How Public Relations can help your Business

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Introduction To Public Relations Mathew Cabot, Ph.D. San Jose State University AJEEP 2012 AJEEP 2012 Public Relations Dr. Mathew Cabot Lecture One – Public Relations Defined Welcome to the AJEEP six-hour course on public relations. This course provides an overview on the public relations profession. It describes the profession’s history and evolution, the four-step public relations process, strategies and tactics, ethical challenges, and the foundational principles followed by public relations professionals. In this first lecture, we attempt to define what public relations is, and trace the evolution of the profession from its beginnings to the present. The idea of public relations has been around as long as people have sought to persuade other people to get them to do something, not do something, or keep on doing something. But public relations became a formal profession in America roughly between late 1800s and early 1900s. In the 1800s, public relations techniques were used to encourage settlement in the American West. Railroad companies – which were laying down new tracks across America – employed former journalists to create flyers and pamphlets that described the vast opportunities in the American frontier. And many believe it was the railroad companies that first used the term “public relations.” While railroad companies were promoting westward expansion, the very first celebrity “press agents” were promoting clients such as Buffalo Bill, Annie Oakley, and Davy Crockett. In public relations history, the late 1800s were known as the Age of the Press Agent. The characteristic feature of the age was hype – or exaggeration. Press agents were concerned more about creating legends and selling tickets to shows than truthful portrayals about their clients. The man who is credited for moving the public relations profession to its next age was Ivy Lee. In 1906, he published his “Declaration of Principles” that advocated truthfulness and openness, and thereby ushered PR into the Public Information Age. The main difference with this new age was the emphasis on the accuracy and honesty of the information issued by public   1  relations people. Ivy believed that the best way to practice “public relations” was to make sure the public had truthful information. During this time, as the public increasingly found its “voice,” corporations began to be concerned with public opinion. Only 20 years earlier had railroad tycoon uttered his famous words: “Let the public be damned” Things had changed. Business executives began to realize that an angry public could make doing business much more difficult, if not impossible. That’s why many companies began to employ public relations professionals whose job it was to keep the public informed. The goal was to provide accurate information to an organization’s stakeholders (anybody or institution that could be affected by the organization’s business). The first big test for this newfound profession was persuading the American people to enter World War I. To do so, President Woodrow Wilson established Committee on Public Information (also known as the Creel Committee) in 1917. The committee’s most famous member was Edward L. Bernays, known as the father of modern public relations. The committee’s success persuaded Bernays to open a public relations agency after the war to apply committee’s techniques to commercial interests. Major corporations such as General Electric, Proctor & Gamble, CBS, and the American Tobacco Company hired Bernays to conduct a wide variety of public relations activities. In 1923 Bernays published his landmark book, Crystallizing Public Opinion and established the profession’s theoretical foundations. Using theories first introduced by his uncle, Sigmund Freud, Bernays wrote about how to move people to do what you want them to do. By doing so, he transitioned the public relations profession into its third major age: scientific persuasion (and the two-way asymmetric model). Using the tools of social science and psychology, Bernays showed his clients how to tap into their audience’s deepest needs and wants. The scientific persuasion age of public relations lasted for about 30 to 40 years until the 1950s and 60s when activism (i.e., public protests about perceived corporate power and greed) necessitated a shift toward relationship building.   2  When public relation practitioners saw their primary role as identifying, building, and sustaining relationships between an organization and its stakeholders, the nature of the profession changed. Now, instead of emphasizing one-way communication, organizations began to place increasing importance on two-way communication. Furthermore, if these relationships were to be sustained, they had to be mutually beneficial – where both organizations and their stakeholders benefitted. When relationships became the primary focus for public relations activities, spin (i.e., intentionally making something appear better than it is) became counterproductive to long-term public relations goals. And that’s because spin destroys the most important ingredient for a vital, healthy relationship: trust. Spin can take many forms. At one end of the spectrum is lying, either by commission (saying it directly) or omission (intentionally withholding important information). At the other end of the spectrum is exaggeration – making a product or service appear better than it actually is. Whether it’s lying or exaggeration – or something in between – spin destroys trust and undermines an organization’s attempt to building valuable relationships. It should be noted that the shift to relationship building does not negate the profession’s emphasis on persuasion. Public relations professionals spend a great deal of time persuading an organization’s many stakeholders that the organization is worthy of being in a relationship together. That is achieved by demonstrating that the organization is being responsive to stakeholder needs. That means adjusting policies, positions, and products to fit stakeholder needs. Public relations professionals have always realized the importance of influence with senior management. Beginning roughly in the 1970s, public relations professionals began to increasingly identify themselves as “business people first, and communicators second.” As a result, public relations became more concerned with establishing measurable objectives aligned with organizational goals, and demonstrating a tangible ROI (return on investment). After all, if businesses were going to allocate resources to public relations activities, they deserved to know what kind of “return” they could expect.   