English exam Essay writing tips

english essay writing examples pdf and english essay writing techniques and english essay writing rules
Dr.DaisyWatson Profile Pic
Published Date:03-07-2017
Your Website URL(Optional)
lntroduction I The Question Stoge . . . .3 the Question L Understonding ......3 1.1 The Instructions 1.2 Kev Terms ......7 2. AnolysingtheQuestion... ..... '7 2.1 FindingtheFocus the Context ' . . .8 2.2 Understanding .....10 . 2.3DefiningtheTerms Presenting ldeos 2 Selecting ond Stoge ....r3 Findingldeos 3, ...14 Brainstorming 3.1 . . . .15 More Ideas 3.2 Finding ' '.... '17 3.3UsingExamples "'s7hatifNot"Situation '. '.. 'I7 3.4The . . .18 at the Other Side . 3.5 Looking ......1e ldeos 4, Selecting ......19 4.1 SolutionstoProblems. . . ' .20 .2Evaluation . . . . . . . ' '21 4.3 Classification of Ideas Classification 4.4Types of ".... "23 .....25 4.5 SelectingRelevantldeas 4.6Levelof Generalisation ... "..26 4.7 OvergeneralisationsandExaggeration .....28 ......3r 5, Orgonisingldeos... . . .31 Ranking Ideas 5.1 ...3I 5.2Consequences ....33 5.3Comparisons ...34 5.4ternatives.. ...34 5.5Speculation.. Stoge 3 Writing Style . .az 6, Using the Right Grommor,Vocobulory ond 6.1 Grammar ......37 .....39 6.2Vocabulary the Essoy . . . . . .40 7, The Sections of 7.lThe Introduction .....40 Grammar andVocabulary in the Introduction . . . . . . . . .43 7.1.1 ....: .....45 7.2TheBody. ......47 T.2.lYocabularyintheBody ......48 Conclusion 7.3The Grammar andVocabulary in the Conclusion . . . . .49 7.3.1 8, Style 50 Modifiers ......50 8.1 ....51 S.2Overgeneralisation ...5I 8.3Overemphasis ....52 8.4UnderstatementandConfusion. 8.5Waffle ....53 ......53 8.6FormulaicandThoughtlessVriting .....58 8.7 Immature'Writing 8.8 CulturalDifferencesinSwle .......55 .......57 9. Proof-reoding 10, Appeoronce ...58 Answer Key 59 AppendixA ...64 AppendixB ...66The Question the L Understonding Question writing is to analyse the essay task which tells you what the The first step in essay indication kind of things you are expected to topic is, and also gives an of what say about the topic. Essay topics have components: 3 words, telling what to do 1) the instruction you 2) the key words indicating the topic indicating what aspect of the topic you the words restricting the topic, 3) are asked to focus on. \We these one by one. will consider L l The Instructions Look at these tasks: a) Describe the role of the fnternet in modern society. Discuss. b) Tbe enaironment is the m.ost important issttc in the utorld today. words? What are the instruction 4 Essoy Writing for English Tests and in b) it is discuss. These rwo words indicate the two most In a) it is describe common rypes of essay that one can write. If are asked to describe something, then your essay will mosdy present you facts and not opinions. However, if you are asked to discuss something, then your opinion is being asked for, and you are usually expected to eaaluate something, or argue for or against something. At universiry or college you are expected to be to ideas, rather than simply to report on facts, and so able to discuss problems and or a issue about the IELTS essay question presents a common situation present-day which people have different opinions, and asks you to give your own views on topic. this Here is the wording of an IELIS essay task: rypical written argument or case to an educated reader with no Present a following topic: specialist knowledge of the 'Wb solue all the liue in a technohgical age. Hotueuer, tecltnology cnnnot utorldi problems. Therefore sorne people argue that ue need to phce less solutions and more on other aalues. emphasis on technological opinion? To what extent do you agree or disagree with this to support You should use your own ideas, knowledge and experience with examples and relevant evidence. your arguments The first part of the instruction makes it clear that (for a) you need to present a serious argument in a formai sryle an 'educated reader') b) you are not being tested on your deep knowledge or understanding of ('with subject no specialist knowledge'). the include. ('You The last part of the instruction offers a suggestion about what to own ideas, knowledge and experience to support your arguments should use your 'We and relevant evidence.') will deai with this more in the next section. with examples components: Now let us look at the ouestion itself. This also has two topic, which is usually expressed as a point of a) the description of the view on a curfent situation and is. b) a question asking you what your opinion Writing for English Tests Essoy 5 One or two sentences may present Part a) is expressed in 1 to 3 sentences. generally ('\7e live in a technological age, but statement or a question about a situation: a will present all our problems'). The second part probably technology cannot solve ('therefore we should place people draw from this situation a conclusion that some to help and more on other values'). This is designed less emphasis on technology (More next section') the contents. about this in the you to think about agree? or This may be phrased as to utltat extent do you Part b) asks the question. or words to that effect. what is your opinion? or do you agree with this? your what is task? Now both sides of the argument? a) to present support or strongly oppose the argument, b) to either strongly own