How to create Javafx Application in Eclipse

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JavaFX Getting Started with JavaFX Release 8 E50607-02 August 2014 Get started with JavaFX by getting an overview of the available features, learning the architecture, and creating simple applications that introduce you to layouts, CSS, FXML, visual effects, and animation. JavaFX Getting Started with JavaFX, Release 8 E50607-02 Copyright © 2008, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Contributing Author: Jasper Potts, Nancy Hildebrandt, Joni Gordon, Cindy Castillo This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify, license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for interoperability, is prohibited. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. If you find any errors, please report them to us in writing. If this is software or related documentation that is delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing it on behalf of the U.S. Government, the following notice is applicable: U.S. GOVERNMENT END USERS: Oracle programs, including any operating system, integrated software, any programs installed on the hardware, and/or documentation, delivered to U.S. Government end users are "commercial computer software" pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation and agency-specific supplemental regulations. 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Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Intel and Intel Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. All SPARC trademarks are used under license and are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. AMD, Opteron, the AMD logo, and the AMD Opteron logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group. This software or hardware and documentation may provide access to or information on content, products, and services from third parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for and expressly disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party content, products, and services. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates will not be responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to your access to or use of third-party content, products, or services.Contents Preface ................................................................................................................................................................ vii About This Tutorial.................................................................................................................................... vii Audience...................................................................................................................................................... vii Documentation Accessibility.................................................................................................................... vii Related Documents .................................................................................................................................... vii Conventions ............................................................................................................................................... viii What’s New ...................................................................................................................................................... ix Part I What Is JavaFX? 1 JavaFX Overview JavaFX Applications................................................................................................................................... 1-1 Availability .................................................................................................................................................. 1-2 Key Features ................................................................................................................................................ 1-2 What Can I Build with JavaFX? ............................................................................................................... 1-3 How Do I Run a Sample Application?................................................................................................... 1-4 How Do I Run a Sample in an IDE?....................................................................................................... 1-5 How Do I Create a JavaFX Application? ............................................................................................... 1-5 Resources ..................................................................................................................................................... 1-6 2 Understanding the JavaFX Architecture Scene Graph ................................................................................................................................................ 2-2 Java Public APIs for JavaFX Features ..................................................................................................... 2-2 Graphics System......................................................................................................................................... 2-3 Glass Windowing Toolkit......................................................................................................................... 2-3 Threads ..................................................................................................................................................2-4 Pulse .......................................................................................................................................................2-4 Media and Images ...................................................................................................................................... 2-4 Web Component ......................................................................................................................................... 2-5 CSS ................................................................................................................................................................ 2-5 UI Controls .................................................................................................................................................. 2-6 Layout ........................................................................................................................................................... 