How Internet of Things (iot) is Reshaping the world

internet of things opportunities for entrepreneurs and how the internet of things may change the world and internet of things applications and research challenges
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Published Date:15-07-2017
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River Publishers Series in Communication Internet of Things – From Research and Innovation to Market Deployment Editors Ovidiu Vermesan Peter Friess River Publishers3 Internet ofThings Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda 1 2 3 4 OvidiuVermesan , Peter Friess , Patrick Guillemin , Harald Sundmaeker , 5 6 7 8 Markus Eisenhauer , Klaus Moessner , MarilynArndt , Maurizio Spirito , 9 10 11 12 PaoloMedagliani ,RaffaeleGiaffreda ,SergioGusmeroli ,LatifLadid , 13 13 14 Martin Serrano , Manfred Hauswirth , Gianmarco Baldini 1 SINTEF, Norway 2 European Commission, Belgium 3 ETSI, France 4 ATB GmbH, Germany 5 Fraunofer FIT, Germany 6 University of Surrey, UK 7 Orange, France 8 ISMB, Italy 9 Thales Communications & Security, France 10 CREATE-NET, Italy 11 TXT e-solutions, Italy 12 University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg 13 Digital Enterprise Research Institute, Galway, Ireland 14 Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Italy “Whatever you can do, or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it.” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe “If you want something new, you have to stop doing something old.” Peter F. Drucker “Vision is the art of seeing things invisible.” Jonathan Swift 78 Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda 3.1 Internet ofThingsVision InternetofThings(IoT)isaconceptandaparadigmthatconsiderspervasive presence in the environment of a variety of things/objects that through wireless and wired connections and unique addressing schemes are able to interactwitheachotherandcooperatewithotherthings/objectstocreatenew applications/servicesandreachcommongoals.Inthiscontexttheresearchand developmentchallengestocreateasmartworldareenormous.Aworldwhere the real, digital and the virtual are converging to create smart environments thatmakeenergy,transport,citiesandmanyotherareasmoreintelligent.The goal of the Internet of Things is to enable things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone ideally using any path/network and any service. Internet of Things is a new revolution of the Internet. Objects make themselves recognizable and they obtain intelligence by making or enablingcontextrelateddecisionsthankstothefactthattheycancommunicate information about themselves and they can access information that has been aggregated by other things, or they can be components of complex services 69. The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects that contain embeddedtechnologytocommunicateandsenseorinteractwiththeirinternal states or the external environment and the confluence of efficient wireless protocols, improved sensors, cheaper processors, and a bevy of start-ups and establishedcompaniesdevelopingthenecessarymanagementandapplication software has finally made the concept of the Internet of Things mainstream. The number of Internet-connected devices surpassed the number of human beings on the planet in 2011, and by 2020, Internet-connected devices are expected to number between 26 billion and 50 billion. For every Internet- connected PC or handset there will be 5–10 other types of devices sold with native Internet connectivity 43. AccordingtoindustryanalystfirmIDC,theinstalledbasefortheInternet ofThings will grow to approximately 212 billion devices by 2020, a number thatincludes30billionconnecteddevices.IDCseesthisgrowthdrivenlargely by intelligent systems that will be installed and collecting data - across both consumer and enterprise applications 44. These types of applications can involve the electric vehicle and the smart house, in which appliances and services that provide notifications, security, energy-saving,automation,telecommunication,computersandentertainment will be integrated into a single ecosystem with a shared user interface. IoT is providing access to information, media and services, through wired and3.1 Internet of Things Vision 9 Figure 3.1 Internet-connected devices and the future evolution (Source: Cisco, 2011) wirelessbroadbandconnections.TheInternetofThingsmakesuseofsynergies that are generated by the convergence of Consumer, Business and Industrial InternetConsumer,BusinessandIndustrialInternet.Theconvergencecreates the open, global network connecting people, data, and things. This conver- genceleveragesthecloudtoconnectintelligentthingsthatsenseandtransmita broadarrayofdata,helpingcreatingservicesthatwouldnotbeobviouswithout this level of connectivity