personal opinion? depending on your the lrgument, depending on your c) to partly support or partly oppose own personal opinion? answer is either b) or c). The correct your will the same as ltout murh. That is, answer The words to uthat extentmean express one of these attitudes: I agree completely a) I agree and disagree pardy b) partly c) I disagree completely. a strong argument for or against an Many students feel that they need to present not Even if the words to uthat extent do appear idea or proposition. This is not true. with a proposition. in it is always acceptable to agree or disagree partly the quesrion, to remember here. Although it is usually easier to write There is another point necessary. If you do not have enough what you actually believe, it is not absolutely argument that you want to suPPort, ideas or examples to support the side of an but on the other hand say something like: on the one hand.,..., you can always not simply contradict for both sides. However, you should and present arguments I in one section and then I disagreein That is, you should not say agree yourself. confused or are not expressing next That sounds as if you are simply the paragraphs. some arguments and think at all. Vhat you can say is: These are what you for / disagree, Or you can argarnenE agairrt, and so I only partly agree tltese are some I prefer the arguments on both sides, but on tlte tahole say: Tbere are good Writing for English Tests 6 Essoy (Of course you would not use these actual words. They arguments / against. for in essay.) only summarise the possible underlying meanings your how are not being examined on your opinions, but only on well Remember, you and support some intelligent ideas, whether they are your own you can express or not. 1,2 Key terms the to deal with. Normally the key words This is usually the easiest part of essay in familiar topic, such as the Internet, or television, or technology deal with a for knowledge, but This is because the examiners are not testing you your general. to write well. Therefore the topics chosen will be about rather for your abiliry they expect every educated person to know something concepts and issues that about. Common topics include: Edtr..tiori The environment Technology Information The media Advertising / consumer issues Social problems Health (including life) life in cities, traffic problems, quality of Lifestyles (music, art, literature, television etc.) Culture and society Foreign languages and travel Sport (including research genetic engineering, sPace travel) Scientific (right the treatment of issues and wrong behaviour such as Ethical etc.) animals, law enforcement used in preuious examina- of other topics that you hnow ltaue been Try to thinh tions, or that you thinh might occur. topics in Appendix A. You can find sample questions on all of these key concepts, it is necessary to keep In order to be prepared with ideas on such with the major issues being discussed in the world. The editorial pages up to date magazines are important sources of such information, as of newspapers and news television programs. are current affairs radio and Essoy Writing for English Tests 7 the Question 2, Anolysing more than understanding the instructions or Understanding the question means the focus of the question, and words of the question. It means recognising the to the topic. knowing what approach you should take important aspect of writing the essay, and requires This is, in some ways, the most to spend at least minutes You should therefore be prepared 3 the most thought. what approach to take to the question. thinking about explains that The handbook, you remember, to: Candidates are assessed on their ability . present the solution to a problem . justifr present and an opinion . implications and contrast evidence, opinions and compare e an argument. evaluate and challenge ideas, evidence or required which of these approaches is the one You will therefore need to decide know when and how much to question. You will also need to for any particular and examples. use definitions or will deal with the following features of a discussion In this section we argument essay: The Focus The Context Definitions Examples Finding the Focus 2,1 words very closely. Students It is very important to look at the actual question just write by looking at jump to conclusions about what they should sometimes the following questions: not at the focus of the topic. Consider the topic, and the Internet is tlte most reaolutionary a) Many people belieae that of the last century. Do you agree? new inaention but many has reuolutionised the modcrn uorld, b) The Internet inequalities. it has ako created neu problems and people argae that rlhat is your opinion? if eueryone The Internet could reuolutionise the tporld in c) future, that is aaaikble on haue easy Access to all the inforrnation could rYidz this statetnent? W'orld \Veb. Do you agree or disagree uitb the Writing for English Tests Essoy revolutionary role in the the topic is the Internet and its In each of the above and think idea about what the Internet involves world. So you must have a basic make changes. Howeveq each one about what reuolutionise means, i.e. fandamental differently. It is necessary question and must be answered also raises a different see what is required: look at the remaining words carefully to to of