How to prepare Students for 21st Century Survival

Preparing 21st Century Students for a Global Society and preparing 21st century learners the case for school-community collaborations
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JuliyaMadenta,Philippines,Researcher
Published Date:15-07-2017
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Preparing 21st Century Students for a Global Society An Educator’s Guide to the “Four Cs” Great Public Schools for Every StudentA E A ’s G E E F s ll educators want to help their students succeed in life. What Introduction was considered a good education 50 years ago, however, A is no longer enough for success in college, career, and n citizenship in the 21st century. d u c Using the ‘Four Cs’ The “21st Century Skills” movement is more than a decade old. “ to engage students is Yet, educators still pose important questions about how to move 21st century education forward. NEA has been an advocate of the imperative. As educators 21st century education movement from its inception and wants to t o r prepare students for empower educators to move it forward in their own practice. this new global society, u Ten years ago, NEA helped establish the Partnership for 21st i d teaching the core content Century Skills (P21) and in 2002 began a two-year journey to develop subjects—math, social what became known as a “Framework for 21st Century Learning,” highlighting 18 different skills. In the last eight years, 16 states joined studies, the arts— P21 and agreed to build 21st century outcomes into their standards, must be enhanced by professional development, and assessments. t o incorporating critical Over the years it became clear that the framework was too long and t thinking, communication, complicated. To resolve this issue, we interviewed leaders of all kinds h to determine which of the 21st century skills were the most important collaboration, and for K-12 education. There was near unanimity that four specic fi skills creativity. We need o u r were the most important. They became known as the “Four Cs”— new tools to support critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity. classroom teachers c Now the challenge is building the “Four Cs” into K-12 education. and education support Discussions on this topic are pending at the federal and state levels and in many school districts around the country. To encourage professionals in their more members and leaders to incorporate this policy into their own profession, even as they instruction, NEA developed this guide to introduce educators to the implement new strategies concept, stress the importance of the “Four Cs,” and put 21st century education into classroom practice. in their classrooms. ” Several other national organizations partnered with NEA to develop John Stocks this guide. This group includes: `` American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) ``National Association for Music Education (MENC) ``National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) ``National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) `` National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 3 3 3 3A E A’s G E E F s Introduction ``Mathematical Association of America (MAA)`` Anita Maxwell, communication and n instructional issues specialist, West Virginia ``National Council of Teachers of Mathematics du c Education Association (NCTM) `` Larry Wicks, executive director, Ohio `` National Science Teachers Association Education Association (NSTA) ``Jessica Brinkley, policy analyst, Education t or In addition to the contributions of these Support Professionals Quality, NEA groups, portions of the guide were derived from materials developed by P21. We want `` Mike Kaspar, policy analyst, Education Policy u id to thank the P21 Board members and staff for and Practice, NEA their dedication to the cause of 21st century `` Andrea Prejean, associate director, Education education and to developing this rich set of Policy and Practice, NEA materials. We sincerely hope this guide will benet fi you and We would also like to thank the following your colleagues as you advance the work of the members of the NEA leaders, members, and t o “Four Cs” and the preparation of your students staff who were responsible for reviewing multiple for the challenges of 21st century lives. drafts of this document. They include: t The full list of partners is listed in the `` Daryl Gates, NEA IDEA Resource Cadre, h “Additional Resources” section of this guide. Louisiana Education Association `` Bobbi Ciriza Houtchens, NEA ELL Culture o ur & Equity Committee, teaching ambassador fellow, U.S. Department of Education, California Teachers Association c `` Jeri Stodola, ESP network engineer and ESPRT member, Illinois Education Association `` Blake West, president, Kansas National Education Association `` Peg Dunlap, director, Instructional Advocacy, Kansas National Education Association `` Roxanne Fonoimoana, Uniserv, Oregon Education Association P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 4A E A ’s G E E F s A E A ’s G E E F s The Importance of merica’s system of education was built for an economy Teaching the “Four Cs” and a society that no longer exists. In the manufacturing A and agrarian economies that existed 50 years ago, it nn was enough to master the “Three Rs” (reading, writing, and dd arithmetic). In the modern “flat world,” the “Three Rs” simply uu cc I’m calling on our “ aren’t enough. If today’s students want to compete in this global nation’s governors and society, however, they must also be proficient communicators, state education chiefs creators, critical thinkers, and collaborators (the “Four Cs”). tt oo rr to develop standards Students need to master additional subject areas, including and assessments that foreign languages, the arts, geography, science, and social studies. uu ii dd Educators must complement all of those subjects with the “Four Cs” don’t simply measure to prepare young people for citizenship and the global workforce. whether