and analytical intelligence. The use of platforms is beingdrivenbytransformativetechnologiessuchascloud,things,andmobile. The Internet of Things and Services makes it possible to create networks incorporating the entire manufacturing process that convert factories into a smartenvironment.Thecloudenablesaglobalinfrastructuretogeneratenew services, allowing anyone to create content and applications for global users. Networksofthingsconnectthingsgloballyandmaintaintheiridentityonline. Mobileallowsconnectiontothisglobalinfrastructureanytime,anywhere.The result is a globally accessible network of things, users, and consumers, who are available to create businesses, contribute content, generate and purchase new services. Platforms also rely on the power of network effects, as they allow more things, they become more valuable to the other things and to users that make use of the services generated. The success of a platform strategy for IoT canbedeterminedbyconnection,attractivenessandknowledge/information/ data flow. TheEuropeanCommissionwhilerecognizingthepotentialofConverging SciencesandTechnologiesConvergingSciencesandTechnologiestoadvance10 Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda Figure 3.2 Future Communication Challenges – 5G scenarios 2 the Lisbon Agenda, proposes a bottom-up approach to prioritize the setting of a particular goal for convergence of science and technology research; meetchallengesandopportunitiesforresearchandgovernanceandallowfor integrationoftechnologicalpotentialaswellasrecognitionoflimits,European needs, economic opportunities, and scientific interests. Enabling technologies for the Internet of Things considered in 36 can be grouped into three categories: i) technologies that enable “things” to acquirecontextualinformation, ii)technologiesthatenable“things”toprocess contextualinformation,and iii)technologiestoimprovesecurityandprivacy. Thefirsttwocategoriescanbejointlyunderstoodasfunctionalbuildingblocks required building “intelligence” into “things”, which are indeed the features that differentiate the IoT from the usual Internet. The third category is not a functional butrathera de factorequirement,withoutwhichthepenetrationof the IoT would be severely reduced. Internet of Things developments implies that the environments, cities, buildings, vehicles, clothing, portable devices andotherobjectshavemoreandmoreinformationassociatedwiththemand/or the ability to sense, communicate, network and produce new information. In additionthenetworktechnologieshavetocopewiththenewchallengessuch as very high data rates, dense crowds of users, low latency, low energy, low costandamassivenumberofdevices,The5Gscenariosthatreflectthefuture challengesandwillserveasguidanceforfurtherworkareoutlinedbytheEC funded METIS project 2.3.1 Internet of Things Vision 11 AstheInternetofThingsbecomesestablishedinsmartfactories,boththe volume and the level of detail of the corporate data generated will increase. Moreover, business models will no longer involve just one company, but willinsteadcomprisehighlydynamicnetworksofcompaniesandcompletely new value chains. Data will be generated and transmitted autonomously by smart machines and these data will inevitably cross company boundaries. A number of specific dangers are associated with this new context – for example, data that were initially generated and exchanged in order to coor- dinate manufacturing and logistics activities between different companies could, if read in conjunction with other data, suddenly provide third parties with highly sensitive information about one of the partner companies that might, for example, give them an insight into its business strategies. New instruments will be required if companies wish to pursue the conventional strategyofkeepingsuchknowledgesecretinordertoprotecttheircompetitive advantage. New, regulated business models will also be necessary – the raw data that are generated may contain information that is valuable to third parties and companies may therefore wish to make a charge for sharing them. Innovative business models like this will also require legal safeguards (predominantly in the shape of contracts) in order to ensure that the value added created is shared out fairly, e.g. through the use of dynamic pricing models 55. 