How Important Innovation in Business Success

how to promote innovation in your organization and how to encourage innovation in your team and how to position your innovation in the marketplace
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Published Date:15-07-2017
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innovation ISO-CERN conference proceedings, 13-14 November 2014 Standardization and innovationSpeech 1.1 Using standards to go beyond the standard model Sergio Bertolucci, Director for Research and Scientific Computing at CERN I would like to convince you that we are using standards. We are in a sort of schizophrenic situation here because, even if we physicists do not like standards, we cannot manage without them. The triangle in Slide 2 shows what CERN is doing : innovation, education, research. The Mission of CERN The Mission of CERN  Push forward the frontiers of knowledge E.g. the secrets of the Big Bang …what was the matter like within the first moments of the Universe’s existence?  Develop new technologies for accelerators and detectors Information technology - the Web and the GRID Medicine - diagnosis and therapy  Train scientists and engineers of tomorrow  Unite people from different countries and cultures Slide 2 Standardization and innovation 11We try to spread our knowledge about the simplest part of nature, the physical part. In order to do that we need to push forward the frontiers of knowledge. Sometimes we are missing the technology we need, or it is too expensive, but in either case we have to be inventive. Obviously, the triangle does not stay together without the principle motor of sustainable research which is the brain of young people. Consequently, CERN trains hundreds of physicists and engineers every year. The dimension of the field is such and the research so fundamental that it overcomes national pride. Our work goes across culture and nationality and there are currently over a hundred different nationals working here at CERN. CERN was founded over 60 years ago – 60 years, one month and a few days in fact – and was the fruit of an extremely visionary perception of Europe. Just ae ft r World War II, when Europe was split between countries that had tried to destroy each other, a group of scientists, who thought that the best way to put Europe back together again would be through science, founded a provi- sional body. Later, in 1954, under the auspices of UNESCO, this body led to the founding of CERN, then composed of 12 mem- ber countries. Today, it has 21 member countries and a budget of around 1 billion Swiss francs paid by the member states in proportion to their GDP. Slide 4 shows the distribution of CERN collaborators according to the location of their institute and Slide 5 shows the distribution of collaborators by nationality. 12 Standardization and innovationScience is getting more and more global Slide 4 Science is getting more and more global Slide 5 Standardization and innovation 13By the way, it looks as if CERN is the biggest US laboratory, because the biggest community of researchers is from the US. As you can see, there are over a hundred nationalities and you will understand that, in such an environment, standards play a fundamental role. The primary standard that we use is not so apparent, but one should bear in mind that fundamental science is one of the sim- plest ways in which mankind has succeeded in organizing itself. Called “ scientific method ”, it is based on very few rules and was standardized a few hundred years ago. It is simple, fully shared by the scientific community and very much adhered to. From this perspective, we are essentially a simple and highly standard- ized community. Secondly, we are forced to standardize in a very peculiar way because we have to explore the dichotomy which is there. Science is intrinsically non-democratic because one cannot vote to decide who is right. You just have to exercise it in such a way so that the one person with the right idea in this room can convince all the others, not by vote but through a methodology, a standard procedure that is right. We would just like to understand how the universe behaved when it was very very young. It was born about 14 billion years ago out of the Big Bang, a fluctuation of the vacuum, a moment in which potential energy transformed itself into kinetic energy and matter, everything which is around us, and more. And it 28 has expanded since to a dimension of 9 × 10 cm. Again, I am a physicist, I don’t use standard units… although I know the 26 conversion – it is 9 × 10 m… Anyhow, the reason we would like to understand how the universe was behaving when it was very very young is not just because we are curious, but for another simple reason. When it was younger, the universe showed fundamental symmetry in a much simpler way because it had had less time to exploit small non-conformities and asymmetries. 