the last century. is the most revolutionary new invention a) created new the modern world, but it has also b) has revolutionised problems and inequalities. if everyone could have easy c) could revolutionise the world in future, is on the'World Vide'Web. access to all the information that available other inventions, and involves comparing the Internet with You can see that a) hand b) expects is not, the most revolutionary. On the other arguing that it is, or and the and to consider both its benefits ro accept that it is revolutionary, you c) wants to speculate about the future, and to it has created. Finally you problems benefits will change the world. how much you believe the future consider the Context 2,2 Understonding that the topics are of general interest that the IELIS Handbook says Remember study,It goes on to say that tahat subjects candidates and it mahes no difference understood by candidates interesting, saitable and easily The issues raised are for studies. entering or undergraduate ltostgraduate you are asked to The is always based on an issue, or a problem.which question is considered a probiem or an present an opinion on. If something analyse and opinions on the topic. it means thar reasonable people must have conflicting issue, consider that expect a question like this: Some You would not, for example, lteoph agree? since there is not much to be said murder is urong, Tb rahat extent do you just some people who think that murder. In other words, it is not in favour of issue. However, look at this but basically everybody. It is not an murder is wrong, To uthat extent do that murderers should be executed. question: Some peoph think and that is very is about what to do about murder, agree? Here the question you this on both sides and you are very strong opinions about controversialThere (In it is unlikely that IELIS to deal with such a topic. fact need to be aware of these emotional issues like this') will present you with very political or own answe why the question You therefore need to think, before you plan your '?'hat problem examiners. are the different to be an issue or a by the is considered Essoy Writing for English Tests Vhat is the context in which this topic is that might exist on the topic? opinions who are concerned about it and why? That is to say, who are fie people controversial? Sometimes to interpret the underlying meaning of a question. It is also necessary berween two questions, but the underlying the wording can be quite different same because of the context. concepts are the IASK I the underlying the wording is different but In the following questions interpret topics by the same. Test your ability to meaning is sometimes (In each following basically ask the same question. identifring which of the followed by a question asking for your opinion.) case the statement would be receiuing it is of benefit to tlte indiaidual a) Tbrtiary education greater a ultol.e. h is therefore not dzsirabl"e goaert rnents tban to the societlt as for just money on supPorting students so that tbey to spend the ttucPalers' cAn earn rnore mone in future. success than haue a greater influence on their childreni b) Parents future naining courses' sltould. therefore prouide parent schoob do. Goaernments 'teaclter training courses'. ratlter than countr since tertiary Free tertiary education is essentialfor eaer ) can help only quaffied and educated peoPle that graduates are tlte in the modern utorld. countries to ?rogress No important source of children\ deuelopment, d) Education is the most ltaue schook and matter uhat their bacbground, if children good put their they can progress, Gouernments sltould therefore teaclters scltool education. major resources into solae euironmental problems, suclt e) Modern science and technologjt can mough resources to researclt, as pollation and ghbal uarming, tf t "Ppb are ignoring the dangers of enuironmental People tltrougltout the uorld f) utarming in the ltope that scimce and technology pollution and of global all need to tahe responsibility can solutions. Tbis is not true. W'e for f.nd change our life-styles. the damage u)e Are causing and rnust a Answer Keyfor English Tests l0 Essoy Writing TASK 2 &om Appendix A and consider what dre context might Choose 3 questions kind of people might be most concerned about the issue, be for them: what reasons could these topics be considered problematic? and for what (Discuss in in groups if you are a class.) 2,3 Defining the Terms that must the terms that you use so Some books and teachers tell you you define This is true, but it is necessary to that the reader will understand you. sometimes in2.1: be sensible about it. For example, look again at two of the examples given a) Many peoph belieue that the Internet is the most reuolutionary neu To uhat extent do agree? inuention of the last century. you ako b) The Internet ltas reaolutionised the modern uorld, but it bas created neta probhms and inequalities, Do you agree? terms you think need defining? \Vhich of the following do Internet; reuolutionary / reuolutionise; neut inaention; nlodern uorld; 'World dangers; inequalities; eas access; \Vide \Yeb. "educated IELTS to write for can be assumed The reader" that the test asks you to understand these: Interneti neut inuention; modern urorld; easy access; .World Vide W'eb. reaolutionary or reaolutionise can be