Materials Science and Technology

materials science and technology a comprehensive treatment and material science and technology by o.p.khanna and bob thompson
Dr.SamuelHunt Profile Pic
Dr.SamuelHunt,United Arab Emirates,Teacher
Published Date:21-07-2017
Your Website URL(Optional)
Comment
DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor Battelle Memorial Institute, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof, or Battelle Memorial Institute. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY operated by BATTELLE for the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Printed in the United States of America Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0062; ph: (865) 576-8401 fax: (865) 576-5728 email: reportsadonis.osti.gov Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161 ph: (800) 553-6847 fax: (703) 605-6900 email: ordersntis.fedworld.gov online ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/ordering.htm This document was printed on recycled paper. (9/2003)PNNL-17764 Materials Science and Technology Teachers Handbook Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Published in 1994, cleared for release in 2008PNNL-17764 Materials Science and Technology Teachers Handbook Science Education Programs Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830Preface This Materials Science and Technology Teachers Handbook was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington, under support from the U.S. Department of Energy. Many individuals have been involved in writing and reviewing materials for this project since it began at Richland High School in 1986, including contributions from educators at Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Central Washington University, the University of Washington, teachers from Northwest schools, and science and education personnel at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Support for development was also provided by the U.S. Department of Education. This latest version was revised during l993-1994 by a group of teacher consultants that included Guy Whittaker, Coupeville, Washington; Paul Howard, Richland Washington; Noel Stubbs and Eric Pittenger, Corvallis High School, Corvallis, Oregon; Andy Nydam, River Ridge High School, Lacey Washington; and Len Booth, Lacey, Washington. The following PNL staff members reviewed the guide: Mike Schweiger, Materials and Chemical Sciences Center, Irene Hays and Karen Wieda, Science Education Center; and Jamie Gority and Georganne O’Connor, Communications Directorate. Many other organizations and individu- als providing support are noted in the Acknowledgments section. The curriculum has also been endorsed by the U.S. Materials Education Council and was featured in articles in the MRS Bulletin, the journal of the Materials Research Society in September 1992 and December 1993. U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory iiiiv U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryMST Teachers Handbook Contents Contents Introduction to Materials Science and Technology What is Materials Science? ......................................................... 1.1 The Relationship of Science and Technology ............................... 1.5 How is Basic Science Linked to Everyday Materials .................... 1.7 A Short History of Materials Science........................................... 1.8 A New Scientific Frontier ............................................................ 1.11 Looking at MST as a Career—“The Field of Dreams” ................... 1.13 Creating an MST Environment MST Curriculum Philosophy/Rationale ........................................ 2.1 Multi-Instructional Approach ...................................................... 2.3 Course of Study ..................................................................... 2.4 Solving Problems ................................................................... 2.5 Creating Student Projects ....................................................... 2.6 Using the Laboratory Journal .................................................. 2.8 Working in Small Groups ....................................................... 2.14 Developing Handiness ........................................................... 2.15 Fostering Creativity ................................................................ 2.16 Teaching in Teams ................................................................. 2.17 Using Community Resources ................................................. 2.18 Setting Up the MST Classroom and Laboratory ........................... 2.21 Laboratory Safety ....................................................................... 2.23 Standards, Learning Goals, and Assessment Standards, Learning Goals, and Assessment ............................... 3.1 National Education Standards for Curriculum, Assessment, and Teaching Strategies ....................................... 3.1 The National Education Standards and MST ................................ 3.2 School-to-Work Opportunities Act ............................................. 3.3 MST Course Content Outline ...................................................... 3.4 Integrating MST into Existing Classes ......................................... 3.5 Learning Goals ........................................................................... 3.6 Assessment ............................................................................... 3.7 Recent Trends in Assessment ..................................................... 3.8 Assessment Techniques ............................................................. 3.9 U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory vMST Teachers Handbook Contents Experiments/Demonstrations Introductory ................................................................. 4.1 Introduction ............................................................................... 4.1 Water Lock ................................................................................ 4.2 Classification of Materials ........................................................... 4.4 Material Systems........................................................................ 4.6 Crystal Study .............................................................................. 4.14 Iron Wire.................................................................................... 4.22 Paper Clip Destruction ................................................................ 4.30 Ceramic Mantle .......................................................................... 4.34 Light Bulb Filament .................................................................... 4.39 Thixotropy and Dilatancy............................................................ 4.44 Vocabulary ................................................................................. 4.50 Metals .......................................................................... 5.1 Introduction ............................................................................... 5.1 Properties of Metals ................................................................... 