2-7 2-D and 3-D Transformations................................................................................................................... 2-8 Visual Effects............................................................................................................................................... 2-8 iiiPart II Getting Started with JavaFX Sample Applications 3 Hello World, JavaFX Style Construct the Application......................................................................................................................... 3-1 Run the Application................................................................................................................................... 3-3 Where to Go Next ....................................................................................................................................... 3-3 4 Creating a Form in JavaFX Create the Project........................................................................................................................................ 4-1 Create a GridPane Layout......................................................................................................................... 4-2 Add Text, Labels, and Text Fields............................................................................................................ 4-3 Add a Button and Text ............................................................................................................................... 4-4 Add Code to Handle an Event ................................................................................................................. 4-5 Run the Application................................................................................................................................... 4-5 Where to Go from Here............................................................................................................................. 4-6 5 Fancy Forms with JavaFX CSS Create the Project........................................................................................................................................ 5-1 Create the CSS File..................................................................................................................................... 5-2 Add a Background Image ......................................................................................................................... 5-2 Style the Labels........................................................................................................................................... 5-3 Style Text...................................................................................................................................................... 5-4 Style the Button .......................................................................................................................................... 5-5 Where to Go from Here............................................................................................................................. 5-7 6 Using FXML to Create a User Interface Set Up the Project ....................................................................................................................................... 6-1 Load the FXML Source File ...................................................................................................................... 6-2 Modify the Import Statements ................................................................................................................ 6-2 Create a GridPane Layout......................................................................................................................... 6-3 Add Text and Password Fields................................................................................................................. 6-3 Add a Button and Text ............................................................................................................................... 6-5 Add Code to Handle an Event ................................................................................................................. 6-5 Use a Scripting Language to Handle Events......................................................................................... 6-6 Style the Application with CSS............................................................................................................... 6-7 Where to Go from Here............................................................................................................................. 6-8 7 Animation and Visual Effects in JavaFX Set Up the Application .............................................................................................................................. 7-2 Set Up the Project ....................................................................................................................................... 7-2 Add Graphics .............................................................................................................................................. 7-3 Add a Visual Effect..................................................................................................................................... 7-4 Create a Background Gradient ................................................................................................................ 7-5 Apply a Blend Mode.................................................................................................................................. 7-6 Add Animation ........................................................................................................................................... 