3.1.1 Internet ofThings Common Definition Ten“critical”trendsandtechnologiesimpactingITforthenextfiveyearswere laidoutbyGartnerandamongthemtheInternetofThings.Allofthesethings haveanIPaddressandcanbetracked.TheInternetisexpandingintoenterprise assets and consumer items such as cars and televisions. The problem is that most enterprises and technology vendors have yet to explore the possibilities of an expanded Internet and are not operationally or organizationally ready. Gartner 54 identifies four basic usage models that are emerging: • Manage • Monetize • Operate • Extend. These can be applied to people, things, information, and places, and thereforethesocalled“InternetofThings”willbesucceededbythe“Internet of Everything.”12 Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda Figure 3.3 IPConvergence InthiscontextthenotionofnetworkconvergenceusingIPisfundamental andreliesontheuseofacommonmulti-serviceIPnetworksupportingawide range of applications and services. TheuseofIPtocommunicatewithandcontrolsmalldevicesandsensors opens the way for the convergence of large, IT-oriented networks with real time and specialized networked applications. The fundamental characteristics of the IoTare as follows 65: • Interconnectivity:WithregardtotheIoT,anythingcanbeinterconnected with the global information and communication infrastructure. • Things-related services: The IoT is capable of providing thing-related services within the constraints of things, such as privacy protection and semanticconsistencybetweenphysicalthingsandtheirassociatedvirtual things. In order to provide thing-related services within the constraints ofthings,boththetechnologiesinphysicalworldandinformationworld will change. • Heterogeneity: The devices in the IoT are heterogeneous as based on differenthardwareplatformsandnetworks.Theycaninteractwithother devices or service platforms through different networks. • Dynamicchanges:Thestateofdeviceschangedynamically,e.g.,sleeping and waking up, connected and/or disconnected as well as the context of devices including location and speed. Moreover, the number of devices can change dynamically. • Enormous scale: The number of devices that need to be managed and that communicate with each other will be at least an order of magnitude3.1 Internet of Things Vision 13 larger than the devices connected to the current Internet. The ratio of communication triggered by devices as compared to communication triggered by humans will noticeably shift towards device-triggered communication. Even more critical will be the management of the data generated and their interpretation for application purposes. This relates to semantics of data, as well as efficient data handling. The Internet of Things is not a single technology, it’s a concept in which most new things are connected and enabled such as street lights being networkedandthingslikeembeddedsensors,imagerecognitionfunctionality, augmented reality, near field communication are integrated into situational decision support, asset management and new services. These bring many business opportunities and add to the complexity of IT52. To accommodate the diversity of the IoT, there is a heterogeneous mix of communicationtechnologies,whichneedtobeadaptedinordertoaddressthe needs of IoT applications such as energy efficiency, security, and reliability. In this context, it is possible that the level of diversity will be scaled to a number a manageable connectivity technologies that address the needs of the IoT applications, are adopted by the market, they have already proved to be serviceable, supported by a strong technology alliance. Examples of standards in these categories include wired and wireless technologies like Ethernet,Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, and Z-Wave. Distribution, transportation, logistics, reverse logistics, field service, etc. are areas where the coupling of information and “things” may create new business processes or may make the existing ones highly efficient and more profitable. The Internet of Things provides solutions based on the integration of informationtechnology,which refers to hardware and software used to store, retrieve, and process data and communications technology which includes electronic systems used for communication between individuals or groups. The rapid convergence of information and communications technology is taking place at three layers of technology innovation: the cloud, data and communication pipes/networks and device 46. The synergy of the access and potential data exchange opens huge new possibilities for IoT applications. Already over 50% of Internet connections are between or with things. In 2011 there were over 15 billion things on the Web, with 50 billion+ intermittent connections. By 2020, over 30 billion connected things, with over 200 billion with intermittent connections are forecast. Key technologies here include14 Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda Figure 3.4 IoTLayeredArchitecture (Source: ITU-T) embedded sensors, image recognition and NFC. By 2015, in more than 70% of enterprises, a single executable will oversee all Internet connected things. This becomes the Internet of Everything 53. As a result of this convergence, the IoTapplications require that classical