3  Did the public relations activities boost the organization’s reputation? If yes, how? Did it increase sales? How would you know? The need to “demonstrate results” has led to a variety of innovations in public relations measurement – most notably in social media – where organizations are still assessing the value of engagement. The emphasis on business strategy ushered more public relations professionals into senior management where PR input could be made prior to policy formation or product creation. As a result, public relations became more effective because PR activities became more proactive and less reactive. With proactive public relations, organizations can plan and execute strategies and tactics on their own timeline – rather than having to react to a PR problem. It is in these reactive situations that organizations will be most tempted to spin – to make things look better than they are. While it is impossible to avoid reactive public relations entirely, many PR problems can be prevented through proper proactive planning. th In the beginning of the profession in the early 20 century, public relations was narrowly focused on media relations/publicity. Consequently, most practitioners were former journalists who understood news and how to craft an effective media story. Today, however, public relations is much broader. In addition to media relations, public relations practitioners work in the following areas: employee relations, investor relations, community relations, public affairs, lobbying, and social media, among other areas. As the scope of the profession has expanded, so has the skill set practitioners need to be successful. Writing continues to be the core skill public relations practitioners need to possess. But employers are also looking for research skills, good interpersonal communication, media and cultural literacy, critical thinking skills, and business knowledge (i.e., what makes businesses more effective). Today, the trend is to combine advertising, marketing, and public relations into integrated marketing communications (IMC) or integrated strategic communications. Under these integrated models, public relations works much more closely with advertising and marketing to achieve consistent messages/strategies and realize cost efficiencies.   4   Today, public relations is practiced worldwide. In fact, some of the profession’s fastest growth is overseas – especially in developing countries and emerging markets. Any place or situation where public support is key to an organization’s success, public relations will be valued. Questions for Discussion How would you define public relations? What are the four public relations models? What model is practiced today? Who is Edward Bernays, and how is he significant to the public relations profession? What is spin, and why is it counter productive to long-term public relations goals? What is the difference between “reactive” and “proactive” PR? And which is more effective? What are “stakeholders,” and why are they important in public relations?   5  AJEEP 2012 Public Relations Dr. Mathew Cabot Lecture Two – 10 Foundational Principles The public relations industry has evolved greatly since it first began in the early 1900s. In fact, it has dramatically changed even in the last decade with the introduction and expansive growth of the social media. The purpose of this lecture is to explore 10 public relations principles that should remain true regardless how the media landscape changes in the next 10 to 20 years. These are principles that have proved to be true over and over again in the public relations industry and are adhered to by PR professionals all over the world. These principles are based on the idea that the purpose of public relations is to “identify, establish, and maintain mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and its various publics” – a classic definition of the profession developed by Cutlip, Center, and Broom. All of the following principles are designed to achieve that objective. Principle 1 – Organizations exist only by public consent. This is one of the oldest principles in the public relations profession. The word “consent” here means “agreement” or “permission.” But in what way does the public give its “consent” for an organization to exist? If the organization is a “for-profit” company, its existence rests upon whether the public buys its product or services. Without this consumer public, that organization would not exist. If it’s a “not-for-profit” organization, its existence is dependent upon people giving their time (volunteering) or money (donations). Without these things, this organization would not exist. More broadly, though, an organization’s existence is dependent on a wide variety of publics – many of whom will never buy the product or donate money. That’s because organizations have many publics that more or less have a stake in what the organization does. These people or groups or associations are called stakeholders because in some way they can either influence or are influenced by the organization’s business. These stakeholders include the consumers of the product, but they also include employees, government, media, financial institutions, and