Business Analysis Body of Knowledge

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Version 1.6 A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge International Institute of Business AnalysisPreface Preface to Release 1.6 P.1 Purpose of this release The purpose of this release is to add refined detailed content to the material that was published in BOK 1.4, as well as add content in most of the areas not addressed in 1.4. This release moves us significantly closer to a complete guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge. As such, this release is being made available to IIBA members only. We will continue to provide the table of contents and pieces of content to the general public to help potential members understand what is covered in the BOK. This document represents a snapshot of the Knowledge Area documentation as of June 2006. Over the past months since the October 2005 previous release we have gathered feedback and input from many business analysis practitioners through a structured feedback process. Each reviewer in that process was pre-screened to ensure they represented practitioners with at least 3-5 years experience. Their feedback was used by the Knowledge Area sub-committees to refine our content. We extend a huge thank-you to each reviewer for taking the time to help in the ongoing creation of the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge. We also heard from many IIBA members and potential members who informally reviewed the previous version. Rest assured your comments and ideas sparked many discussions among the core team or sub-committees. Your support and enthusiasm have been critical is helping us maintain focus and momentum. Thank you P.2 What is and is not in this release This release includes: • An updated introductory chapter including an updated definition of the business analyst role, and a definition of requirements types. The introduction chapter will continue to be revised as the BOK is further refined. • Both refined and added content for: o Enterprise Analysis o Requirements Planning and Management o Requirements Elicitation o Requirements Analysis and Documentation o Solution Assessments and Validation o Requirements Communication • An updated structure for the Underlying Fundamentals area. A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 1 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Preface This release does not include: • The detailed content describing the Underlying Fundamentals area • An updated Glossary P.3 Continuing the review and refinement process To address missing content a new sub-committee for Underlying Fundamentals has been created and is already hard at work on content. We will also have someone focus on the Glossary to ensure all key terms are added. So, while there is still some content to be added for the next release, the primary focus will be on refinement of the existing material. The ongoing review and refinement process has a number of components: BOK Core Team Review for consistency and coherence across the Body of Knowledge The BOK core team is currently reviewing the inputs and outputs of each knowledge area in order to: • fix inconsistencies between chapters • fix any redundancy between chapters Many members of the core team have been heavily involved in writing detailed content for specific knowledge areas. We now have the opportunity to also participate in a detailed review of the material we did not write. This will further enable us to find and fix inconsistencies. Our detailed review will focus on: • keeping the BOK as a descriptor of the knowledge needed by a business analyst vs. an analysis process or analysis methodology, or a how-to guide • verifying that the BOK remains methodology-neutral and broadly applicable • detailed integration between the Knowledge Areas • ensuring a consistent level of detail across the Knowledge Areas Industry Expert Advisory Group for industry validation We have created a panel of industry experts who can provide feedback and input based on their specialty and experience. This group will be assisting us through the end of 2006 by reviewing the overall scope of the BOK in preparation of the rollout of the certification program at the end of this year. A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 2 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Preface In 2007, the group will assist us with a detailed review of the content. We are still building this group. As of the date of writing this panel includes: • Scott Ambler, Owner and Founder of Ambysoft Inc. and Practice Leader Agile Development, IBM Rational. • James Baird, Professor at Humber College and Owner of BPM3 Inc., • Rafael Dorantes, Senior Project Manager, Rational Centre of Competency, IBM Canada Inc. • Ellen Gottesdiener, Principal Consultant and founder of EBG Consulting, Inc., • Paul Harmon, Executive Editor, Business Process Trends, • Ann M. Hickey, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Information Systems, University of Colorado, • Dean Leffingwell, entrepreneur, software industry executive, and technical author, • Mark McGregor, Principal, ( • Meilir Page-Jones, President and Senior Consulting Methodologist, • Richard Payne, Consulting Partner, Bauhaus Consulting Group, • Karen Tate, Member of the PMI Board of Directors and President of the Griffin Tate Group, • Steve Tockey, Principal Consultant, Construx Software, • Dr. Ralph R. Young, Director of Process Improvement, Systems and Process Engineering, Defense Group, Northrop Grumman Information Technology, General membership review and input on specific topics As the review and refinement continues, there will be specific topics