14 Standardization and innovationBig Bang Proton Atom Radius of Earth Earth to Sun Radius of Galaxies Universe LHC Super-Microscope ALMA Hubble Study physics laws of first moments after Big Bang increasing Symbiosis between Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology AMS VLT Slide 8 The logarithmic ruler in Slide 8 shows at one end the dimension of the Planck scale (at which the fluctuation of vacuum occurs and quantum gravity and quantum theory come together) and, at the other end, the dimension of the universe as it is today. We are more or less in the centre of this scale but let me, for a day, put at the centre of the universe the ISO Secretary-General, well… for a day. There are two ways in which one can explore the past, the ori- gin. One way is to look at distant objects. If you look at the galaxy which is one billion light years away (information moves at high speed but still at a finite speed), you’re looking at the universe as it was one billion years ago ; and the further you look, the more backward you go in time. It approaches a limit too, because when you arrive at a point located about 380 000 years after the begin- ning of the universe – beginning of time and space, not only of the universe – the universe was so hot that all that was admitted was a plasma of photons, electrons and protons : radiation could not escape and the universe was completely “ opaque ”. We cannot see anything beyond that wall. Standardization and innovation 15We used to study with a lot of interest what was on this side of the wall, the cosmic microwave background 380 000 years after the Big Bang, radiation could escape in every direction and we can observe this leftover of the Big Bang. However, if you want to go beyond that, what you have to do is to make a small Big Bang. A particle of high energy is a wave of very short wavelength and by accelerating particles and smashing them one against the other, you create, in a very small volume and for a tiny amount of time, conditions very near to the Big Bang. With the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), we start seeing how the universe was one thousandth of a billionth of a second after the Big Bang. However, the most interesting things happened either just at that time or before, actually most of them before, so we should build something bigger… So, what do we have now ? What is our standard model (see Slide 13) ? Slide 13 16 Standardization and innovationNowadays, it is a simple description which is correct from the point of view of quantum mechanics and the special theory of relativity which says that, in order to build all the world around us (the stars, the planets, ourselves), you need a few components : six quarks, six leptons and a few messengers which are transmitting forces. This is a beautiful and very elegant thing, which explains everything from chemistry to how the atomic nuclei stay together, how the sun works, how super novae explode and so on. However, there are some problems in this picture, i.e. all these particles should have zero mass. If mass were not there, we would also not be here at this conference because, in order to make an atom, you need mass. So, in theory, an embedded mechanism was predicting that, at a certain point in time in the universe, something happened to give mass to the particles. That’s why the Higgs boson is important. And it happened like that in this narrative. At the beginning of the universe, all the particles were massless because there was a field permeating all the universe. The energy was zero so the field was not effective. Then, when the universe started expanding, about one hundred of a billionth of a second after the Big Bang, it went through a phased transition. Just as with cooling water, which at some point becomes ice, the field moved to a negative value so the universe was sitting, rotating in three dimensions like a sombrero hat and then it collapsed into the next minimum spontaneously. It could have chosen any direction and, by doing that, all the particles started interacting with this field which was permeating all the universe – the nice thing is that this field, the Higgs field, is still around us now. By interacting, depending on how strong the interaction is, the particles acquired more or less mass and the Higgs boson is the component of this field, the quantum of this field. That’s why the discovery of the Higgs boson was important. It was not just another particle, it was the key element to either prove or falsify this theory. In order to do just that, we had to build 27 km of a very sophis- ticated technology, a 27 km superconducting magnet kept at 1.9 K because we had to circulate super fluid helium with a vacuum Standardization and innovation 17– which is an order of magnitude better than the vacuum that you’ll find in outer space – with an energy stored in the beam that is equal to the energy of a large 50 000 tonne container ship going at 20 knots. So you cannot just fool around with a beam like that. The control system, in fact everything, has to be of incredibly high quality which requires incredibly high standards. As I told you, the machine is the microscope and the microscope is most useless unless you put around it eyes and the experiment – the apparatuses are eyes. Eyes are digital cameras. This is a bit exaggerated because they are at least 25 m tall, 50 m long, with 100 million electronic channels. Not only do they need to be big, they need to be big and precise because the position of every single one of these 100 million channels is known to a tenth of a millimetre when it’s th not very precise – or to one 100 of a millimetre for most of them. So you can imagine that with a system like that, it’s not that you put it there one day and it stays there forever ; you have to have a system that continuously tells you where things are. This gigantic camera, a 100 mega pixel camera, should also be capable of taking 40 million pictures a second and not only that. In that same second they have to look at the 40 million pictures and choose the thousand that we can afford