neighbors in the community where the organization conducts its business. All of these stakeholders can either help or hinder your organization’s mission. The function of public relations is to manage the relationships between these stakeholders and the organization. Principle 2- Mutually beneficial relationships require two-way communication. As we saw in the previous lecture, the public relations profession has evolved from one-way communication to two-way communication. With the possible exception of the government, which practices the public information model, most PR professionals practice two-way communication. What this simply means is that in addition to sending messages to their publics, organizations receive them as well. Today, organizations must listen to their stakeholders/publics – especially given the prevalence of social media. There needs to be a dialogue, not a monologue. Additionally, organizations must demonstrate they have heard their publics by adjusting policies and products to their publics’ needs and wants – as much as possible. If the goal is to build and sustain mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and its various publics, two-way symmetric (balanced) communication must be practiced. Principle 3 – It’s not our job to put a clean shirt on a dirty body. Many people believe this is the fundamental job of a public relations practitioner – to make something appear better than it actually is. Using hype, manipulation, distraction – and maybe outright lies – the practitioner uses “spin” to put a good face on someone or something that is essentially not good. While spin may work – and many amateur PR hacks still do it – it is counter-productive to long-term public relations goals. If our job is to build and sustain relationships, spin destroys the most important ingredient to a healthy relationship: trust. Once that trust is lost, it is very difficult to regain it. And, at that point, the relationship is in jeopardy. If your public has a choice whether to be in relationship with you or not (e.g., there are comparable products or services on the market), it may decide to severe the relationship. Even if that public decides to stick with you, the lack of trust will cost you. In their book titled The Speed of Trust, Stephen Covey and Rebecca Merrill argue that trust is fast. In other words, when you are in a trusting business relationship, you don’t have to spend a great deal of time parsing out every bit of communication between you and your public. (Read the quote on slide). Trust in business – as with all of life – is a valuable asset. Public relations practitioners can help organizations make better products, policies, and services, and communicate more effectively with all of their publics. They can ensure that their publics are “heard,” and that everything the organization does – as far as possible – is in their publics’ best interest. Principle 4 – Act, then communicate. The key idea here is that you cannot talk your way out of something you behaved your way into. Americans have a saying: “Talk is cheap.” Public relations practitioners have the reputation of talking; publics need to see action. (Read the slide: If you’re product is defective…) One company that clearly understands this principle is JetBlue. In 2007, JetBlue had its first major public relations crisis. The airline was established in 2000, and for five years enjoyed some of the best reviews from airline passengers. Then, on Valentine’s Day 2007, the airline showed its lack of experience by not effectively handling a snow-and-ice storm in New York. Some passengers had to sit in grounded planes for more than 10 hours But, under the leadership of CEO David Neeleman, the company acted quickly and then communicated. First, Neeleman didn’t shift the blame and took full responsibility for Jet Blue’s failure. He then apologized to the passengers who were involved and the many other loyal passengers who were disappointed by the airline’s mishandling of the situation. Finally, and importantly, Neeleman discussed the changes that would immediately made to ensure the problem did not happen again. (Read the “What did the company do?” slide) Principle 5 – Clarity is more important than cleverness. Clear communication is difficult. Don’t lose your message by trying to be clever. If your goal is to build relationships, then clear communication is essential. There is a lot of focus today about the channels of communication – from the changing digital landscape (e.g., media convergence) to the ever- expanding social media toolbox. Selecting the right channel to reach your audiences is critical. The wrong channel ensures that your message will be not be delivered. But using the right channel does not necessarily mean communication will take place; it only means the message was received. In order for a message to be acted upon, it needs to gain the attention of the audience, be understood, and clearly address the audience’s needs and wants. Principle 6 – Activity does not equal results. There is a difference between production and outcome, between activities and results. Your clients or bosses will expect that your public relations strategies and tactics will “move the needle.” In other words, something has to happen as a result of your public relations efforts. The public relations situation needs to change. More than ever before, organizations are seeking – even demanding – and tangible ROI (return on investment). They want to know if they spend money and resources on public relations that will yield a return in the form of better stakeholder relationships, less opposition, stronger support, improved reputation, positive attitudes, greater cooperation, more customers buying the product or using the service. Because there is more client demand to demonstrate results, measurement tools are becoming increasingly sophisticated. It is no longer sufficient to simply count press clippings. Clients want to know the quality of