How Improve Public Speaking skills

how public speaking differs from casual conversation and how public speaking is similar to everyday conversation and how public speaking helps you
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JuliyaMadenta,Philippines,Researcher
Published Date:15-07-2017
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PUBLC SPEAKING IS FOR EVERYONE Getting Started Overview ‘Getting started’ introduces you to public speaking. In this section, you have the opportunity to: learn what ‘public speaking’ means  find out different ways to be involved in public speaking  choose a well-known or significant speech to research using the internet   consider your involvement in public speaking and the benefits and challenges for you participate in some communication activities  begin working on a prepared speech.  1. About public speaking Introduction Public speaking is about speaking in front of an audience. It is more formal than everyday conversations. For example, the speaker usually talks to the audience without being interrupted. The purpose of a speech is to communicate with the audience. For example, you might want to inform them about a topic, convince them of your point of view or arouse sympathy for an issue you feel passionate about. Speeches vary greatly in style and presentation. The style and presentation of a speech depends on:  the personality and experience of the speaker  the content and purpose of the speech. Occasions People make speeches in many different situations. Consider these nine examples. Complete the questions in the three 'Discussion' boxes below. Cartoon 1 Cartoon 2 Cartoon 3 Cartoon 4 Cartoon 5 Cartoon 6 Cartoon 7 Cartoon 8 Cartoon 9 Complete the discussion questions below. Choose three cartoons and think about the following: 1. What is the situation or context? 2. Who might make speeches in these situations? Discussion 1 3. Who is the audience? 4. What might the speakers say? 5. What words or language might the speakers use? Discuss your responses as a class or in small groups. Think of another situation where someone might make a speech. Explain: 1. the situation 2. the purpose of the speech Discussion 2 3. who the audience would be 4. what the speaker might say 5. the types of words or language the speaker might use. Discuss your ideas as a class or in small groups. Choose an occasion when you spoke, or you listened to someone else speak, in public. Explain to another person: Discussion 1. the situation 3 2. what the speech was about 3. how your or the speaker tried to communicate with the audience 4. how the audience responded 5. how successful you felt the speech was and why 6. your feelings as you either delivered or listened to the speech. Get involved Maybe you've already had some public speaking experiences, for example giving a speech in front of your class. Public speaking gives you the chance to communicate your ideas, knowledge or opinions to a larger group of people. Public speaking can help you to develop important skills. It can help you learn to: 1. speak clearly and fluently 2. organise your thoughts logically 3. express ideas confidently 4. develop imagination and spontaneity 5. use voice, body language and words to communicate 6. maintain audience interest. You can become a good public speaker with practice. Activity List three challenges and benefits for you in being involved in public speaking. Share your ideas in a small group. Choose one point to tell about in a class discussion. Challenges Benefits 2. Public speaking competitions Introduction Every year, hundreds of students take part in public speaking competitions in NSW schools. Some students go on to compete in regional, district, state and national finals. At public speaking events, students make two speeches:  a prepared speech they have rehearsed  a speech made up on the day on a topic given to all contestants. Both speeches have a time limit. The speeches are delivered in front of an audience. Speakers are judged on how well they communicate their ideas to the audience. Participants Many public speaking events are organised like the event shown below. Explore the different roles of the participants. Locate: 1. the speaker 2. other contestants 3. the chairperson 4. the two adjudicators 5. the audience. Feedback Speaker delivers her speech to the audience. Audience member listens and responds to the speaker. Chairperson introduces each speaker and the topic of the speech. Adjudicator evaluates the speakers as part of a team of adjudicators. At the end of a competition, the team decides on the winner. One adjudicator announces the winner and gives general comments on the speeches. Adjudicator evaluates the speakers as part of a team of adjudicators. Competitions Three major annual public speaking competitions for schools are:  The Multicultural Perspectives Public Speaking Competition  Legacy Junior Public Speaking Award  Sydney Morning Herald Plain English Speaking Award The competitions are organised by The Arts Unit. Visit their website for details: www.artsunit.nsw.edu.au 3. Speaker’s Corner Introduction The art of public speaking is known as oratory. An orator is the person who makes the speech. For centuries, orators have used their skills to persuade and rally their audiences. Some speeches are considered significant for the context in which they are given. Others are also remembered for their powerful use of words. Quote me Read the following quotes from five speeches. Which quotes have you heard before? Do you know who said these words and in what context? Quote '...we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the 1 fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender...' Quote 'To the mothers and the fathers, the brothers and the sisters, for the breaking up of families 2 and communities, we say sorry.' Quote ‘We gather together to celebrate freedom, to celebrate democracy, to celebrate the three 3 most beautiful words in the English language: We the people.’ Quote 'Ask not what your country can do for you — ask what you can do for your country.' 4 Quote '...this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the 5 people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.' Activity Choose one of the quotes above and research answers to the following questions. Use the internet, books or other sources of information. To complete this activity you will need to read or listen to the speech.  Who said these words and what speech is it from?  When and where was the speech delivered (said)?  Who was the audience?  What was the purpose or reason for the speech?  What message was the speaker making?  How does the language in the speech help to achieve its purpose?  Is this a good speech? Give two examples from the speech to support your response. Turn your responses into a speech and deliver it to a small group of students or your class. The table below shows who said the words quoted in 'Quote me'. Quote 1 '...we shall fight on the beaches...' — Winston Churchill, 1940 Quote 2 '...for the breaking up of families and communities, we say sorry...' — Kevin Rudd, 2008 Quote 3 ‘We gather together to celebrate freedom…’ – Benazir Bhutto, 1989 Quote 4 'ask not what your country can do for you...' — John F. Kennedy, 1961 Quote 5 '...that government of the people, by the people...' — Abraham Lincoln, 1863 4. Communication activities Introduction Activity list 1 Really listening 2 Models 3 Tongue twisters Good communication requires skills in speaking and listening. These activities will help you to develop your skills. When speaking:  look at the people you are addressing  speak up so they can hear you  speak clearly so they can understand you  don't rush (don't speak too quickly)  don’t use lengthy pauses (don’t speak too slowly) Activity 1 Really listening Purpose: to practise looking at people while you speak and experience people really listening to you. 1. Choose a partner to work with. 2. Think of a topic you know a lot about (for example, your family or friends, your pets, a sport or sportsperson, your favourite place). 3. Speak for half a minute about your topic while your partner models 'really listening'- no interrupting, comments or eye rolling. 4. Swap roles. 5. Discuss how it felt to be really listened to and how it felt to look at someone while talking for a long period of time. Discuss the listener's experience: Did they actually listen? How did they show they were listening? How did the speaker know they were listening? Cultural note Culture The way we communicate with others is influenced by our culture. For example, some cultures may regard maintaining 'eye contact' as disrespectful. Can you think of any ways that your cultural background influences the way you communicate with others? Remember, when relating to people from other cultures it may be important to modify your speech, tone of voice, body language or even what you wear. Activity 2 Models Purpose: to learn skills by modelling yourself on others.  Observe people as they make speeches in public (for example, at school, at sporting and social events or on TV). What do the effective public speakers do? Practise doing those things as well.  Think of someone you consider is a 'good communicator'. It could be a friend, family member, teacher or member of your community or someone you've seen on TV. What qualities help to make that person a 'good communicator'? Activity 3 Tongue twisters Purpose: to learn not to worry about making some mistakes One aspect of good communication is speaking clearly. But everybody stumbles now and then. In a group of about four, take it in turns to say the following tongue twisters. Each is to be said twice clearly with correct word pronunciation. Top Ten Twisters  Cheap ship trips  Truly plural  A big black bug bit a big brown bear  Canned cod comes completely cooked  Bonnie burned the brown bread badly  Eight grey geese grazing gaily in Greece  Six thick thistle sticks  The sun shines on the shop signs  Tom threw Tim three thumb tacks  Weak writers want white ruled writing paper Preparation Overview In ‘Preparation’ you explore the process of preparing a speech and develop skills and techniques that can enable you to become an effective public speaker. In this section, you have the opportunity to: learn different ways to organise your speech and important presentation techniques  consider the difference between formal and informal speech as well as spoken and written language  explore persuasive techniques and ways to connect ideas together  build an understanding of the process or steps involved in preparing a speech  complete activities to practise your skills and knowledge  prepare a four-minute speech as part of your Strictly Speaking task.  1. Manner Introduction Manner is how you present your speech. Manner includes:  eye contact  use of voice  gesture  stance  use of palm cards. Manner involves using vocal expression and body language to help communicate with your audience. How a speech is presented or delivered will depend on its purpose as well as the personality of the speaker. As you read about manner on the following pages, consider how you can use some of these techniques to effectively deliver a speech. Eye contact Eye contact is when you look another person in the eyes as they look at your eyes. Eye contact is an important part of communicating when talking and listening to other people. As you give your speech, maintain eye contact with different sections of the audience to engage everyone. Some cultures consider maintaining eye contact is not appropriate when speaking to others. Always consider the audience you are speaking to when presenting your speech. Voice Vary your voice as you speak to add meaning and express emotion, making a more effective speech. Consider varying these aspects: Pace: how quickly or slowly you speak Rhythm: the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables (also includes elements of pace and pause) Pitch: the highness or lowness of your voice Volume: the loudness or softness of your voice Pause: a short or momentary break in delivery of your speech. Gesture Gesture refers to the movements you make with your hands or arms as you speak. Gestures can help to stress a point or add life to your speech. For example:  clenching your hands for anger  turning your palms upwards to show puzzlement. Don't over use gestures or use them inappropriately. Avoid nervous movements such as repeatedly brushing your hair back. Stance Being relaxed and natural in your stance lets the audience know you are confident about what you will say. Choose a comfortable stance such as standing with your feet slightly apart. Try not to move around as you speak as this can distract an audience. Palm Cards Palm cards are small pieces of cardboard on which you can write the key points of your speech. You can refer to them while you speak. Don't try to read your speech from the cards. Look at them as little as possible so that you are able to maintain eye contact with your audience. Hold your palm cards in one hand so that you are also able to use gestures when appropriate. Tips Read these tips about 'manner'. They will help you make an effective speech, including in public speaking competitions. Follow these tips:  Be natural.  Always look at your audience.  Change the tone and volume of your voice but still keep it natural.  If you have to think about a gesture, then don't do it.  Use palm cards not pieces of paper.  Make your palm cards small enough to fit into the palm of one hand.  You're not allowed to sing, dance, use props or pretend to be someone else in public speaking competitions. 2. Matter Introduction 'Matter' is what you say in your speech. It relates to the topic and message or point of view you want to get across to the audience. The content of a speech is often affected by the context. For example, a speech at an Anzac Day ceremony will have different content from a speech for your science class. In public speaking competitions the content should address current issues in the media. Tips Here are five tips about 'matter'. Keep these in mind when preparing your speeches. Follow these tips:  When choosing a topic, choose one that you like and know a lot about, but also one that your audience might be interested in.  Be original. That's what distinguishes one speech from others.  Have a message or a point of view in your speech.  Don't list possible solutions to a problem and leave the audience to decide.  