to store in a place for interesting physics. In doing this very large selection, we produce 30 PetaBytes of data a year which, if put on DVD, will give you a nice pile of DVDs four times as high as the Mont-Blanc. And, knowing my colleagues, at the end of the year everyone will want the first one at the bottom. So, we just had to invent something that was different and something different was an evolution of the Web which was using about half a million CPUs around the world, a single coher- ent system called the Grid, a precursor of the Cloud. In order to do that, again you have to exploit standards, standards and standards. Otherwise you will never be capable of achieving a coherent wave. If today or tomorrow, you walk to the computing centre or if you look on Google, you will see that at this moment 18 Standardization and innovationthere are probably 130 000 jobs running around in the world – we will talk about it later. All that for these small bumps (see Slide 15) which, by the way, have a statistical significance greater than 5 standard deviations, but the story is a bit more complicated because it takes time. 4 July 2012: “CERN experiments observe particle consistent with long-sought Higgs boson” Slide 15 It takes time because you start acquiring data, you start selecting, you produce one Higgs boson every hundred-thousand billion collisions. You have to pick it up very carefully. But when you get there, especially if you get there with two experiments, and you know the probability of fooling yourself is less than one part in 30 billion (5 standard deviations), then you declare your discovery. To sum up, standards in this field are used in three ways. We implement standards because they are a key enabler of the glo- balization of the field. At the same time, we are evangelists of standardization because we’re using it with all the entities with which we work, in the industries and so on. At the same time, Standardization and innovation 19we are proud to be a producer of standards and we tend – being fundamentally researchers paid by your taxpayer’s money – to just enforce an open idea of standardization. We have many success stories to tell, but we are not yet happy with what we do because we can do much more to extend this culture even further. You know, physics and this large challenge has taught us that we need standardization. Twenty years ago, a physicist was probably as far from standardization as you can imagine. Now we have become a bit wiser, helped also by our colleagues, the engineers. I am happy now to hand the floor over to Ben. 20 Standardization and innovationSpeech 1.2 Weaving the Web Honorary CERN staff member Ben Segal, Ben coordinated the introduction of the Internet Protocols at CERN beginning in 1985 and, as a mentor of Tim Berners-Lee, supported the development of the World Wide Web in the early days (1989-91) I’m going to tell you a very human story that happened here at CERN which involves standards, involves innovation and involves accidents. So, there’s the young man in 1989 or so… (see Slide 2) “Vague but exciting” st (reaction of Mike Sendall to the 1 proposal by Tim Berners-Lee, March 1989) Intl. Conf. on Standardization & Innovation Ben Segal November 13, 2014 2 From the Web to the Grid – 2007 Slide 2 Tim Berners-Lee was a Fellow here and the diagram you see is an example of his lateral thinking. To explain that diagram to you, I would need 15 minutes, which I haven’t got and I’m not going to do, but the way Tim thought was very visionary, very original Standardization and innovation 21and Tim was also a very very good implementer, as we shall see. His dream was – as he used to say to me – “ You know, we just have to agree on a few simple things ”. The main problem was that, at that time, there was no way people were going to agree on those few simple things. There were so many stakeholders. At that time, standards in the IT and telecommunication fields were mostly proprietary standards. Each company had its own operating system ; each company had its own networking system ; each company had its own computer architecture and there was no consensus even in the way that the bits and the bytes were ordered, or the bytes and the words were ordered. Everything was chaotic. So the dream that you should be able to connect computers all over the world with a few simple things seemed way, way far out. In fact, we did agree on a few simple things and Tim, having invented the World Wide Web (WWW), went on to found, but not at CERN, a standards organization called the World Wide Web Consortium, otherwise known as W3C. He’s still there. It’s still creating standards around the Web and things like XML, and so standardization is a part of his story. What is WWW ? Well, it has four main components : “ HTML ” – Hypertext Markup Language, “ HTTP ” – HyperText Transport Protocol, “ URL ” – a naming convention, along with a software architecture involving a client (a “ browser ”) and a server. The idea behind this was that hypertext, a document which contains links to other documents or parts of documents, should be structured in such a way that those links should be able to ride over networks between computers. That was his idea, an idea worthy of Einstein. But to bring that idea to reality, it took extremely special capacity that this young man had. He developed all these elements that you see there entirely himself. 