students can lfi l Arne Duncan, secretary of the Department of Education, has been in a bubble on a test, but a proponent of integrating new skills into classrooms, proclaiming, whether they possess “I want to develop a system of evaluation that draws on tt oo 21st century skills like meaningful observations and input from teachers’ peers, as well as a sophisticated assessment that measures individual student tt problem-solving and hh 2 growth, creativity, and critical thinking.” critical thinking and Life today is exponentially more complicated and complex than it entrepreneurship and oo uu rr was 50 years ago. This is true for civic life as much as it is for work creativity. life. In the 21st century, citizenship requires levels of information ” and technological literacy that go far beyond the basic knowledge cc that was sufc fi ient in the past. President 1 Barack Obama With a host of challenges facing our communities, along with instant connectivity to a global society, civic literacy couldn’t be more relevant or applicable to the curricula in our schools. Global warming, immigration reform, pandemic diseases, and n fi ancial meltdowns are just a few of the issues today’s students will be called upon to address. Today’s students must be prepared to solve these challenges. In addition, workforce skills and demands have changed dramatically in the last 20 years. The rapid decline in “routine” work has been well documented by many researchers and organizations. At the same time, there has been a rapid increase in jobs involving nonroutine, analytic, and interactive communication skills. Today’s job market requires competencies such as critical thinking and the ability to interact with people from many linguistic and cultural backgrounds (cultural competency). P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 5 5A E A’s G E E F s The Importance of Teaching the “Four Cs” Our ever changing workforce creates a century. This guide is intended to help you n critical need for innovation. Ken Kay, CEO of understand the fundamental aspects of the ud c EdLeader21, remarked, “Today’s students need “Four Cs” and how you can implement them critical thinking and problem-solving skills not into your instruction. just to solve the problems of their current jobs, but to meet the challenges of adapting to our REFl ECtions constantly changing workforce.” t or Throughout this guide, you will be asked Today, people can expect to have many jobs in to ree fl ct on some key questions that multiple e fi lds during their careers. The average will be useful to your practice. In this u di person born in the latter years of the baby boom introduction, we would like you to ree fl ct held 11 jobs between the ages of 18 and 44, on the following questions: 3 according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The new social contract is different: only people `` What can you do in your classroom to who have the knowledge and skills to negotiate better prepare your students for the constant change and reinvent themselves for challenges of 21st century citizenship? 4 new situations will succeed. t o `` How can educators become more According to a 2010 study — the American intentional and purposeful about t Management Association, the AMA 2010 Critical critical thinking, collaboration, h Skills Survey — the “Four Cs” will become even communication, and creativity as more important to organizations in the future. competencies our young people Three out of four (75.7 percent) executives who will fully possess by the time they o responded to the AMA survey said they believe ru graduate from their K-12 education? these skills and competencies will become more `` How can educators work important to their organizations in the next collaboratively to improve their three to v fi e years, particularly as the economy c students’ performance of the “ improves and organizations look to grow in a Four Cs”? global marketplace. Additionally, 80 percent of executives believe fusing the “Three Rs” and “Four Cs” would ensure that students are better prepared to enter the workforce. According to these managers, proc fi iency in reading, writing, and arithmetic is not sufc fi ient if employees are unable to think critically, solve problems, 5 collaborate, or communicate effectively. It is clear that the “Four Cs” need to be fully integrated into classrooms, schools, and districts around the country to produce citizens and employees adequately prepared for the 21st P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 6A E A’s G E E F s n du c The “Four Cs” In this section, you will n fi d an overview of each of ot r the “Four Cs”: critical thinking and problem solving, u di communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation. Each of the “Four Cs” has a section on: ``The Importance of the “C” t o ``The Den fi ition of the “C” t ``How the “C” is Related to Other Skills h ``Ways to Integrate the “C” into Your Classroom ou r ``Ree fl ctions on the “C” ``Resources on the “C” c P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 7A E A ’s G E E F s Critical Thinking and Problem Solving The Importance of Critical Thinking The link between critical thinking and education is obvious: one n Critical thinking has can’t learn well without thinking well. Critical thinking contributes to d u c career success, but also to success in higher education. In research long been a valued skill conducted for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, University of in society. Today, every Oregon professor David T. Conley n fi ds that “habits of mind” such as student—not just the “analysis, interpretation, precision and accuracy, problem solving, and t o r reasoning” can be as or more important than content knowledge in academically advanced— 6 determining success in college courses. needs it. While critical u i d Teaching critical thinking and problem solving effectively in the thinking and problem classroom is vital for students. Learning critical thinking leads