or questions we need to put to the IIBA membership. At various times, specific topics or small surveys will be posted on the IIBA forum in the BOK area. Please check there often for topics of interest to you. A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 3 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Preface Professional editing for adherence to the style guide, overall flow and readability Finally, we recognize that most of the BOK Core team are not professional writers or editors. As we head into the 2007 release(s) we will be obtaining the professional editing services required to move us to a professional BOK publication. P.4 Thinking ahead to the next release As this release is published, work has already begun on the next release planned for the end of 2006. The next release will include: • Content for all sections of each knowledge area and an updated Glossary. • Refinements based on the Body of Knowledge core team review to ensure all the connections between the knowledge areas are rationalized. • Refinements based on the review feedback from our Industry Expert Group. P.5 Contributors to this Release The following volunteers have contributed to this release. Name Role Kathleen Barret Member, Body of Knowledge Committee and President, IIBA Kevin Brennan Co-chair, Body of Knowledge Committee and Leader, Requirements Analysis & Documentation Sub-committee Barbara Carkenord Member, Body of Knowledge Committee and Leader, Requirements Communication Sub-committee and Solution Assessment and Validation Sub-committee Mary Gorman Member, Body of Knowledge Committee and Leader, Requirements Elicitation Sub-committee Kathleen (Kitty) Hass Member, Body of Knowledge Committee and Leader, Enterprise Analysis Sub-committee Brenda Kerton Chairperson, Body of Knowledge Committee Elizabeth Larson Member, Body of Knowledge Committee and Co-leader, BOK Review Sub- committee Richard Larson Member, Body of Knowledge Committee and Co-leader, BOK Review Sub- committee Dulce Oliveira Member, Body of Knowledge Committee and Leader, Requirements Planning & Management Sub-committee Cleve Pillifant Member, Accreditation – liaison to Body of Knowledge Committee Tony Alderson Member, Requirements Analysis & Documentation Sub-committee Neil Burton Member, Enterprise Analysis Sub-committee Karen Chandler Member, Requirements Communication Sub-committee Richard Fox Member, Requirements Planning & Management Sub-committee Rosemary Hossenlopp Member, Requirements Analysis & Documentation Sub-committee Peter Gordon Member, Fundamentals Subcommittee Monica Jain Member, Requirements Planning & Management Sub-committee Peter Kovaks Member, Requirements Communication Sub-committee Finny Lee Member, Requirement Elicitation Sub-committee A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 4 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 What is the IIBA BOK? The Business Analysis Body of Knowledge is the sum of knowledge within the profession of Business Analysis and reflects what is considered currently accepted practice. As with other professions, the body of knowledge is defined and enhanced by the business analysis professionals who apply it. The BOK describes Business Analysis areas of knowledge, their associated activities and tasks and the skills necessary to be effective in their execution. Since the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge is growing and evolving constantly, this release must be considered an evolving guide to the complete body of knowledge. Additions will be made at least bi-annually for the next few years until the complete foundation has been established. While specific techniques may be referenced, the criteria for including information in the guide are that it is proven, generally accepted and widely applied. 1.2 Purpose of the Guide to the IIBA BOK The primary purpose of this guide is to identify the Business Analysis Knowledge Areas that are generally recognized and accepted as good practice. The Guide provides a general overview of each Knowledge Area and the list of activities and tasks associated with each. As this is the first time a formal document focused on the practice of Business Analysis has been collected and collated into a structured document, the Guide is also intended as a spring board for discussions amongst its professionals using a common, agreed to vocabulary. Going forward the Guide will provide the basic reference document for all practitioners. In addition, as the Guide reflects the fundamental knowledge required of an effective Business Analysis professional, any assessment or certification would require a demonstration of ability to perform the activities and tasks identified within it. The Guide to the Body of Knowledge is the basis for developing examination questions for the exam that individuals must pass to become certified by IIBA. Applicants for IIBA Certification will be tested on their knowledge in each area in a rigorous and psychometrically sound examination. This examination is being developed as the IIBA BOK is constructed and with the aid of a professional certification and licensure testing company. IIBA is following the International Standard ISO/IEC 17024, General Requirements for Bodies Operating Certification of Persons, in the creation of the certification and examination processes. This guide provides a basic reference for anyone interested in the profession of Business Analysis. This includes, but is not limited to: • Senior Executives A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 7 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 1 Introduction • Managers of Business Analysis Professionals • Business Analysis Professionals • Project managers • Educators and Trainers teaching Business Analysis and related topics • Consultants and other specialists in Business Analysis This document is neither comprehensive nor all-inclusive. It lays the groundwork for on- going development of the Body of Knowledge and will expand as information is added. 