22 Standardization and innovationWhat is WWW? "HTML": Hypertext Markup Language "HTTP" : HyperText Transport Protocol "URL" : Uniform Resource Locator plus a CLIENT ("Browser") and a SERVER. Entirely developed and programmed by Tim Berners-Lee (prototyped from September to December, 1990) Intl. Conf. on Standardization & Innovation Ben Segal November 13, 2014 5 Slide 5 And, when he was given the right sort of machine to do it on, he programmed the prototype in three months. This was an absolutely prodigious achievement (see Slide 5). Now what standards did he use ? I should say that, at that time, there was considerable controversy around standards. I spent my time, in those years, bringing into CERN what we now know as the Internet protocols – TCP/IP and family – and back in 1984, these were not wanted at CERN. They were American, they weren’t wanted in Europe. The tension between bringing in those standards, which in the end prevailed, and standards which ISO, IEC and ITU were promoting – top-down development, committee- driven standards that never converged because the time constant of that process was too long, the technology was always ahead of it – was a major tension in the 80s and 90s. The sort of standards that were winning were standards developed bottom-up by con- sensus, without big high-level committees, developed basically by graduate students. These were the Internet protocols. The same thing was going on in computer systems, in operating systems, Standardization and innovation 23in computer languages. What emerged was something called the UNIX operating system, an open operating system written in a new language called “ C ” which, by the way, in 1983 when I started programming in “ C ”, I was discouraged from doing, because it was considered to be “ not a good language ”. I was one of the proponents of this sort of technology (UNIX, TCP/IP, C language) and I came across Tim when he – that was his official job at CERN – was connecting all sorts of systems with what we call the remote procedure call system and we had done some research on that. This young man came and talked to us about this. Alone, he took it much further than any other person had done at CERN. I noticed him. He was a really prodigious implementer but that was his official job. On the side, he was dreaming about the Web. So he proposed the Web. The proposal was n fi ally accepted after a year. He was given a couple of special machines to work on, which I’ll mention later, and he produced the Web. So what standards did he use (see Slide 6) ? What standards used? "HTML": is a subset of SGML "HTTP" : TCP/IP and some FTP and NNTP ideas "URL" : Internet DNS and Unix filename conventions e.g. http://www.cern.ch/dir/file.html plus a CLIENT ("Browser") and a SERVER (C language plus Unix functionality) Intl. Conf. on Standardization & Innovation Ben Segal November 13, 2014 6 Slide 6 24 Standardization and innovationYes, he was influenced by UNIX and its way of looking at things, and by TCP/IP, which he chose even though it was far from obvi- ous that it was going to prevail at that time. His HTML component was the language, the thing that you have to agree on in order to put your stuff on the Web. The simple thing – you only have to write your text in HTML – is a subset of a standard called SGML which I believe was an ISO standard. HTTP is the transport pro- tocol that allows you to ask for and provide data in this system. It actually rides on TCP/IP and it had some ideas in it like what we call “ get and put ” from Internet FTP (File Transfer Protocol) and a protocol called NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol), which I actually recommended he should look at. And then there was the URL, a very interesting case, the nam- ing convention. How do you name the objects on the Web ? There used to be international conferences all over the world on naming ; naming was a big deal in the computer science business. The British liked to have the names in one order just as they drive on, you know, the left-hand side, the other people not, and so on And, by the way, there wasn’t even any consensus on the data representation, on the character coding. Today, we all use something called ASCII or extended ASCII. In those days, that was far from established. IBM used EBCDIC. Control Data used 6-bit character-codes so the amount of chaos at this time, as can be imagined, was incredible. There were very few standards and there was this tension. So what did he do to name it ? He took the Internet domain system. This is the Internet domain that is so very familiar to us today. That was already a courageous choice and he took the UNIX file name convention of slashes. This means “ Go to this machine here, look in this directory, then in this sub-part and finally you’ll find a file ”. This I won’t go into further. We all know what a browser is now, and a server. For that, he used C language and UNIX functionality that were clearly based on standards, but these were the sorts of emerging standards, bottom-up standards, which were present in the research community but were not yet in the international realm, if you like. Standardization and innovation 25Let me spend a word on the background. I’m not going to skip this because I think it needs to be mentioned that this whole thing was an accident. It was a spare-time project by a guy with a vision and amazing implementation potential. CERN is very proud today to say that the Web was invented at CERN, which is true. But CERN didn’t order the Web. I’m just going to give you the background to this because