those clippings. Are they positive or negative? How many of the organizations key messages were included in the stories? Who read the stories? Ultimately, organizations want behavioral results: winning an election, increasing product sales, sold-out attendance at an event. The more public relations professionals can demonstrate real results – that are tied directly into the organization’s goals – the more valuable they become. Principle 7 – Never refuse an opportunity to tell your side of the story. This is one of the most common public relations errors. If you don’t tell your side of the story, someone else will: a former (angry) employee, competitor, victim, or sour neighbor. If the media is doing a story, they need a quote. Let it be from you, and not from of these people. When the news is bad, many organizations refuse to talk to the media. Instead, they say, “no comment.” To the public, however, “no comment” means “we’re guilty.” It also means “we’re uncooperative.” By telling your side of the story (especially in a bad situation), the public relations professional can help “frame” the story in the best possible light – without, of course, making a bad situation look better than it is (i.e., spin). But, the fact is, there are usually multiple “frames” that can be legitimately applied to the same situation. The media usually will pick the most dramatic frame because it makes for a better story. Your job as the PR professional is to make sure the frame is fair and accurate – and also to suggest another frame, if necessary, that more accurately reflects the reality of the situation. All of this requires that the organization cooperates and works with the media to help them get a story. Understanding a journalist’s job – from what they need to when they need it – is fundamental to establishing constructive media relationships. Principle 8 – Manage expectations. The key to fostering healthy relationships with all stakeholders is managing expectations. For example, if a company exaggerates product claims, consumers will be disappointed when the product falls short. Likewise, when PR practitioners hype (exaggerate) an event, attendees will be upset when the reality doesn’t match the rhetoric. Same is true about pitching a story to the media. Journalists will stop using you as a news source if you consistently offer “fluff” stories with little or exaggerated substance. This principle is also true, by the way, in maintaining positive relationships between PR practitioners and their clients. Your clients (and bosses) need to know what public relations can do, and what it cannot do. For example, if an organization has a negative reputation in the eyes of its publics, PR professionals cannot change a negative into a positive overnight. And ethical practitioners – aware of long-term public relations goals – will not put a clean shirt on a dirty body. Principle 9 – Practice public relations proactively, whenever possible. According to the freedictionary.com, “proactive” means “controlling a situation by causing something to happen rather than waiting to respond to it after it happens.” Public relations is more effective if it is planned, intentional, and controlled. Reactive public relations puts an organization on the defensive and creates an environment ripe for spin. Proactive public relations requires that organizations are continually monitoring various environments, assessing relationships, and identifying and tracking issues that may affect the organization. Research shows that most organizational crises could have been prevented through early intervention. The goals of “issues tracking” are to prevent problems and take advantage of opportunities. In terms of managing relationships, organizations should be continually filling the “reservoir of goodwill” or “making deposits into the emotional bank account.” Both of these metaphors speak to the idea of proactively and intentionally managing relationships. If the reservoir of goodwill is filled, there will be something left in times of drought (a crisis with that particular stakeholder or stakeholders). Likewise with the emotional bank account. If it’s full, you’ll have something left even if there’s a big withdrawal (i.e., a crisis). Principle 10 – Be a bridge, not a barrier. There are at least two ways to practice public relations – and they are the polar opposites of each other. One way to practice PR is to be a barrier that protects an organization from its publics. This kind of PR uses one-way communication, doesn’t listen to stakeholders in any meaningful way, ignores the media, and uses spin to help an organization not take appropriate responsibility. The problem is, if the organization wants to maintain relationships with its stakeholders, “barrier” public relations doesn’t work – at least in the long term. Short term, being a barrier can work. But as soon as the stakeholders know that they have been lied to or manipulated – or are simply not being heard – the stakeholders will leave (i.e., use another product or service) or protest if they cannot leave (i.e., neighbors near a factory, etc.). But long-term, being a barrier is counter-productive to organizational goals. And, in today’s world where transparency is becoming increasingly important, barrier PR simply won’t work. A much more effective (and ethical) way to practice public relations is to be a bridge that connects an organization to its publics. Practitioners who see themselves as bridges use two-way communication with the organization’s stakeholders, conduct transparent dialogue through the social media, and respond affirmatively to journalists’ needs. The world doesn’t need any more spin doctors. But it does need bridge builders who can foster dialogue, create mutual understanding, and build cooperative, mutually beneficial relationships. Questions for Discussion What does “organizations exist only by public consent” mean? What does spin destroy in a relationship? Why should an organization