1.3 Defining the Business Analysis Profession The IIBA is an organization that is dedicated to advancing the professionalism of its members as well as the business analysis profession itself. IIBA recognizes the important contributions business analysts make to organizations every day. As the governing body, IIBA is seeking to establish common standards of knowledge within the BA profession and is committed to work with practitioners around the globe to continually add to those standards through education, research, and the sharing of effective tools and techniques. A universally recognized certification is the first step towards creating a profession unique to the functions of business analysis. Establishing a certification for the profession will create a common expectation by organizations of the skills and knowledge they will receive from certified business analysts. Business Analysis is the set of tasks, knowledge, and techniques required to identify business needs and determine solutions to business problems. Solutions often include a systems development component, but may also consist of process improvement or organizational change. Those performing business analysis are today known by a number of titles such as business analyst, business systems analyst, systems analyst and others. For simplicity in this guide we refer to those performing business analysis as business analysts. Business analysis is distinct from financial analysis, project management, quality assurance, organizational development, testing, training and documentation development. However, depending on an organization, an individual Business Analyst may perform some or all of these related functions. 1.4 Core Concepts of Business Analysis This section covers the knowledge needed to make effective use of the material in the Knowledge Areas. Typically this knowledge is required across all the knowledge areas. Much basic terminology is covered in the Glossary (Chapter 9), but the most key concepts and knowledge are also discussed here with more detail than a glossary entry can allow. This section will grow as the detailed material for each knowledge area is developed. A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 8 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 1 Introduction 1.4.1 Definition of the Business Analyst Role A business analyst works as a liaison among stakeholders in order to elicit, analyze, communicate and validate requirements for changes to business processes, policies and information systems. The business analyst understands business problems and opportunities in the context of the requirements and recommends solutions that enable the organization to achieve its goals. 1.4.2 Definition of a requirement 1 A requirement is : 2 (1) A condition or capability needed by a stakeholder to solve a problem or achieve an objective. (2) A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system or system component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed documents. (3) A documented representation of a condition or capability as in (1) or (2). Requirements serve as the foundation of systems or system components. A requirement can be thought of as something that is demanded or obligatory; a property that is essential for the system to perform its functions. Requirements vary in intent and in kinds of properties. They can be functions, constraints, or other elements that must be present to meet the needs of the intended stakeholders. Requirements can be described as a condition or capability a customer needs to solve a problem or achieve an objective. For clarification purposes, a descriptor should always precede requirements; for example, business requirements, user requirements, functional requirements. 1.4.3 Definition of requirements types The types of requirements that exist vary based on the problem domain and methodology that the Business Analyst works with. For the purposes of the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, the following types of standard requirements types have been defined: • Business Requirements are higher-level statements of the goals, objectives, or needs of the enterprise. They describe such things the reasons why a project is initiated, the things that the project will achieve, and the metrics which will be used to measure its success. They are detailed further in the Enterprise Analysis KA. • User Requirements are statements of the needs of a particular stakeholder or class of stakeholders. They describe the needs that a given stakeholder has and how that stakeholder will interact with a solution. User Requirements serve as a bridge between Business Requirements and the various classes of solution requirements. 1 This definition is based on IEEE Std 610.12-1990. 