How to write IELTS essay introduction

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Master IELTS Essays Course Materials & Supplements For Academic and General Training Candidates Ebrahim Tahassoni CertTESOL, Academic IELTS 9.0 Certified IELTS Trainer www.tahassoni.com Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Introduction Understanding the Rubric WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: Some people believe that television programmes are of no real value for children. How far do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words. The Task Task 2 involves writing an essay on the given topic. You have to • answer the question(s) clearly and completely; • give reasons for your answer; • include relevant example ▪ from your knowledge ▪ from your experience • spend about 40 minutes on the task • write at least 250 words  260-265 words Note: Finish task 2 first before addressing task 1. Task 2 has twice as many marks as task 1 and is less flexible, so if you do not get around to finishing it, you may lose more marks than when you leave task 1 unfinished. The Answer Sheet The last two pages of the IELTS writing answer sheet are dedicated to task two and together have over 40 lines. Although you may ask for extra sheets to write your answer in, this is not likely to become necessary since the space you are already provided with is way more than sufficient. You must not write in the blank space at the bottom of the first page or in the scoring section at the bottom of page two. Focus on Academic Register • Use longer sentences (about 20-30 words) • Use subordinate clauses • Use academic words (see “The Academic Words List” at www.tahasoni.com/resources) • Avoid contractions like doesn’t, can’t or they’ll • Avoid “get” phrases where possible • Avoid a personal tone except when giving personal opinions or talking of personal experiences • Avoid phrasal verbs where possible • Avoid over-generalisation by avoiding absolute statements and Introducing probability/possibility w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 1 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Task Types Opinion-led a. New parents should attend parenting classes to learn how to bring up their children well. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? b. Some people think that every individual is responsible for their own healthy lifestyle. Others believe that governments should take care of it. What are your views on this? c. Many parents now let their young children use tablet computers to see pictures and photographs, watch videos or play games. Is this a positive or negative development? Argument Discussion a. Some people believe that children should listen to and obey their parents. Others believe that children should think and do things on their own. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. b. Some people believe that modern designs for schools and offices with more open spaces are necessary. What are the advantages and disadvantages of such spaces? c. While some people prefer to live in apartments, others do not think an apartment is a suitable form of accommodation. Do you think the advantages of living in an apartment outweigh the disadvantages? Issue Discussion a. Housing and accommodation has become a major problem in many countries around the world. What are some of the main factors that have contributed to this problem? What can be done to help reduce the number of homeless people? b. While mobile phones have many advantages, a number of problems have also resulted from them or the ways in which they are used. What are some of these problems? What solutions can you suggest for solving these problems? c. Nowadays most people choose to throw away broken things instead of repairing them, and replace them with new ones. Why is this happening? What problems may it lead to? Mixed (Two-Part) Questions In some countries people prefer to buy used things rather than new ones. Why is this the case? Is it a positive or negative trend? w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 2 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Assessment Criteria Every essay is assessed by a trained examiner according to four assessment criteria:  Task Response (TR)  Coherence and Cohesion (CC)  Lexical Resource (LR)  Grammatical Range and Accuracy (GRA) Task Response (TR) This criterion focuses on the degree to which the task has been answered properly. The examiner has the following questions in mind when assessing this aspect of your essay: 1. Is there a clear and relevant position throughout the response? 2. Are there relevant and well-developed (presented, extended and supported) main ideas? Are any of the points underdeveloped or unclear? 3. Is there a tendency to overgeneralise? 4. Do any supporting ideas (e.g. examples) lack focus? 5. How have the different parts of the task been addressed: a. addresses some parts only b. unevenly addresses all parts c. addresses all parts d. sufficiently addresses all parts e. fully addresses all parts Coherence and Cohesion (CC) This criterion is concerned with the overall clarity and fluency of the message: how the response organises and links information, ideas and language. Coherence refers to the linking of ideas through logical sequencing. Cohesion refers to the varied and appropriate use of cohesive devices (for example, logical connectors, pronouns and conjunctions) to assist in making the conceptual and referential relationships between and within sentences clear. The examiner has the following questions in mind when assessing this aspect of your essay: 6. Have you organised your information logically? 7. Is there an overall flow or progression in your essay? 8. Have you used linkers correctly, properly and sufficiently without over- or under-using them? 9. Have pronouns been used correctly and do they have clear references? 