion Perception of Expression of Social Stress Emotions (Self Emotion Awareness Management & Others) 
 It’s important to note that this model of EI can only be viewed in conjunction with a comprehensive exploration of a person’s personality. This is distinct from the other models, which posit that EI is a brain-based ability, not an environmental aspect of personality. It will take time to collate sufficient evidence that can be fully examined and confirmed or rejected by the research community at large. 16














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INTELLIGENCE 17 ES-I Bar-On Model This model was developed by Reuven Bar-On to measure emotional-social intelligence. It is considered to be one of the three major models of this construct according to the Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology (2004). Emotional-Social intelligence consists of Facilitators Skills (emotional & (emotional & social) social) Competencies (emotional & social) The Bar-On model provides the theoretical basis for the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), which was originally developed to assess various aspects of this construct as well as to examine its conceptualization. According to this model, emotional-social intelligence is a cross-section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills, and facilitators. These attributes determine how effectively we as individuals: • Understand and express ourselves • Understand others and relate with them • Cope with daily demands. The emotional and social competencies, skills, and facilitators referred to in this conceptualization and the areas they assess are detailed in the table below. © www.free-management-ebooks.com 2014 17 18 MEASURING
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INTELLIGENCE EQ-i SCALES The EI Competencies and Skills Assessed Self-awareness and self-expression: Interpersonal Accurately perceive, understand, and accept oneself Self-regard Be aware of and understand one’s emotions Emotional self- awareness Effectively and constructively express one’s emotions and Assertiveness oneself Independence Be self-reliant and free of emotional dependency on others Self-actualization Strive to achieve personal goals and actualize one’s potential. Interpersonal Social awareness and interpersonal relationships: Empathy Be aware of and understand how others feel Social Identify with one’s social group and cooperate with others responsibility Interpersonal Establish mutually satisfying relationships and relate well with relationship others Stress Mgement Emotional management and regulation: Stress tolerance Effectively and constructively manage emotions Impulse control Effectively and constructively control emotions Change management: Adaptability Objectively validate one’s feelings and think with external Reality-testing reality Flexibility Adapt and adjust one’s feelings and thinking to new situations Problem-solving Effectively solve problems of a personal and interpersonal nature General Mood Self-motivation: Optimism Be positive and look at the brighter side of life Happiness Feel content with oneself, others, and life in general In general, Bar-On considers emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence to contribute equally to a person’s general intelligence, which then offers an indication of their potential to succeed in life. However, doubts have been expressed about this model in the research literature (in particular about the validity of self-report as an index of emotional intelligence) and in scientific settings it is being replaced by the Trait Emotional Intelligence model discussed previously. 18














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INTELLIGENCE 19 Mixed Models of EI Many websites and popular books on emotional intelligence use quite different definitions of emotional intelligence than the one used here. For example, one well-known model by Daniel Goleman (1998) includes over 25 characteristics of emotional intelligence, including everything from emotional self-awareness to such diverse qualities as teamwork and collaboration, service orientation, initiative, and achievement motivation. Mixed Models core of Emotional with a variety of Intelligence (EI) Personality Traits combine Such characteristics certainly are important personality traits. A crucial question to ask, however, is whether they have anything to do either with emotion, intelligence, or their combination. Models that mix together emotional intelligence qualities with other personality traits unrelated to either emotion or intelligence are often referred to as mixed models of emotional intelligence. The term ‘mixed model’ stems from the fact that the models mix together the core idea of emotional intelligence with a variety of other personality traits. © www.free-management-ebooks.com 2014 19 20 MEASURING
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INTELLIGENCE Group or Team EI Models In recent years there have been several models developed to assess emotional intelligence and competency within groups and organizations – for example, GEC, WEIP, and Organizational Vital Signs™ (OVS™). Group or Team EI models: Group Emotional Competence (GEC) inventory Work Group Emotional Intelligence Profile (WEIP) Organizational Vital Signs™ (OVS) The pioneering work of Vanessa Druskat and Steven Wolff, who have applied the emotional competence concepts to groups, has developed the Group Emotional Competence (GEC) inventory. This model uses the nine areas of Group Emotional Inventory (GEI), which their research has identified as improving group effectiveness. As the table below shows these nine areas are divided into ‘awareness’ and ‘management’ at each of the three levels: • Individual • Group • Cross-Boundary. The feedback the inventory provides a team enables its members to appreciate their strengths and weaknesses and identify improvement areas. 20














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INTELLIGENCE 21 Group Level Cross- Individual •  AWARENESS Boundary Level • Team self- awareness Level •  AWARENESS • Interpersonal •  AWARENESS •  MANAGEMENT understanding • Organizational • Create resources awareness to work with •  MANAGEMENT emotion • Confront members •  MANAGEMENT • Create optimistic who break norms • Build external environment • Caring relations • Proactive problem solving An alternative model is the Work Group Emotional Intelligence Profile (WEIP), which is designed to measure emotional intelligence of individuals in teams. WEIP uses a seven-point reference format ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) for an individual to rate each item. These items are designed to encourage the person to reflect on their own behavior in certain situations. For example, ‘I am aware of my own feelings when working in a team.’ ‘I am able to describe accurately the way others in the team are feeling.’ If you need a model that illustrates how well people relate to each other in the workplace then OVS™ (Organizational Vital Signs) may be your preferred choice. This model has been designed to assess a group or an organization to show the context in which individuals perform by measuring six factors: accountability, adaptability, alignment, collaboration, leadership, and trust. © www.free-management-ebooks.com 2014 21 22 MEASURING
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INTELLIGENCE Self-development Models Models that you can use to help to develop each of your team members are ® SEI™ and ECI . The SEI™ model concentrates on self-development, by measuring eight fundamental skills in these three areas: Know Yourself, Choose Yourself, and Give Yourself. It is currently the only test based on Six Seconds’ EQ-in-action model EI Self-development models ® ECI (Emotional Competence Inventory) SEI™ (Six Seconds Emotional Intelligence Test) ® In contrast the ECI model (Emotional Competence Inventory) is a 360 degree appraisal tool. This is conducted by asking an individual’s colleagues to rate him or her on 20 competencies that are believed to be linked to emotional intelligence. Research using this model has shown that the ratings others, whether colleagues, customers, or suppliers, assign to an individual are generally 0 lower than when the person rates themselves. Experience of the 360 appraisal tool show that those who have known the individual for one to three years give the most accurate assessments. 22














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INTELLIGENCE 23 Summary The types of models available to measure an individual’s levels of emotional intelligence are known as Ability, Trait, and Mixed models. There are at least 15 models of emotional intelligence, each with its own proprietary assessment tool. The ability-based model of emotional intelligence describes four separate but interrelated abilities. These are the ability to perceive emotions, use emotions, understand emotions, and manage emotions. The trait model proposes that people have a number of emotional self- perceptions and emotional traits that form their personality. The Bar-On model describes emotional-social intelligence as a cross- section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, and skills that determine how effectively people understand and express themselves, understand others, relate to them, and cope with daily demands and pressures. Mixed models combine emotional intelligence qualities with other personality traits unrelated to either emotion or intelligence. There are three group or team emotional intelligence models, including the Group Emotional Competence (GEC) inventory, the Work Group Emotional Intelligence Profile (WEIP), and the Organizational Vital Signs™ (OVS). © www.free-management-ebooks.com 2014 23

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