5.3 Alloying Copper and Zinc .......................................................... 5.7 Alloying Tin and Lead ................................................................ 5.10 Drawing a Wire .......................................................................... 5.16 Aluminum-Zinc Solid-State Phase Change in Metals................... 5.20 Caloric Output of Al-Zn: A Solid-State Phase Change in Metals ...................................... 5.27 Alloying Sterling Silver ............................................................... 5.31 Lost Wax Casting: Investment/Centrifugal Casting ..................... 5.35 Making a Light Bulb ................................................................... 5.42 Vocabulary ................................................................................. 5.46 Ceramics ...................................................................... 6.1 Introduction ............................................................................... 6.1 Thermal Shock ........................................................................... 6.3 Glass Bead on a Wire ................................................................. 6.10 Glass Bending and Blowing ........................................................ 6.13 Standard Glass Batching ............................................................. 6.17 Glass Melting ............................................................................. 6.27 Dragon Tears/Dragon Dribble ..................................................... 6.32 Glass Coloring ............................................................................ 6.38 Glass Fusing ............................................................................... 6.42 Stained Glass ............................................................................. 6.46 Making Raku .............................................................................. 6.49 Ceramic Slip Casting .................................................................. 6.60 Making Glass from Soil............................................................... 6.66 Making and Testing Superconductors ......................................... 6.70 Vocabulary ................................................................................. 6.76 vi U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryMST Teachers Handbook Contents Polymers....................................................................... 7.1 Introduction ............................................................................... 7.1 Slime ......................................................................................... 7.3 Polymer Foam Creations ............................................................. 7.7 Nylon 6-10 ................................................................................ 7.10 Casting a Rubber Mold from RTV ................................................ 7.14 Epoxy Resin Casting ................................................................... 7.18 Nightlight .................................................................................. 7.21 Polymer ID ................................................................................. 7.23 Vocabulary ................................................................................. 7.28 Composites .................................................................. 8.1 Introduction ............................................................................... 8.1 Making Concrete........................................................................ 8.3 Composite Experiments ............................................................. 8.8 Project 1 ................................................................................ 8.10 Project 2 ................................................................................ 8.12 Project 3 ................................................................................ 8.13 Project 4 ................................................................................ 8.14 Simple Stressed-Skin Composite ................................................ 8.16 Airfoils ....................................................................................... 8.22 Making Paper ............................................................................. 8.29 Peanut Brittle ............................................................................. 8.35 Vocabulary ................................................................................. 8.39 Acknowledgments ....................................................... 9.1 Resource Appendix Vendors .................................................................................... A.1 Materials/Equipment Price List .................................................. A.5 Printed Materials ....................................................................... A.9 Business Resources ................................................................... A.18 Videos ...................................................................................... A.19 Ordering the Space Shuttle Tile ................................................. A.21 Innovative Materials, Process, and Products Developed by Battelle Memorial Institute................................ A.22 U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory viiMST Teachers Handbook Contents viii U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryIntroduction to Materials Science and Technology Introduction to Materials Science and Technology What is Materials Science? Materials make modern life possible—from the polymers in the chair you’re sitting on, the metal ball-point pen you’re using, and the con- crete that made the building you live or work in to the materials that make up streets and highways and the car you drive. All these items are products of materials science and technology (MST). Briefly defined, materials science is the study of “stuff.” Materials science is the study of solid matter, inorganic and organic. Figures 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 depict how these materials are classified. Briefly defined, materials science is the study of “stuff.” U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 1.1Introduction to Materials Science and Technology Figure 1.1. Physical Classification of Materials by State Physical Classification of Materials Crystalline Amorphous (Glass) Figure 1.2. Physical Classification of Materials by Morphological Structure 1.2 U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryIntroduction to Materials Science and Technology Physical Classification of Materials Crystalline Amorphous (Glass) Figure 1.3. Physical Classification of Materials by Atomic Structure Physical Classification of Materials Amorphous Crystalline Some Metals Glass and Polymers Ceramics Metals and Polymers Composites Composites Figure 1.4. Interrelationships Between Classes of Materials U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 1.3Introduction to Materials Science and Technology Materials science and technology is a multidisciplinary approach to science that involves designing, choosing, and using three major classes of materials—metals, ceramics, and