2 The word “user” in IEEE Std. 610.12-1990 has been changed to “stakeholder”. Requirements may emerge from persons or organizations that do not directly interact with the system under development. A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 9 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 1 Introduction They are gathered from stakeholders as described in the Requirements Elicitation KA and documented using the techniques described in the Requirements Analysis and Documentation KA. • Functional Requirements describe the behavior and information that the solution will manage. They describe capabilities the system will be able to perform in terms of behaviors or operations – a specific system action or response. They are further described in the Requirements Analysis and Documentation KA. • Quality of Service Requirements capture conditions that do not directly relate to the behavior or functionality of the solution, but rather describe environmental conditions under which the solution must remain effective or qualities that the systems must have. They are also known as non-functional or supplementary requirements. They are further described in the Requirements Analysis and Documentation KA. • Assumptions and constraints identify aspects of the problem domain that are not functional requirements of a solution, and will limit or impact the design of the solution. They are further described in the Requirements Analysis and Documentation KA. • Implementation requirements describe capabilities that the solution must have in order to facilitate transition from the current state of the enterprise to the desired future state, but that will not be needed once that transition is complete. They are further described in the Solution Assessment and Validation KA. 1.4.4 Effective requirements practices Through practical experience and study of system and software engineering practices, it is clear that the use of effective requirements definition and management practices leads to successful projects, satisfied customers and increased professionalism in the industry. Benefits include: • A clear understanding of the needs of users, customers and stakeholders • A collaborative relationship between the users, customers and stakeholders and the technical team • A strong commitment of the requirements development team members to project objectives • Use of a repeatable requirements process that is continuously improved • A system architecture that supports the users, customers and stakeholders current and planned needs A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 10 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 1 Introduction • The ability to accommodate changes in requirements as they are progressively elaborated • High quality systems and products • System development cost savings, accurate schedules, customer satisfaction 1.5 The Body of Knowledge in summary There are six knowledge areas defined, that combined, cover the core areas where the IIBA will set professional standards for those performing business analysis: • Enterprise Analysis • Requirements Planning and Management • Requirements Elicitation • Requirements Communication • Requirements Analysis and Documentation • Solution Assessment and Validation Two other topics round out the knowledge requirements for business analysts: • BA Fundamentals • Glossary 1.5.1 Enterprise Analysis This knowledge area is the collection of pre-project or early project activities and approaches for capturing the necessary view of the business to provide context to requirements and functional design work for a given initiative and/or for long term planning. In some organizations this work is treated as an investigative, feasibility or business architecture initiative and treated as a project in itself. It is important for those in the Business Analysis profession to understand the organizational environment in which they are working. They should understand how the project, and their work in it, supports the entire enterprise. Typical Enterprise Analysis activities leading up to project selection guided by the Business Analyst include those listed below. While these activities appear to be sequential, they are often conducted concurrently and iteratively. • Creating and maintaining the Business Architecture • Conducting feasibility studies to determine the optimum business solution A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 11 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 1 Introduction • Identifying new business opportunities • Scoping and defining the new business opportunity • Preparing the Business Case • Conducting the initial Risk Assessment • Preparing the Decision Package. Enterprise Analysis is covered in Chapter 2. 1.5.2 Requirements Planning and Management The Requirements Planning and Management Knowledge Area defines the resources and tasks associated with the planning and management of requirements gathering activities throughout the requirements process. The Business Analyst must define the requirements activities that will be performed and how those activities will be performed on a project, in accordance with any existing standards in the organization. It includes identifying key roles, selecting requirements activities, managing the requirements scope and ongoing communication of the requirements gathering status. Proper planning and management of requirements gathering activities ensures the success of the requirements process and requirements deliverables. Before initiating requirements activities and during the requirements process it is important to consider how the Business Analysis team is going about the requirements activities on a project. This is necessary to ensure: • the set of requirements activities undertaken are the most appropriate, given the unique circumstances of the project, • the requirements work effort is coordinated with the other work being done for the project, • the whole requirements team on a project has a common understanding of what activities they are undertaking, • business analysts are able to monitor and react to requirements challenges and slippage, • the tools, resources and requirements contributors are available as needed for the requirements activities, • and, changes are