interpreted differently, However, the term it in a) otherwise and in fact you need to explain what you mean by question you cannot answer the question. However, that does not mean that you need to define need to indirect of the degree of the terms directly. You will give an definition how important think the changes are that have change implied, by showing you more important been produced by the Internet, and whether these changes are and than other changes. dramatic Writing for English Tests Essoy 11 with this term, For question b) it is probably not necessary to concern yourself rather than on the need to focus on the problems and inequalities, because you of change . In this case you would be dealing with indirect definitions degree of (See 4.2 on p.20, for a discussion on evaluation in definitions.) these two concepts. comPare it with again the first sample topic given in this book, and Now consider in the IELfS Handbook: the sample given age. Houteuer, technology cAnnot solae all the \Y'e liae in a technological need to phce less problems. Therefore some peoPle argue tltat we world\ aalue empharis on tecltnological solutions and more on other sample topic given in the IELIS Handbook: Now look at the argument or case to an educated reader with no Present a written following topic: specialist knowledge of the traditional cuhures must be It is ineuitable that as tecltnologjt deuelops - cnnnot haue both lost. Tbchnology and tradition are incompatible lou togetlter. ideas, knowledge and experience to suPPort You should use your own and relevant evidence. your arguments with examples technology, and topics ask the same question or not? Both are about Do the rwo is contrasted with something else. The focus in the first in both cases technology with other ualues while in the second question question is on contrasting technology 'Whether cubure. you treat these questions as it is contrasted with taditional on definition of adition end of other basically the same or not depends your interpreted in different ways, and Both are very broad terms) and can be aalues. to take time to consider what they mean to the average here it is important as what they mean to you. If you think of traditional cuhure educated reader, and food and clothing, then you will discuss dealing only with material objects, such as activities such as music and dance and this in one way. If you also include social And if include concepts such then you may give a different answer. you theatre, both social behaviour, then you will be able to consider questions as religion and concepts, since other values in this case would as basically dealing with the same be included tn traditional cuhure.Writing for English Tests 12 Essoy how you want to consider the definition of It is up to you to decide broadly clear to your reader. in the traditional culture, but you must make your concept must indicate what you way, if you have the first question to deal with, you same mean by otlter ualues. to do. In other a formal definition, which is very difficult It is not necessary to give dfined as..... not need to write: Tiaditional culture can be words, you do the like: By aditional cuhure I mean not only Instead you can wrire something or ltouses, but abo their ceremonies things that peoph mahe, lihe hand-wouen clntlt can examples such as mu.sic and dance.ln other words, you give and performances, to help you to define. 'W'hat need and technological age? Do they defining? about the terms technology - examples' Not really again it would be enough to give TASK 3 about their you at the above two questions again and think Look foculIf less in the same way as other to traditional cuhure more or decide define basically the same essay for both? ualues could you write that your essay spending enough dme on stage 1 to €nsure Time: It is worfi If you spend 2 or as it was intended by the examiners. 3 answers the question it may seem like a iong time during an minutes thinking about the topic, it to write confidently and exam, but it is time well spent if helps you appropriately.Presenting ldeos Selecting ond Finding ldeos 3, to be written in 40 minutes, you cannot be too ambitious In an essay of 250 words, make the mistake of trying to express very about what you write. Some students writing an introducdon to what would be a ideas and they never get past deep not have any specific if there was time. On the other hand, if you do long essay over again in may find yourself saying only one thing over and ideas at all you This is not the way to get a good score. Look at the several different ways. following example: modern society because it has helped The Internet has prouided great benef.ts to It has helped all sectors of in their work. It mahes euerything easier. euerlone Internet, euerything is rnuch more dfficuh and tahes a long society. Without tlte Internet euery hind of uork is muclt easier to do. time. But since we ltaue tlte to eaerlone. Therefore tlte Internet has prouided great benefts 'bssay''says no information and there almost nothing. There is virtually This little If someone whose English is not very accurate writes like this, the are no ideas. will only notice the grammatical and reader has no ideas to think about and mistakes. vocabulary (e.g. one that need is to have a basic proposition statement Generally what you extentby indicating a great