act before it communicates? Does the principle of “Never refuse to tell your side of the story” mean that the public relations practitioner must answer all media questions? What is the value of “managing expectations”? What is the difference between being a “bridge” vs. being a “barrier” in public relations? AJEEP 2012 Public Relations Dr. Mathew Cabot Lecture Three – RACE Effective public relations is accomplished through a process known as RACE (Research, Action, Communication, Evaluation). This process is used to practice proactive public relations – PR that is intentional, planned, and strategic. There are four fundamental questions asked in the RACE process (read slide). Research is the first step. Nothing happens before doing research. Research helps determine objectives, messages, strategies and tactics. The first step in research is to clarify the public relations situation. Both the public relations practitioner and the client need to have a clear understanding of the situation before them. Without that, public relations plans are developed that do not accurately address the situation. One of the most important aspects of situational analysis is identifying the stakeholder(s) or public(s) that are most involved in the situation. Since public relations is essentially about identifying, building and sustaining relationships between an organization and its various publics (stakeholders), the situational analysis allows an organization to focus on one (or more) stakeholders where either a problem or opportunity exists. If it is a problem, what kind of problem is it? Two common public relations problems are awareness and reputation. If it’s an awareness problem, the stakeholders lack awareness about the organization and/or its products and services. If it’s a reputation problem, that means the stakeholder is aware of the organization but does not have a favorable opinion toward it. Those are two very different kinds of public relations problems that require different strategies and tactics. But the situation may not be a problem at all. It could be an opportunity (i.e., launching a product or leveraging customer enthusiasm). Whether it’s a problem or opportunity, the situation needs to be clearly defined.   1  Once the audience/public/stakeholder has been identified, now it’s time to do an audience analysis. The goal at this stage of your research is to learn as much as possible about your target audience. What do they know about the situation? What would you like them to know? What are their needs, concerns and wants? How do they get their information? What do they read, watch, listen to? This kind of audience analysis goes beyond demographics that simply make distinctions based on ethnicities, age, gender, etc. A more useful research, perhaps, delves into “psychographics”: values, attitudes, and lifestyles. The fact is, the more you know your target audience, the more likely you will be able to craft a motivational message, delivered by the right source, through the right channel. In addition to the situational analysis and the audience analysis, your research should also include an organizational analysis. One common way to do this is to conduct a S.W.O.T. analysis, which stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats. The public relations practitioner needs to know how to “position” the organization in the face of the situation – whether it’s a problem or an opportunity. Once the S.W.O.T. analysis has been completed, the public relations practitioner will be more effective in maximizing strengths, minimizing weaknesses, capitalizing on opportunities, guarding against threats. One question that often arises is, “What constitutes a threat?” A threat is anything that threatens the success of organization, from aggressive competition to poor legislation to organizational mismanagement. Analyses of the situation, organization, and audiences can be conducted in a variety of ways. Research can either be primary or secondary, qualitative or quantitative. Primary research involves generating new information; secondary research uses existing information. Despite being called “secondary research,” this kind of research is conducted first. Public relations practitioners analyze existing information from organizational websites and electronic databases, among other sources, to gain understanding about the situation, organization, and target audience.   2  Since the information is available, it is the research most commonly used by public relations practitioners – either first or exclusively. If, however, there are significant gaps in the secondary research, primary research is conducted – if there is enough time and money. If practitioners have both of these are their disposal and can conduct primary research, they can choose qualitative or quantitative methods. Qualitative methods produce “soft” (as opposed to “hard”) data that sometimes is called “exploratory.” Using qualitative research techniques such as focus groups, in-depth interviews, observations, or surveys with open-ended questions, public relations practitioners can gain some valuable information about the situation, organization, and target audience. But they cannot extrapolate the data gathered scientifically to a larger audience. That’s why the data is called “soft.” However, using quantitative techniques – such as surveys with closed or structured questions and random sampling – practitioners can produce “hard” data. Using statistical analysis, the practitioner can they make some definitive statements about the whole – if the sample population was representative and randomly sampled. Given the fact that quantitative research is more costly and time-consuming, it is not conducted as much as qualitative research. Plus, crafting a scientifically valid quantitative study is beyond the skill set of most PR practitioners. So, whether it’s primary or secondary, quantitative or qualitative, the practitioner needs to conduct research