captured correctly and consistently. Requirements Planning and Management is covered in Chapter 3. A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 12 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 1 Introduction 1.5.3 Requirements Elicitation Eliciting requirements is a key task in business analysis. Because the requirements serve as the foundation for the solution to the business needs it is essential that the requirements be complete, clear, correct, and consistent. Leveraging proven means to elicit requirements will help meet these quality goals. The Requirements Elicitation knowledge area defines standard techniques used to collect the requirements of the system. This activity is also known in the industry as “eliciting” requirements. The system in question may be a business system, and automated system or both. The scope of the Elicitation work may be a new system or an enhancement to an existing system. The business analysis professional selects the appropriate mean(s) to gather the needed requirements based on the applicability of a technique’s process, key features and strengths and weakness. Requirements Elicitation is covered in Chapter 4. 1.5.4 Requirements Analysis and Documentation This knowledge area describes how stakeholder needs are analyzed, structured and specified for use in the design and implementation of a solution. The objective is to define and describe the characteristics of an acceptable solution to a business problem, so that the project team has a clear understanding of how to design and implement it. Requirements analysis defines the methods, tools and techniques used to structure the raw data collected during Requirements Elicitation, identify gaps in the information and define the capabilities of the solution, which must be documented. Deliverables from this process will be used by the project team to develop estimates for the time, resources, and budget required to implement a solution or solutions that will fulfill the requirements. The documentation itself is only one of several techniques the Business Analyst will use to ensure that a consensus between all the stakeholders exists as to the behavior of the solution. The primary focus of documentation activity is to refine the models based upon stakeholder feedback and iteratively ensure feasibility of the proposed requirements to support the business and user needs, goals and objectives. Requirements Analysis and Documentation is covered in Chapter 5. 1.5.5 Requirements Communication The Requirements Communication Knowledge Area is the collection of activities and considerations for expressing the output of the requirements analysis and documentation to a broad and diverse audience. Requirements communication is an ongoing, iterative activity that is done in parallel with Requirements Gathering and Requirements Analysis and Documentation. It includes presenting, communicating, verifying, and gaining approval of the requirements from the stakeholders and implementers of the project. A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 13 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 1 Introduction An effective business analyst must be able to clearly present the requirements in a format and structure that is appropriate for its intended audience. Business Analysts must understand the options and select the appropriate communication formats for their project. BAs must consider when and where communications need to take place, what communication approach is appropriate for each situation, and how each communication should be presented. Requirements must be “packaged,” reviewed, and approved before the solution is implemented. Requirements Communication is covered in Chapter 6. 1.5.6 Solution Assessment and Validation This knowledge area covers the business analysis tasks necessary to ensure that the solution meets the stakeholder objectives, is thoroughly tested, and is implemented smoothly. Once a solution design has been agreed upon, the Business Analyst assists the technology team with detailed design work including splitting a large project into phases, reviewing technical design deliverables, and helping to build usability into the application software. In the case of a purchased solution, they will assist with any package customization decisions that need to be made and with interface requirements. As the solution is built and available for testing, the Business Analyst role involves supporting the Quality Assurance activities. They may help business stakeholders with user acceptance testing, defect reporting and resolution. The Business Analyst is accountable for ensuring that the solution developed meets the defined needs and should assess project success after implementation. Solution Assessment and Validation is covered in Chapter 7. 1.5.7 Complementary Chapters Chapter 8 in this Guide is titled BA Fundamentals and it defines the collection of general competencies, skills, techniques and knowledge needed to effectively perform business analysis. The defined knowledge is not unique to those performing business analysis and the IIBA will not set the professional standards for this knowledge, but it is nevertheless required in a business analysis role. Chapter 9 of the Guide is the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge Glossary. The Glossary will continue to grow and evolve as more detail is added to each knowledge area. A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 14 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 1 Introduction 1.6 The Body of Knowledge in context 1.6.1 Body of Knowledge relationships The Body of Knowledge is not a methodology. While it defines the