deal, a linle, partly answers the questio n to urhat (see or examples to support your argument. above) plus about three points Essoy Writing for English Tests V (although it can be less or more), since that gives you a Three is a good number right length: paragraph essay, which is about the 5 Paragraph 1 Introduction 2 Supporting point Supporting point 3 4 Supporting point 5 Conclusion to find and organise ideas is to brainstorm. The easiest way 3,I Broinstorming for a topic, it is first of all necessary to pin them In order to organise your ideas the best way to deal with this is to brainstorm down. Most students find that jotting concePts that come into their ideas first. This simply means down any in note form, and in random order head associated with the given topic, your (i.e. in which they occur to you). in any order may be: Let us look at a simple example. The question but it has ako created Tlte Internet ltas reuolutionised tlte rnodern uorld, and inequalities. Do you agree? netu problems -+he revolutionising effect \7e need to find ideas for both parts of the question \We come up with the following: of the Internet, and also its problems. might online shopping enrail chet-rooms banking informaiion for reseetch distence educetion hacking concert / lheelrc bookings oirline bookings PornograPhy business comnuniceiion information fot research viruses sharing infornration: for police etc. / and for terrorists have no access / lefi out P00r PeoPle 15 Writing for English Tests Essoy TASK 4 'Write topic: a brainstormed list of ideas relating to the gend too much time in of teleuision and computer Children far front screens. Their time should be strictly controlled. ideas with someone else. You can also practise brainstorming Discuss your from the list provided in the appendix. The more you with other topics for of ideas quickly during the practise, the easier it will be you to think test. ut Answer Key Finding More ldeos 3.2 ideas at the right level of generalisation If you are having difficulties thinking up (see is to think of very p.26 for a discussion about this), then a good technique concrete examples, and then try to find a higher level of abstraction that specific, to. Let me explain this with a simple illustration. Imagine the examples belong to write about this: The importance of animak to people is not that you are asked rnore dttention to how we look afier and protect always recognised. We should pa how important animals are to people . animals. First you need to think about +ny insects: Begin by thinking of specific animals animals, inciuding cal lion c0r mosquito sheep dog kan butterfly ga roo level of classification, e .g. Now organise these under a higher I NSECTS DOMESTIC ANIMATS WILD ANlttlAtS rnosqu ito cow cat lion rfly sheep ka n ga roo butte dog Writing for English Tests 16 Essoy with a sub-division of domestic animals: Think again, and come up WHOSE PRODUCTS WE USE PETS ANIMALS dog c0w cal sh eep - -srosquitoes, we have harmful ones and useful ones Under insects which help to pollinate plants. butterflies, topic, the importance of animals to people, and we Now we can go back to our can say: their 1) some animals are important to us directly because we use products (e.g. sheep, etc.) cows, goats (dogs, animals us pleasure as pets cats, birds etc.) 2) some give (bumerflies, help indirecdy e.g. by plants bees etc.) some animals us pollinating 3) (lions, just interesting and tourists kangaroos etc.) 4) some animals are amract i thinking all that in our brainstorming and classifying, we suddenly And after (and we may add the category of animab that uorh zs then think of horses, for camels etc.). In your essay you will then remember water buffaloes, donkeys, individual species. write about these categories of animals, rather than about is a simple example, but the same principle can be appiied to many topics This ideas for to write about. and it should help to provide you TASK 5 brainstorming concrete ideas and then classifring them under Practise in with the following topics: absffact headings as the above example - People should not utorh too hard th"y should remember the a) importance of leisure actiaities. the ntost irnPortant possession a can ltaae. b) Education is lterson ,) Ciry life is too stessful. a Ansuter Keyfor English Tests Essoy Writing r7 Exomples 3,3 Using argument. Sometimes must give specific points to support your In all essays you need to use abstract and it is important to realise that you a topic will be quite - that have support your point of view and to make sure you examples to that You should The IELfS examination question itself specifies enough to say arguments ideas, knowledge and experience to suPPort your use your own relevant evidence. with examples and Look at this topic: the traditional aalues of the Young peoph are said to baue hst ntan of because the old aalues haue no older generation. This does not ntatter, a urhoh neut set of rebuance in the modern utorld. Wb need to deuelop Do suPPort this statement? ualues. you in statements about My students make the mistake of trying to write only general need very abstract, philosophical like rhis. That is difficult to do, because you a topic examples of values and to do it well. It is much better to think of specific language of view. of these to illustrate and support your point to use two or