7-7 ivWhere to Go from Here............................................................................................................................. 7-8 background.jpg.......................................................................................................................................... A-2 vviPreface This preface gives an overview about this tutorial and also describes the document accessibility features and conventions used in this tutorial - Getting Started with JavaFX About This Tutorial This tutorial is a compilation of three documents that were previously delivered with the JavaFX 2.x documentation set: JavaFX Overview, JavaFX Architecture, and Getting Started with JavaFX. The combined content has been enhanced with updated information about the new JavaFX features included with the Java SE 8 release. This document contains the following parts: ■ What Is JavaFX? ■ Getting Started with JavaFX Sample Applications Each part contains chapters that introduce you to the JavaFX technology and gets you started in learning how to use it for your application development. Audience This document is intended for JavaFX developers. Documentation Accessibility For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program website at http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc. Access to Oracle Support Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing impaired. Related Documents For more information, see the rest of the JavaFX documentation set at http://docs.oracle.com/javase/javase-clienttechnologies.htm. viiConventions The following text conventions are used in this document: Convention Meaning boldface Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary. italic Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for which you supply particular values. monospace Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter. viiiWhat’s New This chapter summarizes the new features and significant product changes made in the JavaFX component of the Java SE 8 release. ■ The new Modena theme is now the default theme for JavaFX applications. See the Modena theme section of Key Features. ■ Support for additional HTML5 features has been added. See Adding HTML Content to JavaFX Applications for more information. ■ The new SwingNode class improves the Swing interoperability feature. See Embedding Swing Content in JavaFX Applications. ■ New built-in UI controls, DatePicker and TableView, are now available. See Using JavaFX UI Controls document for more information. ■ 3D Graphics library has been enhanced with several new API classes. See 3D Graphics features section of Key Features and Getting Started with JavaFX 3D Graphics for more information. ■ The javafx.print package is now available and provides the public JavaFX printing APIs. ■ Rich text support has been added. ■ Support for Hi-DPI displays have been made available. ■ CSS styleable classes became public APIs. ■ Scheduled service class has been introduced. ixxPart I Part IWhat Is JavaFX? Part I contains the following chapters: ■ JavaFX Overview ■ Understanding the JavaFX Architecture1 Ja 1 vaFX Overview This chapter provides an overview of the types of applications you can build using JavaFX APIs, where to download the JavaFX libraries, and a high level information about the key JavaFX features being delivered. JavaFX is a set of graphics and media packages that enables developers to design, create, test, debug, and deploy rich client applications that operate consistently across diverse platforms. ■ JavaFX Applications ■ Availability ■ Key Features ■ What Can I Build with JavaFX? ■ How Do I Run a Sample Application? ■ How Do I Run a Sample in an IDE? ■ How Do I Create a JavaFX Application? ■ Resources See the Understanding the JavaFX Architecture chapter to learn about the JavaFX platform architecture and to get a brief description of the JavaFX APIs for media streaming, web rendering, and user interface styling. JavaFX Applications Since the JavaFX library is written as a Java API, JavaFX application code can reference APIs from any Java library. For example, JavaFX applications can use Java API libraries to access native system capabilities and connect to server-based middleware applications. The look and feel of JavaFX applications can be customized. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) separate appearance and style from implementation so that developers can concentrate on coding. Graphic designers can easily customize the appearance and style of the application through the CSS. If you have a web design background, or if you would like to separate the user interface (UI) and the back-end logic, then you can develop the presentation aspects of the UI in the FXML scripting language and use Java code for the application logic. If you prefer to design UIs without writing code, then use JavaFX Scene Builder. As you design the UI, Scene Builder creates FXML markup that can be ported to an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) so that developers can add the business logic. JavaFX Overview 1-1Availability Availability The JavaFX APIs are available as a fully integrated feature of the Java SE Runtime Environment (JRE) and the Java Development Kit (JDK ). Because the JDK is available for all major desktop platforms (Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux), JavaFX applications compiled to JDK 7 and later also run on all the major desktop platforms. Support for ARM platforms has also been made available with JavaFX 8. JDK for ARM includes the base, graphics and controls components of JavaFX. The cross-platform compatibility enables a consistent runtime experience for JavaFX applications developers and users. Oracle ensures synchronized releases and updates on all platforms and offers an extensive support program for companies that run mission-critical applications. On the JDK download page, you can get a zip file of JavaFX sample applications. The sample applications provide many code samples and snippets that show by example how to write JavaFX applications. See "How Do I Run a Sample Application?" for more information. Key Features The following features are included in JavaFX 8 and later releases. Items that were introduced in JavaFX 8 release are indicated accordingly: ■ Java APIs. JavaFX is a Java library that consists of classes and interfaces that are written in Java code. The APIs are designed to be a friendly alternative to Java Virtual Machine (Java VM) languages, such as JRuby and Scala. ■ FXML and Scene Builder. FXML is an XML-based declarative markup language for constructing a JavaFX application user interface. A designer can code in FXML or use JavaFX Scene Builder to interactively design the graphical user interface (GUI). Scene Builder generates FXML markup that can be ported to an IDE where a developer can add the business logic. ■ WebView. A web component that uses WebKitHTML technology to make it possible to embed web pages within a JavaFX application. JavaScript running in WebView can call Java APIs, and Java APIs can call