activities, tasks and knowledge that a business analysis professional needs to know, it does not do so from the perspective of prescribing an order or sequence. Specifically, the knowledge areas do not define a business analysis methodology. They do define what the BA needs to know to work within any analysis process or overall solutions development methodology. By looking at the following picture, however, we understand the relationships between the areas of the Body of Knowledge and the broader world that business analysis fits into. This picture highlights a number of important points: A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 15 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 1 Introduction 1. The Fundamentals and Glossary sections of the Body of Knowledge are not activity or task driven. As described in the previous section, they outline the base knowledge needed for a business analysis professional to be successful. 2. Not all work that a business analysis professional does is for a defined project. It is not unusual for Enterprise Analysis activities to be considered either pre-project work or an early feasibility phase of a project, with the outputs of that analysis becoming input into the requirements planning for a project as well as the high-level requirements goals for further requirements Elicitation. 3. Requirements Planning and Management activities tend to span the duration of a project with planning input provided to each of the other areas and output provided back that allows for the requirements management activities and re-planning work to be done. 4. Communicating about requirements also tends to span the duration of a project with output from each other knowledge being those things that need to be communicated and results of the communication feeding back into the necessary knowledge area. 5. Theoretically, one gathers requirements then analyzes and documents them, then uses them as input into the designs that lead to the final implementation of the gathered and documented requirements and the testing that validates the solution against the requirements. In most situations a business analysis professional will face however, there is significant concurrence and overlapping of these activities. It is normal to have requirements elicitation and requirements analysis and documentation work going on concurrently. In fact many of the analysis techniques outlined later in this Guide are used (often in an informal form) during Elicitation to understand and confirm the information being gathered. It is also not unusual to have work being done on alternative solutions and technology options concurrently with elicitation and analysis work. It is not advisable to start Solution Assessment and Validation too early though, in order to avoid too early a focus on the solution without a solid understanding of the need. 6. Information gathered during requirements elicitation or requirements analysis may lead to further work or refinement of the project feasibility. Also true, though not desirable is that work done during the implementation of the requirements also causes review and revision of project feasibility. A full discussion of project methodologies is outside the scope of this Guide, however, many common methodologies are designed to reduce the risk of feasibility or requirements discovery during implementation work. 1.6.2 Relationship to the solutions lifecycle An individual Business Analyst must work with the project team and other stakeholders to determine which tasks and techniques defined in the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge are appropriate for their organization and for a given project. Different A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 16 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 1 Introduction projects and methodologies may demand that requirements be produced in specific formats and in varying levels of detail. The final version of the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge will be compatible with small to large, simple to complex projects and all types of methodologies (e.g. iterative, agile, waterfall). This section will show how the BOK knowledge areas relate to typical solutions and systems development lifecycles and the project lifecycle. As this section is further developed it will help the Business Analyst determine which material in the BOK is most appropriate for their needs. A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 17 ©2006 International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 2 Enterprise Analysis Chapter 2: Enterprise Analysis 2.1 Introduction 2.1.1 Definition Enterprise Analysis is the Knowledge Area of the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge (BA BoK) that describes the Business Analysis activities that take place for organizations to (1) identify business opportunities, (2) build their Business Architecture framework, and (3) determine the optimum project investment path for the enterprise, including implementation of new business and technical system solutions. The Enterprise Analysis Knowledge Area consists of the collection of pre-project activities for capturing the future view of the business to provide context to project requirements elicitation and solution design for a given initiative and/or for long-term planning. In some large complex organizations this work is treated as an investigative, feasibility or Business Architecture endeavor and is managed as a stand-alone project. During Enterprise Analysis activities, the Business Requirements for future project investments are identified and documented. Business requirements are defined as higher- level