polymers (plastics). Wood also could be used. Another class of materials used in MST is composites, which are made of a combination of materials (such as in particle board or fiberglass). Materials science combines many areas of science. Figure 1.5 illus- trates how materials science draws from chemistry, physics, and engineering to make better, more useful, and more economical and efficient “stuff.” Because of the interdisciplinary nature of materials science, it can be used both as an introductory course to interest students in science and engineering and also as an additional course to expand the hori- zons of students already taking science and mathematics courses. “Technology draws on science and contributes to it.” —AAAS Project 2061 Science for All Americans Engineering Engineering Materials Materials Science Science Chemistry Physics Chemistry Physics Figure 1.5. Materials Science and Technology—A Multidisciplinary Approach 1.4 U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryIntroduction to Materials Science and Technology The Relationship of Science and Technology In the MST classroom, the boundaries are blurred between science and technology. It is not easy to know where one ends and the other begins. In this way, the learning environment of MST reflects the sci- entific and technical enterprise where scientists, engineers, and tech- nologists work together to uncover knowledge and solve problems. In the school environment, these overlapping and complementary roles of science and technology are found most often in courses called “technology education.” Some confusion exists between the labels “technology education” and “educational or informational technology.” Educational technology refers to delivery systems for teaching and tools for instruction such as computers, satellite television, laser discs, and even chalk. It refers to laboratory equipment such as microscopes, telescopes, and calcula- tors. These tools can access and process information and perform numerical calculations that describe physical phenomena—but they are not technology education in the sense we describe. In a technology education course, technology is treated as a substan- tive content area, a subject with a competence or performance-based curriculum involving learned intellectual and physical processes and skills. As such, technology is viewed as a part of the essential curricu- lum content in mathematics and science, and understanding of the principles and practices of mathematics and science is viewed as essential to effective technology curricula. Science and technology as it is practiced in the real-world supports this relationship. Even though the activities in an MST classroom may not call out the difference between science and technology, it is important to know that they are fundamentally different from each other (see Figure 1.6). Knowing the difference can assist you in designing and delivering the curriculum and in assessing and reporting learning attained by stu- dents. The National Center for Improving Science Education makes the following distinction: Science proposes explanations for observations about the natural world. Technology proposes solutions for problems of human adaptation to the environment. In science, we seek the “truth” about, for example, the basic constituents of matter or the reason why the sky is blue. Inherent in the pursuit is the sense that scientific explanations are tentative; as new knowledge is uncovered, the explanations evolve. But the desired goal of this pur- suit is an answer that explains the scientific principle (the physics and chemistry, for example), behind the phenomenon. U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 1.5Introduction to Materials Science and Technology In technology, no one best answer may exist for a given problem. Humans need protection and food, for example. Or they want to move objects from one place to another, or create objects of beauty to be shared and displayed. Numerous tools, strategies, techniques, and processes can be developed to solve these problems. Trade-offs among constraints and variables lead to one or more solutions. We may develop better ways to solve a problem over time, but we don’t expect any given solution to be the one answer in the face of all vari- ables and constraints. Hand in hand, science and technology help us know enough about our world to make intelligent decisions that impact the quality of our lives and help us solve problems that ultimately impact that quality. Technologists develop tools that help us make new observations that advance science. Science reveals new knowledge that extends our ability to adapt to our environment. Taken together, science and tech- nology in the MST classroom are combined to prepare students who not only create, design, and build, but understand the nature and behavior of the materials used in the building. They have the “know- why (science)” and the “know-how (technology)” that lead to creativity, ingenuity, and innovation. Figure 1.6. The Relationships between Science and Technology, (National Center for Improving Science Education) 1.6 U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National LaboratoryIntroduction to Materials Science and Technology How is Basic Science Linked to Everyday Materials? A primary application of materials science is matching the right mate- rial or combination of materials to the intended purpose and use of a specific product, such as a car. To do this, materials scientists must consider such things as the weight and strength of a certain material as well as its ability to conduct electricity or insulate the product from heat. They must also consider the material’s chemical stability, corro- sion resistance, and economy. This is the basic science part. Table 1.1 shows some of the properties the major classes of materials exhibit. We use observable properties of materials to show the conse- quences of atomic- and molecular-level events. How atoms in different materials are bonded makes a profound difference in the properties they exhibit. As students experiment with the different classes of materials, they will discover what terms like ductility mean and what makes these “The metals, plastics, properties important in designing and producing stuff. Take the prop- and glasses every human erties of metal, for example. The shared outer electrons of metal are being uses must be the wholly or partially responsible for high electrical conductivity, high thermal conductivity, and ductility. Ceramics exhibit the opposite prop- seed bed from which the erties as their localized, mostly ionic, bonding produces low electrical periodic table and ther- and low thermal conductivity and contributes to the extreme brittleness modynamics sprout.” of ceramics. Students will also see as they experiment why one class of material is preferred over another for certain products and how they —Rustum Roy, can change or “improve” certain materials. The Pennsylvania State University U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 1.7

Advise: Why You Wasting Money in Costly SEO Tools, Use World's Best Free SEO Tool Ubersuggest.