students solving used to be the to develop other skills, such as a higher level of concentration, deeper analytical abilities, and improved thought processing. domain of gifted students, t o now it’s a critical domain Today’s citizens must be active critical thinkers if they are to compare evidence, evaluate competing claims, and make sensible decisions. for every student. t Today’s 21st century families must sift through a vast array of h information regarding n fi ancial, health, civic, even leisure activities to formulate plausible plans of action. The solutions to international o u problems, such as global warming, require highly developed critical r thinking and problem-solving abilities. In everyday work, employees must employ critical thinking to better c serve customers, develop better products, and continuously improve themselves within an ever-changing global economy. Economists Frank Levy and Richard Mundane have described the new world of work in which the most desirable jobs—the ones least likely to be automated or outsourced—are those that require expert thinking and 7 complex communication. According to the AMA 2010 Critical Skills Survey, 73.3 percent of business executives polled identie fi d critical thinking as a priority for employee development, talent management, 8 and succession planning. Den fi ition of Critical Thinking Critical thinking and problem-solving can be den fi ed in many ways, 9 but P21 den fi es critical thinking as follows: Reason Effectively `` Use various types of reasoning (inductive, deductive, etc.) as appropriate to the situation P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 8A E A’s G E E F s Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Use Systems Thinking When one engages in high-quality thinking, n one functions both critically and creatively; one `` Analyze how parts of a whole interact with ud c produces and assesses, generates and judges each other to produce overall outcomes in 10 the products of his or her thought. complex systems Critical thinking also draws on other skills, such Make Judgments and Decisions as communication and information literacy, to `` Effectively analyze and evaluate evidence, examine, then analyze, interpret, and evaluate it. t or arguments, claims, and beliefs According to educator Thomas Hoerr, the `` Analyze and evaluate major alternative very notion of intelligence has changed. We u di points of view no longer rely on the limits of our single mind to access the information resources we need `` Synthesize and make connections between 11 to solve problems. Problem solving has information and arguments always involved teamwork and cooperation. `` Interpret information and draw conclusions Today, however, open source programs, wikis, based on the best analysis blogs, and other Web 2.0 technologies enable t o total strangers divided by space and time to `` Reflect critically on learning experiences and collaborate. Successful problem solving in the processes t 21st century requires us to work effectively and h Solve Problems creatively with computers, with vast amounts of information, with ambiguous situations, and with `` Solve different kinds of unfamiliar problems other people from a variety of backgrounds. in both conventional and innovative ways o ur `` Identify and ask significant questions that Ways to Integrate Critical Thinking clarify various points of view and lead to into Your Classroom better solutions c P21 forged alliances with key national organizations (See the “critical thinking rubric” created by the that represent the core academic subjects, Catalina Foothills School District as an example: including social studies, English, science, http://rubrics.metiri.wikispaces.net/lfi e/view/ geography, world languages, mathematics, and Catalina_Foothills_Critical_Thinking_Rubric-1.doc) the arts. These collaborations resulted in the 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the intersection between core subjects and 21st Century Skills. This Related to Other Cs section includes examples of what critical thinking While the importance of critical thinking is skills might look like in core academic content paramount, its connection to the other Cs is classrooms. These examples, drawn primarily from equally important. Leading experts on critical the aforementioned content maps, demonstrate thinking stress its connection to creative thinking how critical thinking and problem solving can be skills. According to philosophers Richard Paul integrated into classroom teaching and learning and Linda Elder, “…sound thinking requires across a variety of grade levels and disciplines. both imagination and intellectual standards.” P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 9A E A’s G E E F s Critical Thinking and Problem Solving ARts – 4th G RAdE amenities at each park, campsites available, n recreation opportunities, etc.) along with data Students individually articulate different ways to ud c about population in the state. Groups develop interpret the same musical passage. Students case studies to advocate for additional culturally then compare the various interpretations and and linguistically responsive amenities at their determine which one is most effective, taking state parks using documentation such as maps, into account age-appropriate considerations examples from other parks in other states, etc. such as the style and genre of the music. t or En Glish – 12th G RAdE Wo Rld lA n Gu AGEs – 4th G RAdE In small groups, students create a plan for u id With the job title omitted, students read various involving students in making technology job/career advertisements and then match the decisions in the school. The process may appropriate job title to the ad. Students are include gathering student input from surveys, divided into groups. Each group is asked to establishing a student advisory committee, using investigate 3-5 different career/job sites and students to help provide tech support or other identify the jobs and careers that are