10. Have you organised the text in paragraphs logically and sufficiently? w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 3 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Lexical Resource (LR) This criterion refers to the range of vocabulary the candidate has used and the accuracy and appropriacy of that use in terms of the specific task. The examiner takes the following points into account when assessing this aspect of your essay: 1. Words a. Range and flexibility b. Level c. Precision d. Style e. Collocation 2. Vocabulary mistakes a. Spelling b. Word choice c. Word formation Note: when evaluating vocabulary errors, the effect each has on the reader and the intelligibility of your essay is taken into account. Grammatical Range and Accuracy (GRA) This criterion refers to the range and accurate use of the candidate’s grammatical resource as manifested in the candidate’s writing at the sentence level. The examiner has the following questions in mind when assessing this aspect of your essay: 1. Have you used a wide variety of sentence structures naturally and appropriately? 2. How often have you used complex structures? 3. Errors a. Grammar b. Punctuation Note: when evaluating grammatical errors, the effect each has on the reader and the intelligibility of your essay is taken into account. w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 4 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni IELTS Task 2 Writing Band Descriptors (Public Version) Band Task Response Coherence and Lexical Resource Grammatical Range Cohesion and Accuracy 9  fully addresses all parts  uses cohesion in  uses a wide range of  uses a wide range of of the task such a way that it vocabulary with structures with full  presents a fully attracts no very natural and flexibility and developed position in attention sophisticated accuracy; rare answer to the question  skilfully manages control of lexical minor errors occur with relevant, fully paragraphing features; rare minor only as ‘slips’ extended and well errors occur only as supported ideas ‘slips’ 8  sufficiently addresses all  sequences  uses a wide range of  uses a wide range of parts of the task information and vocabulary fluently structures  presents a well- ideas logically and flexibly to  the majority of developed response to  manages all convey precise sentences are error- the question with aspects of meanings free relevant, extended cohesion well  skilfully uses  makes only very and supported ideas  uses paragraphing uncommon lexical occasional errors or sufficiently and items but there may inappropriacies appropriately be occasional inaccuracies in word choice and collocation  produces rare errors in spelling and/or word formation 7  addresses all parts of  logically organises  uses a sufficient  uses a variety of the task information and range of vocabulary complex structures  presents a clear ideas; there is clear to allow some  produces frequent position throughout the progression flexibility and error-free sentences response throughout precision  has good control of  presents, extends and  uses a range of  uses less common grammar and supports main ideas, cohesive devices lexical items with punctuation but but there may be a appropriately some awareness of may make a few tendency to over- although there style and errors generalise and/or may be some collocation supporting ideas may under-/over-use  may produce lack focus  presents a clear occasional errors in central topic within word choice, each paragraph spelling and/or word formation 6  addresses all parts of  arranges  uses an adequate  uses a mix of simple the task although some information and range of vocabulary and complex parts may be more fully ideas coherently for the task sentence forms covered than others and there is a clear  attempts to use less  makes some errors in  presents a relevant overall progression common grammar and position although the  uses cohesive vocabulary but with punctuation but conclusions may devices effectively, some inaccuracy they rarely reduce become unclear or but cohesion within  makes some errors in communication repetitive and/or between spelling and/or word  presents relevant main sentences may be formation, but they ideas but some may be faulty or do not impede inadequately mechanical communication developed/unclear  may not always use referencing clearly or appropriately  uses paragraphing, but not always logically w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 5 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni  addresses the task  presents information  uses a limited range  uses only a limited 5 only partially; the with some of vocabulary, but range of structures format may be organisation but there this is minimally  attempts complex inappropriate in may be a lack of adequate for the task sentences but these places overall progression  may make tend to be less  expresses a position  makes inadequate, noticeable errors in accurate than simple but the development inaccurate or over- spelling and/or word sentences is not always clear use of cohesive formation that may  may make frequent and there may be no devices cause some difficulty grammatical errors conclusions drawn  may be repetitive for the reader and punctuation may  presents some main because of lack of be faulty; errors can ideas but these are referencing and cause some difficulty limited and not substitution for the reader sufficiently  may not write in developed; there paragraphs, or may be irrelevant paragraphing may be detail inadequate 4  responds to the task  presents information  uses only basic  uses only a very only in a minimal way and ideas but these vocabulary which limited range of or the answer is are not arranged may be used structures with only tangential; the format coherently and there repetitively or which rare use of may be is no clear progression may be subordinate clauses inappropriate in the response inappropriate for the  some structures are  presents a position  uses some basic task accurate but errors but this is unclear cohesive devices but  has limited control of predominate, and  presents some main these may be word formation punctuation is often ideas but these are inaccurate or and/or spelling; errors faulty difficult to identify repetitive may cause strain for and may be  may not write in the reader repetitive, irrelevant paragraphs or their or not well supported use may be confusing 3  does not adequately  does not organise  