industries are adapting and the technology will create opportunities for new industries to emerge and to deliver enriched and new user experiences and services. Inaddition,tobeabletohandlethesheernumberofthingsandobjectsthat willbeconnectedintheIoT,cognitivetechnologiesandcontextualintelligence arecrucial.Thisalsoappliesforthedevelopmentofcontextawareapplications that need to be reaching to the edges of the network through smart devices that are incorporated into our everyday life. The Internet is not only a network of computers, but it has evolved into a network of devices of all types and sizes, vehicles, smartphones, home appliances, toys, cameras, medical instruments and industrial systems, all connected, all communicating and sharing information all the time. The Internet of Things had until recently different means at different levelsofabstractionsthroughthevaluechain,fromlowerlevelsemiconductor through the service providers. The Internet of Things is a “global concept” and requires a common definition. Considering the wide background and required technologies,3.1 Internet of Things Vision 15 Figure 3.5 Detailed IoTLayeredArchitecture (Source: IERC) from sensing device, communication subsystem, data aggregation and pre- processingtotheobjectinstantiationandfinallyserviceprovision,generating an unambiguous definition of the “Internet ofThings” is non-trivial. TheIERCisactivelyinvolvedinITU-TStudyGroup13,whichleadsthe workoftheInternationalTelecommunicationsUnion (ITU)onstandardsfor nextgenerationnetworks(NGN)andfuturenetworksandhasbeenpartofthe teamwhichhasformulatedthefollowingdefinition65: “Internet of things (IoT): A global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies. NOTE 1 – Through the exploitation of identification, data capture, processing and communication capabilities, the IoT makes full use of things to offer services to all kinds of applications, whilst ensuring that security and privacy requirements are fulfilled. NOTE 2 – From a broader perspective, the IoT can be perceived as a vision with technological and societal implications.” The IERC definition 67 states that IoT is “A dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standard and inter- operable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” have16 Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda Figure 3.6 The IoT: Different Services,Technologies, Meanings for Everyone 77 identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network.”. 3.2 IoT Strategic Research and Innovation Directions Thedevelopmentofenablingtechnologiessuchasnanoelectronics,communi- cations,sensors,smartphones,embeddedsystems,cloudnetworking,network virtualizationandsoftwarewillbeessentialtoprovidetothingsthecapability to be connected all the time everywhere. This will also support important future IoT product innovations affecting many different industrial sectors. Someofthesetechnologiessuchasembeddedorcyber-physicalsystemsform the edges of the Internet ofThings bridging the gap between cyber space and the physical world of real things, and are crucial in enabling the Internet of Things to deliver on its vision and become part of bigger systems in a world of “systems of systems”.3.2 IoT Strategic Research and Innovation Directions 17 Figure 3.7 IoTDefinition 68 The final report of the Key Enabling Technologies (KET), of the High- LevelExpertGroup47identifiedtheenablingtechnologies,crucialtomany of the existing and future value chains of the European economy: • Nanotechnologies. • Micro and Nano electronics • Photonics • Biotechnology • Advanced Materials • Advanced Manufacturing Systems. Assuch,IoTcreatesintelligentapplicationsthatarebasedonthesupport- ing KETs identified, as IoT applications address smart environments either physical or at cyber-space level, and in real time. To this list of key enablers, we can add the global deployment of IPv6 across the World enabling a global and ubiquitous addressing of any communicating smart thing. Fromatechnologyperspective,thecontinuousincreaseintheintegration densityproposedbyMoore’sLawwasmadepossiblebyadimensionalscaling: inreducingthecriticaldimensionswhilekeepingtheelectricalfieldconstant, oneobtainedatthesametimeahigherspeedandareducedpowerconsumption of a digital MOS circuit: these two parameters became driving forces of the microelectronics industry along with the integration density. The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors has empha- sized in its early editions the “miniaturization” and its associated benefits in terms of performances, the traditional parameters in Moore’s Law. This trendforincreasedperformanceswillcontinue,whileperformancecanalways18 Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda be traded against power depending on the individual