in high services to the school, evaluating cost/value demand in a particular city, region, or country. t o ratios, and fundraising proposals to support their Students present their n fi dings to the class. recommended strategies. These plans should t be used in a presentation to the principal or the sCiEn CE – 8th G RAdE h school board. Students research how the physical and chemical properties of different natural and human- so CiAl studi Es – 12th G RAdE designed materials affect their decomposition o ru In groups, students explore how selected under various conditions. They compare their societies of the past used their natural resources n fi dings to the material evidence used by for fuel (e.g., England’s use of its forests at the scientists to reconstruct the lives of past cultures, beginning of the Industrial Revolution) and c as well as create a map of their classroom as the economic impact of that use. Students use a future archeological site (including written videoconferencing (e.g., www.skype.com) to descriptions of artifacts and what they imply collect information from relevant government about the cultures) discovered by scientists. ofc fi ials about the use of corn for biofuel instead The students plan and conduct scientic fi of food and analyze the environmental and investigations and write detailed explanations economic implications of this use. Students based on their evidence. Students compare their use district-approved wikis to publish the explanations to those made by scientists and results of their research. Using sound reasoning relate them to their own understandings of the and relevant examples, students analyze the natural and designed worlds. historical evolution of a contemporary public policy issue, place it within a cultural and GEo GRAphy – 8th G RAdE historical context, and use a digital publishing Students are assigned to groups to research tool to report their work. information about a specic fi state park (different P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 10A E A’s G E E F s Critical Thinking and Problem Solving MAth EMAti Cs – 12th G RAdE Resources on Critical Thinking n Students explore the napkin ring problem: if a The following list of critical thinking resources ud c hole of height “h” is drilled through the center is divided into “General Resources” and of a sphere, the volume of the portion of the “Classroom Resources.” Use these resources sphere that remains does not depend on the to help generate dialogue and action in your size of the original sphere; it depends only on h. classroom, department, and school. They share and critique their insights into why t or this is so. Then students explore mathematician General Resources Keith Devlin’s 2008 discussion of the problem at www.maa.org/devlin/devlin_04_08.html, u The Foundation for Critical Thinking id where Devlin provides the full computation and The Foundation and its related entities aim explains why some solutions posted online are to improve education in all subjects at every incorrect. Students explore solutions currently level by providing information, research, and appearing online and assess which solutions are resources on critical thinking. This site provides accurate and which are not. excellent background resources on the subject of critical thinking. t o www.criticalthinking.org Ree fl ctions on Critical Thinking t As you begin to integrate critical thinking Classroom Resources h into classroom practices, consider the following questions: Catalina Foothills Critical Thinking Rubric `` How can you model critical thinking/ Catalina Foothills School District created a series o ru problem solving for your students? of rubrics to assess student critical thinking skills. They measure critical thinking skills such as `` What kind of learning environment comparing, classifying, inductive and deductive is necessary to emphasize problem c reasoning, error analysis, and decision making. solving skills in your classroom? http://tinyurl.com/ydteapw `` What could you do to make critical Council for Aid to Education’s (CAE’s) thinking and problem solving more Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) and intentional and purposeful in your College and Work Readiness Assessment classroom? (CWRA) `` How can you encourage students to These assessments from CAE measure analytic be better critical thinkers and problem thinking, critical thinking, problem solving, and solvers? written communication skills. The CWRA is available for high school use. Access the scoring `` How can you and your colleagues rubric at http://tinyurl.com/2vh3ugo. work collectively to prioritize effective http://www.cae.org/content/pro_collegework.htm. higher order thinking pedagogy across classrooms? P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 11A E A’s G E E F s Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Critical Thinking Lesson Plans – University of n North Carolina (UNC) ud c These lesson plans integrate critical thinking into core academic subjects such as science, English language arts, social studies, geography, and others. http://tinyurl.com/3w3a8e8 t or FIRST LEGO® League Rubrics The FIRST LEGO League (FLL) robotics program u id not only focuses on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), but also stresses teamwork and collaboration, communication skills, creativity, and innovation and critical thinking. There are several rubrics here that help measure the 4C’s. t o http://tinyurl.com/3urrave t Helping Students Learn Critical Thinking Skills h This general purpose, well-organized Web site provides examples of how to help students develop effective inquiry skills, argument o ur structure, reliability, and reasoning skills. http://tinyurl.com/3kyqcpn Isaksen and Trefn fi ger’s Model for Critical and c Creative Thinking Scott Isaksen and Donald Trefn fi ger developed a six-stage, critical and creative thinking model that is outlined in their book, Creative Problem Solving: The Basic Course (1985). Their model is