statements of the goals, objectives, or needs of the enterprise. They describe such things as the reasons why a project is initiated, the things that the project will achieve, and the metrics which will be used to measure its success. They are detailed further in this chapter of the BA BoK. As project management matures into a critical management discipline, organizations tend to realize that managing projects has two dimensions: (1) investing in the most valuable projects, and (2) planning, executing and controlling project activities to attain the business value as early as possible. In order to ensure they are investing in the most valuable projects, management needs accurate, consistent and useful information about initiatives that are currently funded as well as proposed new ventures. It is through Business Analysis practices that this decision-support information is gathered, analyzed and prepared in the form of a decision package for proposed new projects. Enterprise Analysis activities (1) begin after the executive team of the organization develops strategic plans and goals, (2) continue until information is gathered to propose new programs and supporting projects to management for a go/no go decision whether to select, prioritize and fund a new project, and (3) end after the benefits of project outcomes are measured and analyzed. Refer to Table 1.0 for a summary of Enterprise Analysis activities and their link to business planning events. 2.1.2 Overview Projects play an essential role in the growth and survival of organizations today. With the rapidly changing competitive business environment, projects are viewed as a means to manage change and achieve the strategies of the enterprise. Competitive advantage is now linked to an organization’s ability to rapidly deploy business solutions, to efficiently use A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 18 ©2006, International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 2 Enterprise Analysis technology to support business processes, and to adapt these solutions as the business need evolves. Projects must not only deliver high quality products faster, better, and cheaper (traditionally the responsibility of the project manager), they are also under intense scrutiny to positively impact the bottom line (increasingly, the joint responsibility of the project manager, project sponsor, and the Business Analyst). Activity Owner Deliverables Role of the BA Executive Strategic Plan Sr. BAs may be asked to: Strategic Plan Team Document Development Conduct competitive analysis and benchmark studies that serve as input to the strategic planning process Help plan and facilitate strategic planning sessions. Executive Strategic Goals, Sr. BAs may be asked to facilitate strategic goal setting sessions. Strategic Goal Team Themes & Development Measures Business Business Using information from the strategic plan and goals, the BA leads the Business Analyst Architecture development and maintenance of the current and future state Business Architecture Architecture. Development Business Feasibility Study The BA collaborates with subject matter experts and facilitates the team to: Feasibility Studies Analyst Report Identify solution options Examine the feasibility of each option Determine the most viable option Business Business Case The BA collaborates with subject matter experts (the business sponsor, Business Case Analyst Document business representative(s) and IT management) to scope the proposed Development project, make time and cost estimates, quantify business benefits and prepare the business case. Business Executive The BA collects the relevant information about the proposed new project and New Project Sponsor Presentation provides the executive presentation and decision package to the business Proposal sponsor to propose a new project to the organizational project investment Decision governance body. Package Enterprise Project Selection Sr. BAs may be asked to help plan and facilitate portfolio management Selecting and Governance meetings, and present the proposal for new projects. Prioritizing New Project Priority Group Business Project Charter Opportunities Project Project Plans The BA supports the project manager in initiating and planning the new Launching New Manager project. During the project initiation and planning processes, the BA is Projects eliciting, analyzing, documenting and validating business requirements and collaborating with the system architect during initial design of the business solution to be delivered. Business Updated The BA works in partnership with the PM to update the Business Case at key Managing Projects Analyst Business Case at checkpoint control gate reviews to provide management with information to for Value key control help determine whether to continue to invest in the project. gates Business Balanced The BA ensures metrics and measurements are in place, analyzed and Tracking Project Sponsor Scorecard reported to the business sponsor to track actual vs. expected benefits as Benefits Reports documented in the business case. Table 1.0 Enterprise Analysis Activities Linked To Business Planning Events Since there appears to be a never-ending demand for efficient business solutions and new products and services, organizations are adopting the practice of professional Business Analysis to increase the value projects bring to the organization. For business requirements and goals to be converted into innovative solutions that truly reflect the needs of the business, the Business Analyst role is emerging as the individual who collaborates with business stakeholders to build a strong relationship between the business and the