three "Whot if Not" Situotion 3,4 The have never thought about that you are faced with a question tiat you It can happen however, it is to think of concrete examples. Remember, at all, and where difficult many topics which have been considered controversial by that the examiners select for these questions. Imagine, for and that there is always a social context people the should that you get a question about whether you think government example, is that cancer is fund more research into the causes of cancer. All you know to write at least 250 words and kills many people. How are you going dangerous on this question? would suggest this question. There The first step is to think about why anyone and b) the question to the question: a) the problem of cancer are two componenrs - for you to for research who should do it? It may be very difficult of funding not know any facts in answer to the first question if you do say anything sensible about cancer. to work with. Even if question should give you some ideas However, the second cancer research you can think about the uthat if not?' you know nothing about rYbat research? if the gounnment does notfund this situation. That is to say: \Who medical research be conducted by governments or should fund it? Should funded institutions, who pays and why? by private institutions? If it is by private 18 Essoy Writing for English Tests will the research will not be done. On the other Or perhaps no one pay, and it hand, if the government does fund this research, from what budget is to come? (Do not assume that governments have an endless supply of money, as students often in their essays) If the government does not fund this research, can it do use the same money for more useful medical work, such as health education to common diseases? prevent will be able to write a deal, without If you follow this line of thinking you great research, having to know very much about cancer or cancer because basically the is about money: as against private spending on health, or question government the in health spending in cases where funds are limited. priorities jotting also be brainstormed by down notes on the These kinds of ideas can not notes make. question part of your paper. The examiner will look at any you 3,5 Looking of the Other Side argument it is not necessary to present Remember that if you are presenting an In fact, if want only the points that support your side of the argument. you to be convincing and to a balanced statement, you need to look at what the give supporters of the other side are likely to say, and to give a response to that. This many more ideas to write about. will also give you For example, look at this topic: In euery city the car is hing of the road. Cars cause death and injury and air pollution and they mahe life dangerous otlters. It is time to reduce fo, tlte number of cars in our cities and to encourage otlter mearu of transport. to support the statement. To these There are already four arguments given you making it could add traffic congestion, roads destroying the landscape and unsafe for children to play outside their houses etc. Now what are the counter- You could suggest that strict speed limits can be implemented, that arguments? less than before and that research is car engines are already causing pollution fuels in the near future, and that special walking likely to produce clean paths paths and bicycle are already in use in some countries.Writing for English Tests 19 Essoy TASK 6 of the car, and then try to list of arguments that supPort tlte use Make up a make sure that the against these. Be carefi.rl to frnd counter-arguments - arguments they must do not introduce different counrer-argurnents opposing arguments to the ones given. present directly a Answer Ke 4, Selecting ldeos be clear about because they are number of concepts that you must There are a You must be aware of the fact kind of writing that you will do. involved in every solutions, that above be dealing with problems and that you will nearly always that you must select ideas and solutions as you write, and all you are evaluating are at the right level ofgeneralisation, and that ideas that are relevant, that are \We look at all that you are writing about. will ranked logically for the topic typical organisation in the these issues now, and then go on to discuss Patterns next section. to Problems 4,1 Solutions the solution to a problem, are assessed on their ability to present Candidates really a problem. If it were states. In fact, every topic is the IELTS Handbook for example, you might not be worth talking about' So, not a problem, it would be asked to consider this topic: Wat do you thinh should be Most cities sufferfrom nffic congestion. about it? done should asks directly to think of a solution, you To deal with a question that you Mostly, however, you will be offered use the brainstorming process 3.1). Gee to consider them' solutions, and will be asked some suggested to problems. In ways of considering possible solutions There are a number of to evaluate That is, you will need every case, you will need to use evaluation. (Organising In the next section solutions are likely to be. how good the possible for dealing with solutions to we will look at organisation patterns Ideas) rypical aspect of all your writing: we must discuss the most important problem, but first