briey fl described in this PDF: http://tinyurl.com/3wmsc3a, and in this article: http://tinyurl.com/ydv82hz. P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 12A E A ’s G E E F s Communication The Importance of Communication Students must be able to effectively analyze and process the n Expressing thoughts overwhelming amount of communication in their lives today. Which d u c information sources are accurate? Which ones are not? How can they clearly, crisply articulating be used or leveraged effectively? opinions, communicating The power of modern media and the ubiquity of communication coherent instructions, t o r technologies in all aspects of life make teaching strong motivating others through communication skills even more important. While education has always emphasized u fl ent reading, correct speech, and clear writing, powerful speech—these u i d there is evidence that students are not mastering these most basic skills have always been skills. In the report, Are They Really Ready to Work?, employers note valued in the workplace that although oral and written communication are among the top four skills they seek in new hires, all graduates are lacking in these areas. and in public life. But High school graduates fare the worst, with 72 percent of employers t o in the 21st century, citing this group’s dec fi iency in writing in English, and 81 percent citing these skills have been their dec fi iency in written communications. Almost half of employers t h said employees with two-year degrees were still lacking skills in these transformed and are even two areas, while over a quarter of employers felt four-year graduates more important today. 12 continued to lack these skills. o u r Additionally, there are now “global teams” that work together in business. Linguistically and culturally effective communication is c essential to contribute successfully to these teams. And as technology gives rise to global work teams that span time zones, nations, and cultures, it is imperative that tomorrow’s graduates communicate clearly and effectively in a variety of languages. Communication skills are especially critical in the expanding service economy—estimated to be 81 percent of jobs by 2014—where relationships with customers and fellow employees are of vital importance. Linguistically and culturally effective listening, empathy, and effective communication skills are essential skills for every person in the service economy. Economists Levy and Mundane offer further evidence of the importance of communication in today’s workplace. Because complex communication involves explanation, negotiation, and other forms of intense human interaction, jobs that require these 13 skills are not as likely to be automated. P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 13A E A’s G E E F s Communication effectively with diverse teams, making necessary Den fi ition of Communication n compromises to accomplish a common Communication can be den fi ed in many ways, du c goal, and assuming shared responsibility for 14 but P21 den fi es communication skills as follows: collaborative work. Communication cannot be Communicate Clearly effective unless the message is received and understood. `` Articulate thoughts and ideas effectively using oral, written, and nonverbal Research backs up the importance—and t ro communication skills in a variety of forms interconnection—of communication and and contexts collaboration as well. In her work with young u di children, Professor Carol Seefeldt found that `` Listen effectively to decipher meaning, “social skills and communication skills go hand including knowledge, values, attitudes, and in hand. Children who look at the child they are intentions talking with, who understand turn taking when `` Use communication for a range of purposes communicating, and who know how to solve (e.g. to inform, instruct, motivate, and verbal conifl cts, are those who make and keep 15 persuade) friends easily.” t o `` Use multiple media and technologies, The communication/collaboration link is just and know how to assess impact and their t as valid for adults as well. John Seeley Brown h effectiveness a priori and Paul Duguid describe effective work teams as those in which “the talk and the `` Communicate effectively in diverse work, the communication and the practice are environments (including multilingual and 16 o inseparable.” For Daniel Pink, collaborative, ur multicultural) empathic, and social skills—what he calls “high touch” aptitudes—along with the high A “communication rubric,” created by the concept aptitudes listed earlier, represent the Amphitheater School District, can be found c 17 “whole mind” that the future will prize. It is here: http://www.p21.org/route21/index. important to consider how today’s technologies php?option=com_jlibrary&view=details&task=d shape words and images, as we receive ownload&id=849 many of our messages today through one or more digital devices. Thus, communication Communication and Collaboration skills are intertwined with information, media, While it is important to emphasize communication, and technology skills. communication skills, it can be difc fi ult to separate them from the other Cs—especially Ways to Integrate Communication collaboration. As represented in the 21st into Your Classroom Century Skills Framework, communication P21 forged alliances with key national competencies such as clearly articulating organizations that represent the core academic ideas through speaking and writing are closely subjects, including social studies, English, related to collaboration skills, such as working P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 14A E A’s G E E F s Communication science, geography, world languages, that communicates a clear message or point of n mathematics, and the arts. These collaborations view about the specic fi site or environment. The ud c resulted in the 21st Century Skills Maps that dance is recorded and posted on appropriate illustrate the intersection between