application, sustained by the incorporation into devices of new materials, and the application of new transistor concepts.This direction for further progress is labelled “More Moore”. The second trend is characterized by functional diversification of semiconductor-baseddevices.Thesenon-digitalfunctionalitiesdocontribute to the miniaturization of electronic systems, although they do not necessarily scale at the same rate as the one that describes the development of digital functionality.Consequently,inviewofaddedfunctionality,thistrendmaybe designated “More-than-Moore” 50. Mobiledatatrafficisprojectedtodoubleeachyearbetweennowand2015 andmobileoperatorswillfinditincreasinglydifficulttoprovidethebandwidth requestedbycustomers.Inmanycountriesthereisnoadditionalspectrumthat canbeassignedandthespectralefficiencyofmobilenetworksisreachingits physical limits. Proposed solutions are the seamless integration of existing Wi-Fi networks into the mobile ecosystem.This will have a direct impact on Internet ofThings ecosystems. The chips designed to accomplish this integration are known as “multi- com” chips. Wi-Fi and baseband communications are expected to converge and the architecture of mobile devices is likely to change and the baseband chipisexpectedtotakecontroloftheroutingsotheconnectivitycomponents are connected to the baseband or integrated in a single silicon package.As a result of this architecture change, an increasing share of the integration work is likely done by baseband manufacturers (ultra -low power solutions) rather than by handset producers. The market for wireless communications is one of the fastest-growing segments in the integrated circuit industry. Breath takingly fast innovation, rapid changes in communications standards, the entry of new players, and the evolution of new market sub segments will lead to disruptions across the industry. LTE and multicom solutions increase the pressure for industry consolidation,whilethechoicebetweentheARMandx86architecturesforces players to make big bets that may or may not pay off 63. Integrated networking, information processing, sensing and actuation capabilities allow physical devices to operate in changing environments. Tightlycoupledcyberandphysicalsystemsthatexhibithighlevelofintegrated intelligencearereferredtoas cyber-physical systems.These systems are part oftheenablingtechnologiesforInternetofThingsapplicationswherecompu- tationalandphysicalprocessesofsuchsystemsaretightlyinterconnectedand coordinated to work together effectively, with or without the humans in the3.2 IoT Strategic Research and Innovation Directions 19 Figure 3.8 IoTlandscape 21 loop.Robots,intelligentbuildings,implantablemedicaldevices,vehiclesthat drive themselves or planes that automatically fly in a controlled airspace, are examples of cyber-physical systems that could be part of Internet of Things ecosystems. Today many European projects and initiatives address Internet of Things technologies and knowledge. Given the fact that these topics can be highly diverseandspecialized,thereisastrongneedforintegrationoftheindividual results.Knowledgeintegration,inthiscontextisconceptualizedastheprocess through which disparate, specialized knowledge located in multiple projects across Europe is combined, applied and assimilated. The Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) is the result of a discussion involving the projects and stakeholders involved in the IERC activities, which gather the major players of the European ICT landscape addressing IoT technology priorities that are crucial for the competitiveness of European industry:20 Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda Figure 3.9 Internet ofThings — EnablingTechnologies IERC Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda covers the important issues and challenges for the Internet of Things technology. It provides the vision and the roadmap for coordinating and rationalizing current and future research and development efforts in this field, by addressing the different enablingtechnologiescoveredbytheInternetofThingsconceptandparadigm. Many other technologies are converging to support and enable IoT applications.These technologies are summarised as: • IoTarchitecture • Identification • Communication • Networks technology • Network discovery • Software and algorithms • Hardware technology • Data and signal processing • Discovery and search engine • Network management • Power and energy storage • Security, trust, dependability and privacy3.2 IoT Strategic Research and Innovation Directions 21 • Interoperability • Standardization The Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda is developed with the support of a European-led community of interrelated projects and their stakeholders, dedicated to the