it’s a beautiful story. He had the vision and persever- ance. He had the implementation skills. He could make wonderful choices but he was not in an ideal place. He was in a place that permitted him to do what he did, but CERN didn’t order it and didn’t particularly encourage him. This is what the political order was like in CERN in 1980-90 (see Slide 8). Inside CERN : 1980-90 The Political Order: • Physics • Accelerators • THE REST ( …… Computing) Order in Computing: • Big mainframes (IBM, etc) • Big peripherals (Tape robots, etc) • THE REST ( …… Networking) Order in Networking: • External (X.25, DECnet, SNA) • Internal (CERNET, Ethernet) ==== (Internet + Distributed Computing) ==== Intl. Conf. on Standardization & Innovation Ben Segal November 13, 2014 8 Slide 8 It was like this, and still is to some extent, by the way. The top of the pile is physics and accelerators. That’s where the big money and power are in CERN. Computing is one of the (relatively) low-level things at CERN. Then what was the order in computing ? There was a hierarchy, with big mainframes, big peripherals or 26 Standardization and innovationexpensive stuff at the top, and then the rest. Networking was with the rest. Then comes the order in networking. There was external networking – all proprietary stuff except for X.25. Then internal networking : Ethernet and CERNET, a home-made network. Inter- net and distributed computing were at the bottom so, at the bot- tom of the bottom, that’s where the Web came out of. So what was needed ? Tim’s manager was a wonderful guy called Mike Sendall, who unfortunately passed away over 10 years ago, too young. He was a senior guy in CERN and he was the one that wrote on the first proposal made by Tim “ Vague but exciting ”. He encouraged him, he gave him time, gave him NexT machines that he needed and basically supported him. CERN has always had this “ hands-on ” spirit and pragmatism. Internet technology was a vital component. It was just being accepted at CERN. This was after v fi e years of my work with a few people. CERN had just realized that we had to have the Internet here at CERN. I’d been allowed to install Internet protocols inside CERN but I was specifically forbidden to run the Internet outside CERN. Now, I need to mention the open-source movement. Tim was very aware of the open-source movement. This is where he got the support that was not available at CERN when he needed to extend the Web beyond the NexT machine. This was Steve Job’s new machine ae ft r he had left Apple, which happened to have some features that really helped Tim start his project quickly. The whole underground spirit of the project, in that he had just enough space, was an advantage. It’s an essential part of innovation as we’ll see at the end. And, finally, he had to keep it simple, so, for instance, he was criticized by the hypertext people because his hypertext system allowed for broken links, and they hated broken links, but in order for it to scale to a worldwide system, it had to allow for broken links. In summary, the Web was accidentally created at CERN from its weakest part, using underground resources… but that helped in retrospect. I don’t know if you’ve heard of the book by Nicholas Taleb called The Black Swan. The Web was a black swan. It came from nowhere, it couldn’t have been foreseen. “ History does not Standardization and innovation 27crawl, it jumps ” (Taleb). These are all black swans : the Web, Google, and Facebook. By the way, the Google search engine was not part of Tim’s Web concept ; it was a missing element. This is how the future looks. The future after … WWW, Google, Facebook, YouTube, Wikileaks… … what’s next? … we can only prepare the ground … Intl. Conf. on Standardization & Innovation Ben Segal November 13, 2014 13 Slide 13 What we can do is only prepare the ground (see Slide 13). My message to you is this : How do we encourage innovation ? Try to reveal and mentor innovative talent that we see in our organiza- tions ; leverage existing code and standards, absolutely ; encour- age interaction with people outside the organization ; make space, just enough space for these innovative projects ; allow personal research time, if you’re a research organization – Google allows its employees to spend 20 % of their time doing their own thing – and be humble, be humble. So that’s the end of my talk. I want to give credit to two man- agers : Tim’s manager, Mike Sendall, and my own manager, Les Robertson, without whom a lot of this stuff would never have happened. Thank you. 28 Standardization and innovationSpeech 1.3 Clean care is safer care Didier Pittet, Director, Infection Control Programme, University of Geneva Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine ; External Programme Lead, WHO First Global Patient Safety Challenge I am very happy to be standing here before physicists and engi- neers. I guess I will look like somebody coming from another planet Every one of us has been or will one day be a hospital patient, right ? Now, what do you expect from hospitals ? As a patient, you expect them to leave you in a better shape than when you were admitted. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. As Oscar Wilde would say, the pure and simple truth is rarely pure and never simple (see Slide 2). “The pure and simple truth is rarely pure and never simple.” Oscar Wilde, The Importance of Being Earnest Slide 2 Standardization and innovation 29

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