prior to developing a plan. The research will help determine the strategy and provide more credibility for the practitioner before his or her clients. Finally, research is used to measure the results of the campaign – the essential last step in the RACE process. Once the research phase of the process is complete, the practitioner can move on to the second phase: planning (or action). Now we understand more about the situation, the organization, and the audience, we can determine what to do about it. The first step in the planning process is to set goals and objectives. Goals are the overarching purpose of the public relations efforts (e.g., To become the   3  low-cost leader in the category). Objectives support goals, and they need to be S.M.A.R.T.: Specific, Measureable, Agreed Upon, Relevant, Timetabled. It is also important to remember that objectives should measure outcomes, not the means to those outcomes. For example, the objective should NOT be measuring how many news releases are produced in a given period of time (the means), but rather the outcome of those news releases (for example, awareness). Once the goals and objectives have been set, then the practitioner can create the theme and messages for the campaign. The theme is overarching message – the one “takeaway” – you want your target audience to receive. Other messages flow out of – and support – your theme. Your themes and messages are designed to support your goals and objectives by tapping into what you learned about your target audience through your research. Those messages need to be clear and understandable to your audience; delivered by a credible source (i.e., credible to that audience); and targeted at audience needs. Psychologist Abraham Maslow’s “hierarchy of needs” helps practitioners understand what kinds of needs are being addressed, from “lower-level” physiological needs (such food, safety, shelter) to “higher-level” needs (such as living up to one’s potential). Ideally, these messages should be copy-tested with representatives from the target audience to see if the messages make sense with the audience and achieve the desired effect. Once the themes and messages have been developed, then the practitioner needs to choose the channel through which they will be delivered. These are the strategies and tactics. The strategy is the main way you plan to accomplish your objectives. For example, there are many different PR strategies, from traditional media (pitching stories to print and broadcasting media) to social media (using Twitter, Facebook, etc., to build online communities) to more interpersonal strategies (creating slide presentations for key audiences). Research has shown that the most persuasive form of communication is interpersonal (one-on-one, or one before a group). In those settings, the communicator can receive immediate feedback and answer questions from the target audience. Interpersonal communication strategies, however, can be used only when the target audience is small and identifiable.   4   Larger audiences, which are more difficult (or even impossible) to reach through interpersonal means, need to be reached through the media (either social or traditional, or both). Once the overall strategy is set, the practitioner decided exactly how to implement the strategy through tactics. For example, if the practitioner has chosen a social media strategy as the best way to achieve the public relations objectives, then he or she needs to recommend a specific way to “flesh out” that strategy. That tactic could be a Twitter campaign designed to involve consumers in creating the next version of a product (e.g., creating a new flavor potato chip flavor for Lay’s). Or, it could be a campaign designed to get more “friends” on Facebook. The last part of any public relations effort is measurement. The practitioner needs to determine if the objectives were successfully met. There are different levels of measure, starting with the easiest – and least valuable – production. At this level, the practitioner is simply measuring what has been produced: counting “communication assets.” Of course, your clients need to know what has been produced for the money they have expended on public relations. But that says nothing about the results of that production. Increasingly, practitioners need to demonstrate results. Organizations need to see a clear ROI (Return On Investment) for dollars spent on public relations. At the lowest level of measuring results is “awareness.” Practitioners can measure awareness through a variety of means. For example, to measure whether the public relations for an event was successful, the practitioner simply needs to count the number of attendees (and possibly the media coverage in the aftermath). The next level up is attitude change, which can be measured only if the practitioner knows the current attitudes prior to the PR campaign. Depending on the size of the target audience, that may require scientific survey research, which can be expensive and beyond the skill set of most practitioners. The most valuable public relations efforts are those that change behaviors. Most practitioners consider “behavior change” the gold standard of public relations objectives. Ultimately, public relations objectives need to support organization objectives. That means, public relations should motivate people   5  to buy a product, use a service, adopt an idea, or vote for a candidate. These are the kinds of results that make public relations essential for organizations. Discussion Questions What is the value of research in public relations? What is the difference between a goal and an objective? What are some of the factors that help make messages effective? What is the difference between a strategy and tactic? What does ROI mean, and why is it important to public relations?   6  The RACE Process Mathew Cabot, Ph.D., APR San Jose State University Public Relations AJEEP 2012

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