innovation, creation, development and use of the Internet ofThings technology. Since the release of the first version of the Strategic Research and InnovationAgenda, we have witnessed active research on several IoTtopics. Ontheonehandthisresearchfilledseveralofthegapsoriginallyidentifiedin the Strategic Research and InnovationAgenda, whilst on the other it created new challenges and research questions. Recent advances in areas such as cloud computing, cyber-physical systems, autonomic computing, and social networkshavechangedthescopeoftheInternetofThing’sconvergenceeven moreso.TheClusterhasagoaltoprovideanupdateddocumenteachyearthat recordstherelevantchangesandillustratesemergingchallenges.Theupdated releaseofthisStrategicResearchandInnovationAgendabuildsincrementally on previous versions 68, 69, 84, 85, 85 and highlights the main research topics that are associated with the development of IoT enabling technologies, infrastructures and applications with an outlook towards 2020 73. The research items introduced will pave the way for innovative applica- tions and services that address the major economic and societal challenges underlined in the EU 2020 DigitalAgenda 74. Figure 3.10 Internet ofThings - Smart Environments and Smart Spaces Creation22 Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda The IERC Strategic Research and InnovationAgenda is developed incre- mentallybasedonitspreviousversionsandfocusonthenewchallengesbeing identified in the last period. The timeline of the Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda covers the current decade with respect to research and the following years with respect to implementation of the research results. Of course, as the Internet and its current key applications show, we anticipate unexpected trendswillemergeleadingtounforeseenandunexpecteddevelopmentpaths. The Cluster has involved experts working in industry, research and academia to provide their vision on IoT research challenges, enabling tech- nologiesandthekeyapplications,whichareexpectedtoarisefromthecurrent vision of the Internet ofThings. The IoT Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda covers in a logical manner the vision, the technological trends, the applications, the technology enablers, the research agenda, timelines, priorities, and finally summarises in two tables the future technological developments and research needs. Advances in embedded sensors, processing and wireless connectivity are bringing the power of the digital world to objects and places in the physical world. IoT Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda is aligned with the findings of the 2011 Hype Cycle developed by Gartner 76, which includes thebroadtrendoftheInternetofThings,calledthe“real-worldWeb”inearlier Gartner research. ThefieldoftheInternetofThingsisbasedontheparadigmofsupporting the IPprotocol to all edges of the Internet and on the fact that at the edge of the network many (very) small devices are still unable to support IPprotocol stacks. This means that solutions centred on minimum Internet of Things devices are considered as an additional Internet of Things paradigm without IP to all access edges,duetotheirimportanceforthedevelopmentofthefield. 3.2.1 IoT Applications and Use Case Scenarios TheIERCvisionisthat“themajorobjectivesforIoTarethecreationofsmart environments/spaces and self-aware things (for example: smart transport, products,cities,buildings,ruralareas,energy,health,living,etc.)forclimate, food, energy, mobility, digital society and health applications”68. Theoutlookforthefutureistheemergingofanetworkofinterconnected uniquely identifiable objects and their virtual representations in an Internet alike structure that is positioned over a network of interconnected computers allowing for the creation of a new platform for economic growth.3.2 IoT Strategic Research and Innovation Directions 23 Figure3.11 Internet ofThings in the context of Smart Environments andApplications 84 Smart is the new green as defined by Frost & Sullivan 51 and the green products and services will be replaced by smart products and services. Smart productshavearealbusinesscase,cantypicallyprovideenergyandefficiency savings of up to 30 per cent, and generally deliver a two- to three-year return on investment. This trend will help the deployment of Internet of Things applications and the creation of smart environments and spaces. At the city level, the integration of technology and quicker data analysis will lead to a more coordinated and effective civil response to security and safety (law enforcement and blue light services); higher demand for outsourcing security capabilities. At the building level, security technology will be integrated into systems and deliver a return on investment to the end-user through