core subjects Web sites for public view and comment. and 21st Century Skills. This section includes examples of what communication skills might GEo GRAphy – 8th G RAdE look like in core academic content classrooms. Student groups, adopting various perspectives, t or These examples, drawn primarily from the research a recent world/local event (hurricane, aforementioned content maps, demonstrate volcanic eruption, o fl od, war, famine, mass how communication skills can be integrated into migration, earthquake, etc.). The perspectives u id classroom teaching and learning across a variety students use could be: an environmentalist, a of grade levels and disciplines. politician, a relief worker from the U.N., a local journalist, etc. Students create a slideshow of Wo Rld lA n Gu AGEs – 12th G RAdE the event from their unique perspective to show As part of a unit on community development, to the rest of the class. Students write a journal students communicate with a Peace Corps at the conclusion to synthesize how various t o volunteer, community activist, or local leader perspectives can inu fl ence understanding of an who is u fl ent in the target language and has e fi ld event. Students articulate thoughts and ideas t work experience. Students exchange information clearly and effectively through speaking and h related to the work/projects being undertaken writing. in that country or locally. Areas of focus may include: agriculture, business, education, health, sCiEn CE – 8th G RAdE o ru and the environment. Students in the advanced Students interview local scientists (e.g., university range can narrate and describe using connected researcher, local television meteorologist, sentences and paragraphs in at least three medical technician) about the ways in which timeframes when discussing topics of personal, computer models inform their work. Students c school, and community interest. They can create a digital gallery of images from the comprehend main ideas and signic fi ant details different models accompanied by audio lfi es of regarding a variety of topics. Students generally the interviews. Students are familiar with the use reach this proc fi iency range after participating of computational models as tools to describe in a well-articulated standards based K-12 and predict real-world phenomena. language program. so CiAl studi Es – 4th G RAdE ARts – 12th G RAdE Working in small groups, students choose an area Students research existing site-based from their state’s history, organize a storyboard choreography to analyze the impact a location on the person/place/event, and use digital tools makes on the choreographic composition and to create a presentation that teaches their topic the messages communicated from both the to the remainder of the class. Students research, specic fi site and movement governed by that organize, and present historical information in site. Students then create their own piece of clear, complete, and effective formats. choreography based on another specic fi site P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 15A E A’s G E E F s Communication En Glish – 4th G RAdE team is given building constraints on o fl or area, n wall area, and minimum number of windows. The Students pose a question about a local du c design team interviews the client for preferences issue on a secure, collaborative space such regarding: window and door placement; size and as ed.voicethread.com or galleryofwriting. placement of bed, desk, and closets; and size and org. Each student gives a short written or locations for any wall posters or other decorative recorded response to the issue and then invites items that the client asks to have included. The community leaders to add their responses. t or design team produces a scale drawing of the These students can articulate thoughts clearly room with an explanation of why it satise fi s the and effectively through writing and speaking. constraints and the wishes of the client. The client u id checks the design and sends it back for more MAth EMAti Cs – 4th G RAdE work if necessary. Students work in groups to design a bedroom. One student in the group plays the role of client, and the others act as the design team. The design Resources on Communication The following list of communication skills resources is divided into “General Resources” t o Ree fl ctions on Communication and “Classroom Resources.” Use these resources to help generate dialogue and action As you begin to integrate t in your classroom, department, and school. communication into classroom practices, h consider the following questions: General Resources `` How can you model communication skills for your students? o ur National Council of Teachers of English’s (NCTE’s) 21st Century Curriculum and `` How can you emphasize Assessment Framework communication skills in general and Twenty-r fi st century readers and writers need to: c oral communication skills in particular in your classroom? `` Develop proficiency with the tools of technology `` How can students be encouraged to give oral presentations to varied `` Build relationships with others to pose and community audiences? solve problems collaboratively and cross- culturally `` How can you encourage students in your class to be better `` Design and share information for global communicators? communities to meet a variety of purposes `` How can students be encouraged `` Manage, analyze, and synthesize multiple to use technology and new media streams of simultaneous information to communicate innovatively and `` Create, critique, analyze, and evaluate effectively? multimedia texts P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 16A E A’s G E E F s Communication `` Attend to the ethical responsibilities the standards movement—giving all students n required by these complex environments the opportunity to reach or exceed world-class du c standards. http://www.ncte.org/positions/ statements/21stcentframework The Institute’s Web site has numerous resources on Accountable