technical communities when implementing a new IT-enabled business solution. A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 19 ©2006, International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 2 Enterprise Analysis 2.1.3 Strategic Planning The Business Analyst needs to fully understand the strategic planning process and the current enterprise strategies. In their strategic planning role, the executive management team defines the organization’s future in terms of vision, mission and strategic goals. Strategic planning focuses the executive team on the organization’s reason for being and provides the foundation to select and prioritize programs and projects. The strategic planning process provides the context in which Enterprise Analysis is conducted. The information compiled as a result of Enterprise Analysis facilitates investment decisions that manifest themselves in programs and supporting projects. Strategic planning serves to establish the future course of an enterprise. Various business circumstances and needs are considered during the strategic planning process including: • Investigating current strategy as related to environmental and market trends • Assessing the current technology structure and strategies to ensure a fit with the business vision • Identifying ongoing business issues • Remaining competitive, profitable and efficient. In today’s fast-paced environment, the strategic plan is considered a living, breathing document that changes as business needs evolve. As the strategies change, the portfolio of programs and projects is also likely to change. 2.1.4 Strategic Goal Setting The Business Analyst must also understand the strategic goals and priorities of the enterprise. Scores of important strategic goals and objectives are likely to be developed during the strategic planning cycle. Strategic goals are then converted into an organized, actionable, measurable framework to attain the results that are intended. An effective approach to execute strategy is to convert strategic goals and objectives into strategic themes as the building blocks of the strategy. Strategic themes not only reflect financial performance goals, but also include goals relating to customer value, business operations that drive value to the customer and ultimately to the shareholders, and the capabilities of human resources and other corporate assets. Strategic themes begin to define new business opportunities. Examples of strategic themes include ideas such as: (1) reduce costs through on-line customer ordering, (2) increase the number of high- value customers through acquisitions, and (3) increase revenue per customer by increasing the services provided per customer. For each strategic theme, context, objectives and measures of success are developed. To monitor the journey, executive teams are often building corporate scorecards as an outgrowth of the strategic plan. Increasing the wealth of stakeholders is the ultimate goal A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 20 ©2006, International Institute of Business Analysis Chapter 2 Enterprise Analysis of for-profit organizations; as a result, financial goals often rank highest. However, non- financial decision criteria are also needed to invest in the future success of the enterprise. The balanced scorecard (Robert Kaplan and David Norton 1996) provides an effective technique to frame strategic goals. In this model, goals are partitioned into four dimensions: financial, customer, internal operations, and learning and innovation, as described below. Financial goals are the dollar-denominated goals that address finance and accounting outcomes of the business. Example: “Earn 6% on sales, 18% on investments, and 12% on assets this year.” Customer goals address how the customer views the business. The primary measure is customer satisfaction. An example: “Earn a customer satisfaction rating at 95% or better this year.” Internal Operations goals relate to process and functional performance and effectiveness of core competence. Measures are typically internal, comparing performance with industry benchmarks. Example: “Achieve inventory turns of 8.0 or better this year.” Learning and Innovation goals address new product development, organizational learning and skill development, and application of technology and productivity tools. Example: “Earn 6% on new product sales.” In the public sector where mission results drive government agency strategies, the dimensions take on a slightly different slant (Global Balanced Scorecard for US Government, PEA, 1999). Measures are established to answer the following questions. • Customer: “How do our customers see us?” • Financial: “How do we get the best results for the funds?” • Internal processes: “What must we excel at?” • Innovation and Improvement: “How do we continue to improve and create value?” Just as the strategic plan is a living document, strategic goals are dynamic as well. So the process now includes tighter planning cycles to monitor progress and make course corrections along the way. The bar for adding business value is likely to be raised for every planning cycle. 2.1.5 The Business Analyst Strategic Role In small organizations Business Analysts do not typically participate directly in strategic planning. In large, complex organizations, senior Business Analysts often conduct competitive analysis and benchmark studies to provide information to the strategic planning team. As management teams realize they need a framework for strategy A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, Release 1.6 21 ©2006, International Institute of Business Analysis

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