uses only a very  attempts sentence address any part of ideas logically limited range of forms but errors in the task  may use a very limited words and grammar and  does not express a range of cohesive expressions with very punctuation clear position devices, and those limited control of predominate and  presents few ideas, used may not word formation distort the meaning which are largely indicate a logical and/or spelling undeveloped or relationship between  errors may severely irrelevant ideas distort the message 2  barely responds to  has very little control  uses an extremely  cannot use sentence the task of organisational limited range of forms except in  does not express a features vocabulary; memorised phrases position essentially no control  may attempt to of word formation present one or two and/or spelling ideas but there is no development 1  answer is completely  fails to communicate  can only use a few  cannot use sentence unrelated to the task any message isolated words forms at all 0  does not attend  does not attempt the task in any way  writes a totally memorised response w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 6 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: In some countries, it is illegal for companies to reject job applicants for their age. Is this a positive or negative development? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words. w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 9 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Some people argue that it is not wise for an industry to replace its experienced but old workers with new and young yet inexperienced individuals. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Model Answer (Strong View): INTRODUCTION: Nowadays, almost every company tends to retire its employees once they have reached a certain age. I completely agree with this practice and believe elderly staff need to be replaced with younger workers despite the difference in their work experience. (40 words) OR In the past people often worked in their businesses until they died or were no longer able to continue, whereas today most industries have set a definite retirement age for their employees. I think replacing elderly staff with young recruits is a wise practice. (44 words) Body: First and foremost, a large majority of workers lose their strength as they become older. This is mainly because the human body has limits, and working for a long time, say, 30 or 35 years, can affect it negatively. For example, young industrial workers tend to work for five to six hours before they take breaks while older ones usually need to rest every one or two hours. This means that productivity levels would certainly decline. (76 words) Furthermore, new employment opportunities for young people are very limited. Most companies do not offer more than a few new jobs every year and try not to increase their staff members dramatically to keep expenses low. Consequently, they should definitely lay off some of the older personnel to make room for younger ones, especially those around 20 to 30 years old who are about to form families and support them. (70 words) Finally, the experience and skills of old workers is usually out of date. They might have a lot of experience with old technology and machines, but their employers constantly need to upgrade their equipment and methods. Therefore, it is less likely that old worker’s abilities are necessary in the long run, and younger workers who know how to operate modern machines such as computers and lasers can replace them. (69 words) Conclusion In conclusion, I think companies need to force their elderly workforce to retire and employ younger workers to replace them to improve productivity, have up-to-date workers and provide jobs for young people. (32 words) w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 10 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Countries are becoming more and more similar because people are able to buy the same products anywhere in the world. Do you think this is positive or negative development? Model Answer (Strong View): I think it is beneficial that goods like food, cars, furniture and clothes that are produced in a certain part of the world are now available almost everywhere, which means the similarities between various countries are growing. (37 words) A reason is that people in different regions now have access to products they could not use before. There are numerous goods that are produced only in certain parts of the world, which means that people living in other places could not normally take advantage of them in the past. For example, bananas and pineapples are grown in tropical countries and so, did not use to be available to consumers in colder countries like Russia and Canada. Nevertheless, most people in such countries are now able to buy and eat these beneficial fruits. (93 words) Furthermore, people today can migrate to different countries with less fear of becoming homesick since the products they are used to are now available in shops almost wherever they go. For instance, Iranian immigrants could not cook their national dish, Ghormesabzi, in other parts of the globe because the specific vegetables required were not farmed and grown in most other countries. However, as they can access all these ingredients in shops and supermarkets around the world today, they can work and live more productively because they do not miss a significant part of their cultural heritage anymore. (97 words) In conclusion, I believe the growing similarity between countries around the world, which have resulted from the availability of goods produced elsewhere, is a desirable development. People can now take advantage of beneficial goods from other countries, and immigrants can be less stressful and more productive. (46 words) Total: 273 words w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 11 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Every year several languages die out. Some people think that this is not important because life will be easier if there are fewer languages in the world. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? Model Answer (Middle View): As the global trend toward globalism and the use of a lingua franca grows, local languages continue to perish. I think although a smaller number of languages can make life easier, it is important to try and preserve all languages. (40 words) On the one hand, when fewer languages are in use, communication tends to become easier in most cases. It will be really convenient if one can talk with others from various parts of the world without the need for a live translator or special software for assistance. This means that different nations around the globe are likely to be able to cooperate more closely if fewer languages are in use. For instance, a conference at the United Nations will be more convenient and productive for politicians if they all can communicate using a limited set of languages, or perhaps even one, instead of having to wait for translations to come through. Consequently, better results are likely to be achieved more quickly, and many issues could be resolved as a result of better mutual understanding. (134 words) On the other hand, every language represents the culture within which it has developed. It reflects the lifestyle and traditions of the people who use it to communicate within the context of their daily lives, and it is the foundation of their folklore and literature. Although some might argue that these could be translated into more common languages like English or Chinese, it is quite unlikely that the exact meaning of each phrase, expression, idiom, proverb or poem can be translated. This means that once a nations’ language has died out, a significant portion of its culture and history is lost with it, leaving them with a weaker cultural and national identity. (112 words) In conclusion, I believe even though the fall in the number of languages in use allows people to communicate more conveniently, making their lives less complicated, it is still important for every language to be saved from extinction so that the culture, history and literature of all nations are protected. (50 words) Total: 336 words w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 12 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Some people think governments should spend less money on arts and invest more in education. How far do you agree or disagree with this opinion? Model Answer (Middle View): Many governments today allocate significant portions of their national budgets to the development and protection of arts. I think this is necessary and governments should not curb art budgets, although it is vital that more money is spent on education, as well. (42 words) Decreasing public financial support for art would definitely leave normal people with little or no access to original fine art pieces. High art is immensely sought and supported by the private sector in most parts of the world, with art galleries and agents investing heavily in famous professional artists so that they can sell their works to wealthy private collectors. Therefore, if the government stops investing in this sector, there will practically be no paintings, sculptures or other forms of art available for ordinary citizens to enjoy, which can not only diminish their pursuit of beauty and perfection, but also leave them more depressed and passive, even vulgar. (108 words) However, education plays a crucial role in the development of a country. More educated and skillful citizens can contribute greatly to a country’s progress since its industries, healthcare system and defense capabilities rely mostly on its progress in different fields of science and technology, which in turn requires skillful teachers, advanced computers and better-equipped laboratories. This means that the more money is spent on educational facilities and equipment and the more budget is allocated to supporting students and educators, the more likely it is for a country to develop. (87 words) In conclusion, I think governments ought to maintain their financial support for arts while increasing education budgets, ensuring both continued access to fine arts for their citizens and sustained development for their countries. (33 words) Total: 270 words w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 13 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Some people believe that professional workers such as doctors and teachers should be paid more than sports and entertainment personalities. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Model Answer (Middle View): Salary is an issue that many people have strong opinions about, and the pay gap between top entertainers and sports stars on the one hand, and professionals in vital service sectors such as medicine and education on the other, has been quite controversial for some time now. However, I personally think that, except in certain cases, the latter group do not necessarily deserve higher pays than the former. (68 words) One reason is that the cash flow of service sectors is significantly lower than that of sports and entertainment industries. People willingly spend trillions of dollars every year buying tickets to sports matches, concerts and movies, while the revenue in service sectors like education or medicine originates mainly from households in need of their services. And even then, those services have to be provided at a discount to guarantee proper access for all citizens regardless of their financial status. This means that the funds available to service providers like doctors or teachers is a fraction of what is available to sports stars, actors and singers. (104 words) Additionally, unlike in sports and entertainment where people with certain talents are chosen or may accidentally be discovered and hurled into stardom, people in service professions tend to make informed choices regarding their careers. In other words, one usually chooses to become a teacher or doctor, knowing how much one can hope to earn and what the chances of living a life of luxury are for someone in their business. (70 words) That being said, there are certain professionals that truly deserve to receive salaries higher than, or at least as high as, those paid to celebrity players or entertainers. This includes doctors who make breakthrough medical discoveries, invent novel methods to cure diseases or make other substantial contributions to medical sciences. Likewise, contributions such as developing more effective teaching approaches should warrant celebrity-level wages for educators who make them. (68 words) In conclusion, I do not believe that doctors or educators should receive higher wages than celebrity singers, sports players or actors unless they have made significant contributions to their fields. (30 words) Total: 341 words w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 14 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: Some people think secondary school students should study international news as one of their subjects. Other people say this is a waste of valuable school time. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words. w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 15 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: Developing countries require international organization’s help. Some people prefer financial aid while others think practical aid and advice are better. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words. w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 16 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Some people think universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. Others believe that this is an unacceptable policy. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Model Answer (Strong View): INTRODUCTION: The issue of keeping a balance between the numbers of female and male students in universities has been discussed by many, and although some say such a policy should be implemented in all subjects, others, including myself, believe that it is not beneficial. (43 words) OR Gender equality is a major issue in education today and some believe keeping a balance between the numbers of female and male students in all university subjects to be a good means of achieving it. However, I, like many others, think that it is not beneficial. (46 words) Body: Admitting a similar number of students from each gender in some courses will probably render many of them unable to find a job later. For example, most areas of agriculture are too burdensome for almost any woman in that they involve heavy physical activities and their working environment is affected significantly by the elements. Therefore, it is unlikely for a woman to be able to find a farming job once she has graduated in, say, agricultural engineering. Besides, such a policy would definitely bar many talented and enthusiastic applicants from studying their favourite courses merely because there may not be enough students from the opposite sex to join the course. (110 words) Some people think that accepting similar numbers of male and female students in all subjects promotes gender equality, as well as breaking the social taboos attached to studying courses that are usually prescribed to a specific gender. However, forcing students to study something they may not like, or stopping others from studying what they like in order to keep a balance does not seem fair at all. Social taboos are not broken in the short term either, and it is more probable that the students who study in fields that are taboo for their gender are rejected and sidelined in the process. (102 words) Conclusion In conclusion, I personally disagree with accepting an equal number of boys and girls in any subject at university since it can complicate finding jobs later and promote gender bias, stopping enthusiastic applicants from entering the courses they like because of their sex. (43 words) w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 17 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Some people think secondary school students should study international news as one of their subjects. Other people say this is a waste of valuable school time. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Model Answer (Middle View): Today, learning about the news from different parts of the world is essential to many people. It has been suggested that the review of such news should become a high school subject although some think this would waste school time. I think this is a great idea provided that inappropriate news are filtered out and there is enough time for other important subjects. (63 words) On the one hand, reviewing global news can help high school students improve their general knowledge in areas like geography and cultures. This is because the news come from around the world and often present significant details about different regions and their features, which means students would possibly gain a better understanding of the world. It also seems that studying the news can develop the students’ ability to analyse sophisticated situations because when they follow a story, say, about a political rift between two countries, they can observe how it develops or escalates, how the parties involved act and what its consequences are. (103 words) On the other hand, there are some issues with studying global news in high schools. The violence portrayed in many of today’s news stories could affect students’ conduct. For instance, almost every newspaper and news website these days is filled with images and stories of the ISIS executions in Iraq and Syria, which are likely to make youngsters feel insecure or make unreasonable judgements about any Arab friends they might have. Furthermore, reading and analysing the news would probably be a time-consuming activity, leaving insufficient time for more important subjects and activities like sciences, math or physical education. (98 words) In conclusion, I believe it is wise for secondary school students to study global news at school as it may develop their general knowledge and ability to understand the world. However, they should avoid violent news stories, and there should be enough time left for more important subjects. (53 words) Total: 312 words w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 18 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Some people support modern developments in agriculture such as factory farming and creation of new types of fruits and vegetables. However, other people oppose this view. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Model Answer (Strong View): Recently, there have been extensive developments and improvements in various aspects of agriculture, including genetically modifying plants to create new types, as well as factory farming. While some oppose these advances, others, including me, find them beneficial and necessary. (39 words) Modern agricultural developments can help provide more food for the growing populations, especially in the developing world. Many new types of plants that are developed through genetic engineering, like some species of wheat or certain fruit trees, can produce heavier fruits or more seeds. Furthermore, novel methods like factory farming would certainly render many demanding agricultural tasks like milking cows and feeding various farm animals easier since they rely on automatic machines for performing such tasks. (76 words) Some people argue that some modern farming techniques such as modifying the genetic structure of plants can be unsafe, and many animal rights activists find factory farming cruel to animals. However, it should be noted that extensive laboratory tests are conducted on any genetically modified organism before governments allow it to be produced on a commercial scale. Breeding animals only to be slaughtered might sound cruel, but the fate that would awaits them if they lived in their natural habitats is almost as grim. There are various wild beasts that feed on the domestic animals bred by humans, and the way they tear the flesh of their prey apart is far more violent than the painless death inflicted by automatic slaughtering systems. (122 words) In conclusion, I think modern farming techniques and agricultural methods are necessary to meet the urgent need for more food worldwide, as well as being vital to the efficiency and practicality of performing farming tasks. (35 words) Total: 272 words w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 19 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Some people think that strict punishments for driving offences are the key to reducing traffic accidents. Others, however, believe that other measures would be more effective in improving road safety. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Model Answer (Middle View): Road accidents take the lives of many drivers and pedestrians every year. Some argue that the best way to reduce them is to have severe penalties for offending traffic regulations, while others think other solutions may work better. I think, although such punishments are helpful, other measures should be taken alongside them. (52 words) On the one hand, careless drivers who ignore traffic laws play a major role in many road accidents. For example, some use their mobile phones while driving and do not focus on the road, meaning they would definitely not be able to control their cars in time to avoid accidents. If such drivers know they risk being imprisoned or heavily fined, they will probably be motivated to observe driving regulations more closely. Furthermore, penalising driving offences is the quickest solution since it can be applied immediately and drivers will see the consequences of their faults right away. (97 words) On the other hand, there are various other means of decreasing the number of traffic accidents. First of all, driving license candidates could be required to sit courses aimed at educating them on the virtues of heeding the law while on the road. This would allow them to realise how driving carefully could benefit both themselves and the people around them. Moreover, new cars could be built in such a way that they restrict the drivers’ ability to commit traffic offences like illegal speeding or turns. For instance, the car’s computer could automatically decrease its maximum speed in residential areas or near intersections. (103 words) In conclusion, I think any idea that could increase road safety is worth trying, so while driving offences should be heavily punished, solutions like safety classes for new drivers and technologies that prevents offences are also necessary. (37 words) Total: 289 words w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 20 Master IELTS Essays Ebrahim Tahassoni Some parents buy their children a large number of toys to play with. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the child of having a large number of toys? Model Answer (Middle View): Nowadays, a lot of toys, ranging from simple dolls to complicated electronic gadgets like video games, are provided for some children by their parents. I think this is not a problem provided children are sufficiently active and care for their toys. (41 words) One of the important advantages of children having lots of toys of toys is that there are different games for them to play. They can choose one of their toys according to their mood and taste, and are less likely to become bored. Besides, they would certainly be able to learn a wider variety of skills like problem solving or organization. Different toys can teach them different things, which means that the more toys they have, the more they are likely to learn. (83 words) However, having a lot of different toys could possibly lead to children becoming overweight since many modern toys like video games and LEGOs, which are very common these days, are usually played indoors. Therefore, they would definitely reduce children’s physical activity, leading them to gain extra weight. Furthermore, when kids have too many toys, it is likely that they will take less care of them. In other words, they will probably not learn to value them if there is always a replacement ready to play with. Consequently, they would not learn to appreciate their belongings. (95 words) In conclusion, I believe that children benefit from an abundance of toys which offer them variety, as well as teaching them more varied skills. However, it is important that they keep an active lifestyle and are taught to value every toy. (41 words) Total: 260 words w w w . t a h a s s o n i . c o m P a g e 21