Talk, pioneered by Resnick. New Literacies Research Lab She describes Accountable Talk as “talk that Lisa Zawilinski, Donald Leu, and members is orchestrated by teachers so that students t or of the New Literacies Research Lab share learn to formulate responses to problems, additional thoughts on 21st century literacies. interpretations of text that are correct in Good insights on how digital texts and u di disciplinary terms and go beyond what was information is affecting reading, writing and actually written there….The basic idea is the communication skills. more you manipulate the pieces of knowledge, http://www.ncte.org/magazine/extended the better you understand them, the better you remember them, the more complex your memories become and the smarter you get.” Classroom Resources t http://i.fl lrdc.pitt.edu/i/ fl o Chapter Five – Procedures for Classroom Talk Content-Area Conversations by Douglas Fisher, Video of Resnick describing Accountable Talk t Nancy Frey, and Carol Rothenberg http://i.fl lrdc.pitt.edu/i/ fl index.php/resources/ h ask_the_educator/lauren_resnick This chapter includes focus on English Language Learners and discusses the types of Accountable Talk Sourcebook for Classroom o ur classroom talk that can be enhanced (including Conversation That Works accountable talk), includes discussion on how to Sarah Michaels, Clark University; Mary Catherine structure effective collaborative discussions and O’Connor, Boston University; Megan Williams groups with emphasis on communication. c Hall, University of Pittsburgh, with Lauren B. http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108035/ Resnick University of Pittsburgh chapters/Procedures-for-Classroom-Talk.aspx http://i.fl lrdc.pitt.edu/i/ fl index.php/download/ats Institute for Learning – Accountable Talk Accountable Talk – General Overview Resources This clear, concise overview is focused on fourth- The Institute for Learning at the University of sixth graders. Pittsburgh was founded by Lauren Resnick in http://www.scholastic.ca/education/ 1995. Resnick, an internationally renowned movingupwithliteracyplace/teachingtips.html cognitive psychologist, senior scientist at the Learning Research and Development Center of The Reading and Writing Project the University of Pittsburgh, and leader in the K-8 writing samples. standards movement, was asked by leading practitioners to help them achieve the goals of P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 17A E A’s G E E F s Communication http://tc.readingandwritingproject.com/resources/ n student-writing/kindergarten ud c CREAtiv E Co MMuni CAtion sik lls A Ctiiv ti Es Fo R h iGh sChool stud Ents http://www.essortment.com/teaching-good- communication-skills-classroom-36140.html t or u id t o t h o ru c P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 18A E A ’s G E E F s Collaboration The Importance of Collaboration n Sites like Wikipedia highlight how interconnected our world has Collaboration is essential become and emphasizes the benet fi s of collaborative work. The d u c in our classrooms because resulting products are those to which millions of users have contributed. The comprehensive nature of these articles ree fl cts the collaborative it is inherent in the culture of the site and demonstrates how people working together can nature of how work is t o produce extremely inclusive and valuable resources. r accomplished in our civic Generally, collaboration has been accepted as a skill that’s essential and workforce lives. Fifty u i d to achieve meaningful and effective results. In the past decade, years ago, much work however, it has become increasingly clear that collaboration is not only important but necessary for students and employees, due to was accomplished by globalization and the rise of technology. individuals working alone, The Global Learning and Observations to Benet fi the Environment t o but not today. Much of (GLOBE) Program, a worldwide, hands-on, primary and secondary all signic fi ant work is school-based science and education program, is an example of t h accomplished in teams, students collaborating with each other to impact global problems. GLOBE’s vision promotes and supports students, teachers, and and in many cases, scientists to collaborate on inquiry-based investigations of the o u r global teams. environment and the Earth system working in close partnership with NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) Earth System Science c Projects (ESSP’s) in study and research about the dynamics of Earth’s environment. Over 1.5 million students have participated in GLOBE, contributing more than 21 million measurements to the GLOBE database for use in their inquiry-based science projects. More projects like GLOBE are needed for students to be prepared for a global, 18 technology-based workforce. Various scholars and authors have emphasized the importance of collaboration. Author James Surowiecki, for example, explains how we use the “wisdom of crowds” in the new economy by saying that “under the right circumstances, groups are remarkably intelligent, and are often smarter than the smartest people in them.” Surowiecki underscores the importance of collaboration by remarking that “... a large group of diverse individuals will come up with better and more robust forecasts and make more intelligent decisions than even the 19 most skilled ‘decision maker.’” Diversity brings multiple individual and cultural perspectives into the collaboration. Not only does a collaborative effort create more holistic results than individual efforts, P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 19A E A’s G E E F s Collaboration but it also creates knowledge for a greater look like in core academic content classrooms. n number of people. These examples, drawn primarily from the ud c aforementioned content maps, demonstrate As a result of students working collaboratively, how collaboration skills can be integrated into the group can generate more knowledge, classroom teaching and learning across