leveraging the technology in multiple applications (HR and time and attendance, customer behaviour in retail applications etc.). There will be an increase in the development of “Smart” vehicles which havelow(andpossiblyzero)emissions.Theywillalsobeconnectedtoinfras- tructure. Additionally, auto manufacturers will adopt more use of “Smart” materials. The key focus will be to make the city smarter by optimizing resources, feedingitsinhabitantsbyurbanfarming,reducingtrafficcongestion,providing moreservicestoallowforfastertravelbetweenhomeandvariousdestinations, and increasing accessibility for essential services. It will become essential to haveintelligentsecuritysystemstobeimplementedatkeyjunctionsinthecity. Various types of sensors will have to be used to make this a reality. Sensors are moving from “smart” to “intelligent”. Biometrics is already integrated in24 Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda the smart mobile phones and is expected to be used together with CCTV at highly sensitive locations around the city. National identification cards will also become an essential tool for the identification of an individual. In addition,smartcitiesin2020willrequirerealtimeautoidentificationsecurity systems. The IoT brings about a paradigm were everything is connected and will redefine the way humans and machines interface and the way they interact with the world around them. Fleet Management is used to track vehicle location, hard stops, rapid acceleration,andsuddenturnsusingsophisticatedanalysisofthedatainorder toimplementnewpolicies(e.g.,noright/leftturns)thatresultincostsavings for the business. Todaytherearebillionsofconnectedsensorsalreadydeployedwithsmart phones and many other sensors are connected to these smart mobile network using different communication protocols. Thechallengesisingettingthedatafromtheminaninteroperableformat and in creating systems that break vertical silos and harvest the data across domains, thus unleashing truly useful IoT applications that are user centred, contextawareandcreatenewservicesbycommunicationacrosstheverticals. Wastewatertreatmentplantswillevolveintobio-refineries.New,innova- tive wastewater treatment processes will enable water recovery to help close the growing gap between water supply and demand. Self-sensing controls and devices will mark new innovations in the Building Technologies space. Customers will demand more automated, self- controlled solutions with built in fault detection and diagnostic capabilities. Development of smart implantable chips that can monitor and report individual health status periodically will see rapid growth. Smart pumps and smart appliances/devices are expected to be significant contributorstowardsefficiencyimprovement.Processequipmentwithinbuilt “smartness”toself-assessandgeneratereportsontheirperformance,enabling efficient asset management, will be adopted. Test and measurement equipment is expected to become smarter in the future in response to the demand for modular instruments having lower power consumption. Furthermore, electronics manufacturing factories will becomemoresustainablewithrenewableenergyandsellunusedenergyback to the grid, improved water conservation with rain harvesting and imple- ment other smart building technologies, thus making their sites “Intelligent Manufacturing Facilities”.3.2 IoT Strategic Research and Innovation Directions 25 Figure 3.12 Connected Devices Illustration 62 GeneralElectricCo.considersthatthisistakingplacethroughtheconver- genceoftheglobalindustrialsystemwiththepowerofadvancedcomputing, analytics, low-cost sensing and new levels of connectivity permitted by the Internet.Thedeepermeshingofthedigitalworldwiththeworldofmachines holdsthepotentialtobringaboutprofoundtransformationtoglobalindustry, and in turn to many aspects of daily life 58. TheIndustrialInternetstartswithembeddingsensorsandotheradvanced instrumentationinanarrayofmachinesfromthesimpletothehighlycomplex. Thisallowsthecollectionandanalysisofanenormousamountofdata,which can be used to improve machine performance, and inevitably the efficiency of the systems and networks that link them. Even the data itself can become “intelligent,” instantly knowing which users it needs to reach. Consumer IoT is essentially wireless, while the industrial IoT has to deal with an installed base of millions of devices that could potentially becomepartofthisnetwork(manylegacysystemsinstalledbeforeIPdeploy- ment). These industrial objects are linked by wires that provides the reliable communications needed. The industrial IoT has to consider the legacy using specialisedprotocols,includingLonworks,DeviceNet,ProfibusandCANand they will be connected into this new netwoek of networks through gateways.

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