JavaScript running in WebView. Support for additional HTML5 features, including Web Sockets, Web Workers, and Web Fonts, and printing capabilities have been added in JavaFX 8. See Adding HTML Content to JavaFX Applications. ■ Swing interoperability. Existing Swing applications can be updated with JavaFX features, such as rich graphics media playback and embedded Web content. The SwingNode class, which enables you to embed Swing content into JavaFX applications, has been added in JavaFX 8. See the SwingNode API javadoc and Embedding Swing Content in JavaFX Applications for more information. ■ Built-in UI controls and CSS. JavaFX provides all the major UI controls that are required to develop a full-featured application. Components can be skinned with standard Web technologies such as CSS. The DatePicker and TreeTableView UI controls are now available with the JavaFX 8 release. See Using JavaFX UI Controls for more information. Also, the CSS Styleable classes have become public API, allowing objects to be styled by CSS. ■ Modena theme. The Modena theme replaces the Caspian theme as the default for JavaFX 8 applications. The Caspian theme is still available for your use by adding the setUserAgentStylesheet(STYLESHEET_CASPIAN) line in your Application start() method. For more information, see the Modena blog at fxexperience.com 1-2 JavaFX Getting Started with JavaFXWhat Can I Build with JavaFX? ■ 3D Graphics Features. The new API classes for Shape3D (Box, Cylinder, MeshView, and Sphere subclasses), SubScene, Material, PickResult, LightBase (AmbientLight and PointLight subclasses), and SceneAntialiasing have been added to the 3D Graphics library in JavaFX 8. The Camera API class has also been updated in this release. For more information, see the Getting Started with JavaFX 3D Graphics document and the corresponding API javadoc for javafx.scene.shape.Shape3D, javafx.scene.SubScene, javafx.scene.paint.Material, javafx.scene.input.PickResult, and javafx.scene.SceneAntialiasing. ■ Canvas API. The Canvas API enables drawing directly within an area of the JavaFX scene that consists of one graphical element (node). ■ Printing API. The javafx.print package has been added in Java SE 8 release and provides the public classes for the JavaFX Printing API. ■ Rich Text Support. JavaFX 8 brings enhanced text support to JavaFX, including bi-directional text and complex text scripts, such as Thai and Hindu in controls, and multi-line, multi-style text in text nodes. ■ Multitouch Support. JavaFX provides support for multitouch operations, based on the capabilities of the underlying platform. ■ Hi-DPI support. JavaFX 8 now supports Hi-DPI displays. ■ Hardware-accelerated graphics pipeline. JavaFX graphics are based on the graphics rendering pipeline (Prism). JavaFX offers smooth graphics that render quickly through Prism when it is used with a supported graphics card or graphics processing unit (GPU). If a system does not feature one of the recommended GPUs supported by JavaFX, then Prism defaults to the software rendering stack. ■ High-performance media engine. The media pipeline supports the playback of web multimedia content. It provides a stable, low-latency media framework that is based on the GStreamer multimedia framework. ■ Self-contained application deployment model. Self-contained application packages have all of the application resources and a private copy of the Java and JavaFX runtimes. They are distributed as native installable packages and provide the same installation and launch experience as native applications for that operating system. What Can I Build with JavaFX? With JavaFX, you can build many types of applications. Typically, they are network-aware applications that are deployed across multiple platforms and display information in a high-performance modern user interface that features audio, video, graphics, and animation. Table 1–1 shows images of a few of the sample JavaFX applications that are included with the JavaFX 8.n release. JavaFX Overview 1-3How Do I Run a Sample Application? Table 1–1 Sample JavaFX Applications Sample Application Description JavaFX Ensemble8 Ensemble8 is a gallery of sample applications that demonstrate a large variety of JavaFX features, including animation, charts, and controls. You can view and interact with each running sample on ALL platforms, and read its descriptions. On the desktop platforms, you can copy each sample’s source code, adjust the properties of the sample components used in several samples, and follow links to the relevant API documentation when you’re connected to the Internet. Ensemble8 also runs with JavaFX for ARM. Modena Modena is a sample application that demonstrates the look and feel of UI components using the Modena theme. It gives you the option to contrast Modena and Caspian themes, and explore various aspects of these themes. 3D Viewer 3DViewer is a sample application that allows you to navigate and examine a 3D scene with a mouse or a trackpad. 3DViewer has importers for a subset of the features in OBJ and Maya files. The ability to import animation is also provided for Maya files. (Note that in the case of Maya files, construction history should be deleted on all the objects when saving as a Maya file.) 3DViewer also has the ability to export the contents of the scene as Java or FXML files. How Do I Run a Sample Application? The steps in this section explain how to download and run the sample applications that are available as a separate download with the Java Platform (JDK 8). Note: Before you can run a sample JavaFX application, you need to have the JavaFX runtime libraries on your machine. Before you proceed with these steps, either install the latest version of the JDK 8 or the latest version of the JRE. To download and run the sample applications: 1. Go to the Java SE Downloads page at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/. 2. Scroll down to locate the JDK 8 and JavaFX Demos and Samples section. 3. Click the Demos and Samples Download button to go to the downloads page. 4. On the Java SE Development Kit 8 Downloads page, scroll down to the JavaFX Demos and Samples Downloads section. 5. Download the zip file for the correct operating system and extract the files. 1-4 JavaFX Getting Started with JavaFXHow Do I Create a JavaFX Application? The javafx-samples-8.x directory is created and contains the files for the available samples. The NetBeans projects for the samples are in the javafx-samples-8.x\src directory. 