If you ask a question during your speech, make sure you answer it. 3. Method Introduction Method refers to how a speech is organised. Method includes things such as:  beginning  middle  ending  timing. Having a well-organised speech will help you make an effective speech. Think of the structure in three parts: a beginning, middle and end. A brief, strong beginning and end will capture your audience's attention. Develop the subject or theme of your speech in the middle. Timing refers to how long it takes to say your speech. Make sure you can deliver it in the time allowed if there is a limit. To check the timing, rehearse the speech as if you were delivering it to your audience. Beginning The beginning or introduction of your speech should be very short. Aim to capture the audience's attention so they really want to listen to what you have to say. Make the subject and purpose of the speech clear. The introduction might include:  the title of your speech (but not in a way such as 'Today my topic is...')  a question that will be answered in the middle of the speech  a startling opinion, fact or statement  a real life example. Middle The middle is the development or the body of the speech. It is the main part of your speech. Link it to the beginning of your speech in a logical and interesting way. In the body, the speaker gets their message across. Include a few well-explained ideas or arguments that support the topic and purpose of your speech. The points should be linked together. Don't recite them like a list. Ending The ending of a speech is called the conclusion. It is the climax or goal of your speech. Sums up the subject and purpose of your speech in a short final statement. Relate the style and content of your conclusion to the introduction. In public speaking competitions, your conclusion should be about 30 seconds long so that you can confidently deliver the final words of your speech when the warning bell rings. Methods Below are three methods you can use to organise the content of a speech. Read the explanation of each method. S.C.G Self: relate the topic to your own experiences (beginning) Community or Country: talk about the topic in a bigger context (middle) Global: talk about the topic as it relates to the world (ending) P.I.N. Positive: commence with a positive thought (beginning) Interesting: develop your positive thought into something interesting (middle) Negative: conclude with something that is negative about your topic (ending) P.P.F. Past: begin with your topic in the past (beginning) Present: develop this topic into what happens now (middle) Future: use your imagination to talk about what may occur with your topic in the future (ending) Tips The following points about method are useful, particularly when preparing speeches for public speaking competitions. Follow these tips:  Work towards getting your message across.  Make the middle of your speech sound inspired and spontaneous.  Avoid a long introduction.  End with the main point or message of your speech.  Avoid common endings like 'remember next time ...', and 'like I always say ...' 4. Mind your language Introduction Your language (the words, phrases and sentences you use) will have an impact on how well you communicate with your audience. Explore four language features below. Persuasion: Learn some persuasive language techniques that will help to win your audience to your point of view. Formality: Find out how public speaking differs from our everyday conversations. Speak it: Explore some differences between the way we speak and write. Connections: Learn some techniques to connect your ideas together. Persuasion Many speeches try to persuade an audience to a particular point of view. For example, the purpose may be to gain:  support for a government policy  votes for an election candidate  action on a local issue. When you want to win your audience to your point of view, it is helpful to use some persuasive techniques. One technique is to use strongly positive or negative words such as 'achievement' or 'disaster'. Persuasive techniques The persuasive techniques below can be used in a speech to help win your audience to your point of view. The subject, content and purpose of your speech will help you to decide which techniques are appropriate. Technique Explanation Example Words that include the audience and imply you, us, we, our Direct appeal they have an interest in the topic Words that appeal to the ‘…it was a proud moment for our Emotional emotions, such as stirring great country when…’ appeal patriotic feelings Witty, use of words such as ‘ don’t be a drip when it comes to Humour puns, and images or amusing using water.’ stories or situations Directions or commands ‘Don’t let this happen.’ Assertive (beginning with a verb.) language Strongly positive, negative, Value, easy, free, success, disaster, Persuasive emotional or colourful words devalue, failure words or phrases Statistics and Facts and figures that support and give ‘Indigenous people earn only half the facts authority to an argument average Australian income.’ Tone The manner or style of the language in the Casual, friendly, aggressive, formal, text positive, encouraging, assertive Visuals Body language, memorable graphics, charts Clenching your fist to indicate anger and tables to illustrate or emphasise a point or passion Expert quotes Statements by expert people to give ‘Austrian philosopher, Ludwig authority to a point Leichenstein argued…’ View a list of strongly positive and negative words at the following website or complete your own web search for ‘persuasive words’. http://www.education.umd.edu/blt/unit/pgcc/PersuasiveWords.htm

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