a variety making collaboration a key ingredient to student of grade levels and disciplines. success in today’s global society. t or Wo Rld lA n Gu AGEs – 4th G RAdE Den fi ition of Collaboration Students team with another class in a target Collaboration can be den fi ed in many ways, but language country to identify and compare u id 20 P21 den fi es collaboration as follows: endangered species in both countries. Using basic information in the target language, the Collaborate with Others students collaborate to produce a multimedia `` Demonstrate ability to work effectively and informational presentation for their peers. respectfully with diverse teams ARts – 4th G RAdE `` Exercise flexibility and willingness to be t o While rehearsing a piece in music class, helpful in making necessary compromises to students discuss as a group how each individual accomplish a common goal t part (melody, descant, harmonic or rhythmic h `` Assume shared responsibility for collaborative accompaniment) contributes to the musical work, and value the individual contributions effectiveness of the overall performance, and made by each team member how all musicians must work together to create a o ur satisfying whole. Students also experiment with A “collaboration rubric,” created by the and discuss how the director (whether student New Technology High School, can be found or teacher) communicates with the ensemble here: http://www.p21.org/route21/index. (gestures, head movements, facial expressions) c php?option=com_jlibrary&view=details&task=d to help shape performance. ownload&id=382 sCiEn CE – 8th G RAdE Ways to Integrate Collaboration Working in collaboration with other classes into Your Classroom in the school, students investigate water P21 forged alliances with key national runoff on their school grounds and use Global organizations that represent the core academic Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic subjects, including social studies, English, Information System (GIS) technologies to create science, geography, world languages, relevant maps. Students are assigned specic fi mathematics, and the arts. These collaborations interdependent roles based on their interests resulted in the 21st Century Skills Maps that and talents including background research, data illustrate the intersection between core subjects gathering, GPS and GIS use, creating graphics, and 21st Century Skills. This section includes and communicating n fi dings. Students meet in examples of what collaboration skills might P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 20A E A’s G E E F s Collaboration En Glish – 12th G RAdE their investigation teams. They also meet with n students in other classes who share their roles in Students collaborate with senior citizens in a du c the project (i.e., GPS operators from each class digital storytelling workshop. The teams bring meet together to discuss their work). Students to life a story from a senior’s history as they work collaboratively, either virtually or face-to- collaborate on writing and creating the video, face, while participating in scientic fi discussions including recording the narration and selecting and appropriately using claims, evidence, and images and music. The students present the t or reasoning. n fi ished videos in a community lfi m festival. Each team designs criteria for evaluating their video in advance, and grades their work accordingly. GEo GRAphy – 8th G RAdE u di Students demonstrate the ability to work After studying an environmental community effectively with diverse teams. issue (landlfi ls, water quality, maintaining open space, recycling), students compose email MAth EMAti Cs – 8th G RAdE messages appropriate to various local, state, and national ofc fi ials, stating their opinion and Students form investigative teams. Each team offering alternatives to current methods of is asked to investigate the crime rate in a t o dealing with the issue. Encourage students to particular city, represented by the variable “x”. consider their audience and develop effective Each team then formulates a question about t ways to create a coordinated and articulate email a possible causal variable “y”. For example, h campaign that will have an impact. Students a team might ask if crime rates are lower in demonstrate the ability to work effectively with cities with a larger police force, or higher in diverse teams. cities with higher poverty rates. The team then o ur chooses 30 to 40 other cities with which to so CiAl studi Es – 12th G RAdE compare their city’s crime rate. By conducting an Internet search, they collect data on x and y. Working in small groups, students survey favorite If team members n fi d their data too difc fi ult to forms of recreation among local teens. Students c access, they consider revising the question. For also research the local history of recreational example, if they are not n fi ding suitable data on youth facilities for teens and the potential poverty rates, team members might decide to sources of political and economic support. The investigate the size of the police force in each information is graphed and analyzed, and each city instead. Team members analyze the data group creates a business plan for developing a they have collected, den fi e the relationship local recreation center/club for teens. Students between x and y, and discuss questions such present survey results, need, and plan to a as the reliability of the data, its statistical community group or civic association using signic fi ance, and the validity of the sources. Each technology tools. Working in small groups, team prepares a presentation, explaining the students research a current issue and analyze its n fi dings and team members’ conclusions. historical, political, and economic components, various viewpoints, and potential solutions, and create a digital presentation that clearly describes all sides of the issue. P r e P a r i n g 2 1 s t C e n t u r y s t u d e n t s f o r a g l o b a l s o C i e t y 21