6. Double-click the executable file for a sample. For example, to run the Ensemble8 pre-built sample application, double-click the Ensemble8.jar file. How Do I Run a Sample in an IDE? You can use several Java development IDEs to develop JavaFX applications. The following steps explain how to view and run the source code in the NetBeans IDE. To view and run the sample source code in NetBeans IDE: 1. Download the samples, as described above, and extract the files. 2. From a NetBeans 7.4 or later IDE, load the project for the sample you want to view. a. From the File menu, select Open Project. b. In the Open Project dialog box, navigate to the directory that lists the samples. The navigation path looks something like this: ..\javafx_samples-8.x-platform\javafx-samples-8.x\src c. Select the sample you want to view. d. Click the Open Project button. 3. In the Projects window, right click the project you just opened and select Run. Notice the Output window is updated and the sample project is run and deployed. How Do I Create a JavaFX Application? Because JavaFX applications are written in the Java language, you can use your favorite editor or any integrated development environment (IDE) that supports the Java language (such as NetBeans, Eclipse, or IntelliJ IDEA) to create JavaFX applications. To create JavaFX applications: 1. Go to the Java SE Downloads page at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/ to download the Oracle® JDK 8 with JavaFX 8.n support. Links to the certified system configurations and release notes are also available on that page.. 2. Use Getting Started with JavaFX Sample Applications to create simple applications that demonstrates how to work with layouts, style sheets, and visual effects. 3. Use JavaFX Scene Builder to design the UI for your JavaFX application without coding. You can drag and drop UI components to a work area, modify their properties, apply style sheets, and integrate the resulting code with their application logic. a. Download the JavaFX Scene Builder from the JavaFX Downloads page at http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/. b. Follow the Getting Started with JavaFX Scene Builder tutorial to learn more. JavaFX Overview 1-5Resources Resources Use the following resources to learn more about the JavaFX technology. ■ Download the latest JDK 8 release and the JavaFX samples from the Java SE Downloads page at: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/. ■ Read Understanding the JavaFX Architecture. ■ Browse JavaFX tutorials and articles for developers. 1-6 JavaFX Getting Started with JavaFX2 2Understanding the JavaFX Architecture The chapter gives a high level description of the JavaFX architecture and ecosystem. Figure 2–1 illustrates the architectural components of the JavaFX platform. The sections following the diagram describe each component and how the parts interconnect. Below the JavaFX public APIs lies the engine that runs your JavaFX code. It is composed of subcomponents that include a JavaFX high performance graphics engine, called Prism; a small and efficient windowing system, called Glass; a media engine, and a web engine. Although these components are not exposed publicly, their descriptions can help you to better understand what runs a JavaFX application. ■ Scene Graph ■ Java Public APIs for JavaFX Features ■ Graphics System ■ Glass Windowing Toolkit ■ Media and Images ■ Web Component ■ CSS ■ UI Controls ■ Layout ■ 2-D and 3-D Transformations ■ Visual Effects Figure 2–1 JavaFX Architecture Diagram Understanding the JavaFX Architecture 2-1Scene Graph Scene Graph The JavaFX scene graph, shown as part of the top layer in Figure 2–1, is the starting point for constructing a JavaFX application. It is a hierarchical tree of nodes that represents all of the visual elements of the application’s user interface. It can handle input and can be rendered. A single element in a scene graph is called a node. Each node has an ID, style class, and bounding volume. With the exception of the root node of a scene graph, each node in a scene graph has a single parent and zero or more children. It can also have the following: ■ Effects, such as blurs and shadows ■ Opacity ■ Transforms ■ Event handlers (such as mouse, key and input method) ■ An application-specific state Unlike in Swing and Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT), the JavaFX scene graph also includes the graphics primitives, such as rectangles and text, in addition to having controls, layout containers, images and media. For most uses, the scene graph simplifies working with UIs, especially when rich UIs are used. Animating various graphics in the scene graph can be accomplished quickly using the javafx.animation APIs, and declarative methods, such as XML doc, also work well. The javafx.scene API allows the creation and specification of several types of content, such as: ■ Nodes: Shapes (2-D and 3-D), images, media, embedded web browser, text, UI controls, charts, groups, and containers ■ State: Transforms (positioning and orientation of nodes), visual effects, and other visual state of the content ■ Effects: Simple objects that change the appearance of scene graph nodes, such as blurs, shadows, and color adjustment For more information, see the Working with the JavaFX Scene Graph document. Java Public APIs for JavaFX Features The top layer of the JavaFX architecture shown in Figure 2–1 provides a complete set of Java public APIs that support rich client application development. These APIs provide unparalleled freedom and flexibility to construct rich client applications. The JavaFX platform combines the best capabilities of the Java platform with comprehensive, immersive media functionality into an intuitive and comprehensive one-stop development environment. These Java APIs for JavaFX features: ■ Allow the use of powerful Java features, such as generics, annotations, multithreading, and Lamda Expressions (introduced in Java SE 8). ■ Make it easier for Web developers to use JavaFX from other JVM-based dynamic languages, such as Groovy and JavaScript. ■ Allow Java developers to use other system languages, such as Groovy, for writing large or complex JavaFX applications. 2-2 JavaFX Getting Started with JavaFX

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