How to writing Prompts 1st grade

how to use visual writing prompts and how to create your own writing prompts and how to writing prompts elementary
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GLENCOE LANGUAGE ARTS NORTH CAROLINA STANDARD COURSE OF STUDY WRITING PROMPTS, STUDENT RUBRICS, AND SAMPLE RESPONSES Grade 7INTRODUCTION TO WRITING PROMPTS, SCORING RUBRICS, AND SAMPLE RESPONSES Overview of the North Carolina Writing Assessment (Grade 7) The North Carolina Writing Assessment is administered to all seventh-grade students. The assessment consists of one prompt that asks students to compose an expository clarification or point-of-view essay. The test is designed to measure core composition skills such as main idea, supporting details, organization, and coherence, as well as grammar and spelling conventions. The Writing Assessment is administered statewide on a date specified by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. Students will have 50 minutes to complete their essays. Total administration time of the exam is 65 minutes. Additional time may be allotted to students with special needs. The writing prompt will ask students to clarify an opinion they have on a non-controversial topic, such as their favorite type of food, or it will ask students to take a position on a general social issue, such as whether or not students should wear uniforms to school. Besides containing the prompt itself, the assessment page reminds students what they need to do to receive a high score. The seventh-grade assessment is evaluated with the use of a holistic score scale and a conventions rating. The holistic score scale ranks students’ proficiency in the use of main idea, supporting details, organization, and coherence. Graders of the exam use these four criteria, along with the explanations given in the holistic score scale, to assign each essay a score from four to one, with four being the top score. An additional category of non-scorable exists for those papers that are illegible, incoherent, off-topic, blank, or in a language other than English. The conventions rating further evaluates each paper on the basis of sentence formation, usage, spelling, and mechanics. Those essays with a favorable rating receive a (+) while those with a negative rating receive a (–). Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses Content This book is composed of reproducible pages that are designed to help students improve on their basic writing skills as they prepare for the seventh-grade Writing Assessment. In addition to the prompts, rubrics, and sample responses, the book includes an activity for thinking about the writing prompt, an organizer for expository and persuasive writing, an organizer for expressive writing, an explanation of the scoring rubrics and how to use them, and student evaluation sheets for students to evaluate the responses of their peers. These activities are to be used to supplement the writing activities and to help focus students who may be having trouble organizing the writing process. The prompts are modeled on those in the seventh-grade test. There are four expository clarification, four expository point-of-view, one narrative, and two persuasive prompts. Although narrative and persuasive writing will not be tested on the seventh-grade assessment, they have been included here to allow students practice in these modes and to allow students additional writing practice in a test-like environment. Holistic score scales, or rubrics, for each type of prompt are also included, as well as sample responses at various score levels. iv Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7How to Use the Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses Content Choose a Prompt Before you begin working with students, you will need to select a prompt. If you are specifically preparing for the Writing Assessment, it would be best to use one of the expository clarification or point-of-view prompts. Once you have chosen a prompt, you may wish to use the prewriting activities included in the book. •Thinking About the Writing Prompt This activity gets students thinking about what direction their essays will take. Students are asked first to put the prompt into their own words. Then, after describing an initial reaction and thinking about the reminders listed on the prompt page, students brainstorm for ideas, details, and information that would support their responses. •Organizers for Expository/Persuasive and Expressive Writing The two graphic orga- nizers are to be used in conjunction with the Thinking About the Writing Prompt activity. The Organizer for Expository/Persuasive Writing is to be used with the expository clarifi- cation, expository point-of-view, and persuasive prompts. This organizer shows one way of graphically representing the thesis statement, supporting details, and concluding statement. Students use their main ideas and supporting details from the brainstorming activity and organize them coherently into basic essay form. The Organizer for Expressive Writing is to be used with the narrative prompt. It helps make sure students include a beginning, a middle, and an end to their narratives and ensures that the stories have a main idea. •Using Scoring Rubrics For those students uncomfortable or unfamiliar with scoring rubrics, we have included a basic explanation and exercise to help ease the anxiety of the assess- ment. These pages explain what exactly the rubrics are, how they are organized, and how students can use them to perform their best on the assessment. A checklist is included that students can use to clarify the four scoring criteria. Students are directed to customize the checklist to the specific mode of writing they will be creating. This additional reinforcement will help to solidify in students’ minds the requirements of a strong essay. Writing the Essay Once students have completed their prewriting activities, they are ready to begin working. You can either assign essays for homework or you can simulate the test environment by allowing students fifty minutes in-class work time. Student Evaluation Sheets Student Evaluation Sheets have been included to allow students the opportunity to review the sample responses or to review the writing of their peers. There is a different student evaluation sheet for each type of prompt. Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7 vSample Responses and Rubrics Two of the four expository clarification prompts and two of the four expository point-of-view prompts have sample responses. Both of the persuasive prompts have sample responses. The narrative prompt also has sample responses. The three sample responses for each prompt are all modeled after the same basic essay. However, each has modifications consistent with the holistic scoring scale to account for the difference in score. For instance, the first expository clarification prompt asks students to identify the foreign country they would most like to visit. All three sample responses suggest Scotland as the preferred destination, but the first essay has few details and frequently digresses. The second essay provides some support for the choice of Scotland, but it is not well organized. The third response is well written. The variety of responses allows students to discern the differences between the various score points. Each prompt type also has a corresponding score scale or rubric. In other words there is one rubric for expository clarification prompts, one for expository point-of-view prompts, one for the narrative prompt, and one for persuasive prompts. There are three main parts to each rubric. The first part of the rubric is the Focused Holistic Score Scale. Here the four score points are broken down into explanations of what each paper should contain to earn a particular score. The score scale is designed to help the grader of the papers, but students will find that reviewing the score scale will help them better understand what the intended audience is looking for. The second part of the rubric is the Focused Holistic Scoring Criteria. The scoring criteria contain the same components for all prompt types—main idea, supporting details, organization, and coherence—though they are slightly altered for each of the four modes. The last part of the rubric is the Conventions Rating. This is a simple (+) or (–) system designed to evaluate proficiency in sentence formation, usage, spelling, and mechanics. Transparencies The transparencies that accompany the book are designed to show students the difference between writing at each of the various score points. Each transparency takes a brief excerpt of one of the sample responses and highlights the excerpted response’s proficiency, or lack thereof, in one of the four holistic scoring criteria. Be sure students have complete copies of the sample responses while the transparencies are reviewed. This way students will better understand the context of the excerpt. It is important to note that the transparencies do not highlight or note errors in spelling, sentence formation, or usage. You may wish to correct these errors on the transparency with your class while explaining the error. vi Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7Name  Date  Thinking About the Writing Prompt Taking time to think about the prompt and to plan your writing will improve the quality of your final essay. Planning can help you compose a more organized, polished response. Use this guide to plan your composition. Restate 1. Read the prompt carefully and restate it in your own words. Think specifically about what the prompt is asking you to do (for example, make an argument, tell a story, or explain a process). Respond 2. After you have thought about the prompt and it is clear what you’re being asked to do, write one or two sentences describing your initial reaction to the prompt. This may be the basis for your thesis statement, or the main idea of your essay. Remember 3. Read the reminder list that follows the prompt. (If you are still unclear about the prompt, the list may help you better understand it.) Think about those items that you have particular trouble with and write them down. Explain how to avoid those mistakes in your writing. Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Name  Date  Record 4. Brainstorm ideas, details, or information to support your response to the prompt. You may use a brainstorming technique such as freewriting, making a list, or creating a web. Record anything that comes to mind. Review 5. Review the things you wrote as you brainstormed. What ideas support your thesis state- ment? What details add information to those supporting ideas? Underline or highlight the ideas and details you plan to use in your composition. Represent 6. There are many ways to organize your ideas. You may wish to use a visual representa- tion such as a web, an outline, or a chart. The graphic organizers that follow are some examples of ways to structure your ideas. 2 Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7Name  Date  Organizer for Expository/Persuasive Writing This organizer is useful for many types of writing, including expository and persuasive essays. Use the thesis statement from the Respond exercise and the ideas from the Record and Review exercises to complete the graphic organizer. You may add Supporting Ideas and Details boxes as necessary. Introductory Paragraph/Thesis Statement: Supporting Idea: Supporting Idea: Supporting Idea: Detail: Detail: Detail: Detail: Detail: Detail: Detail: Detail: Detail: Concluding Paragraph/Restatement of Thesis: Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7 3 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Name  Date  Organizer for Expressive Writing This organizer is useful for expressive writing such as narrative essays. Use the main idea from the Respond exercise and the ideas from the Record and Review exercises to complete the graphic organizer. You may add Action boxes as necessary. Main Idea What is the central event of your narrative? Characters Setting Who is in your narrative? When and/or where does your narrative take place? Action How will you begin your narrative? What happens next? How will you end your narrative? 4 Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7Name  Date  Using Scoring Rubrics What Are Scoring Rubrics? Rubrics, or score scales, are one way to evaluate compositions. Rubrics represent a range of quality by showing how weaker essays compare to stronger essays. Using specific characteristics and descriptions, they provide a basic rating scale for writing. In addition to being useful for those who evaluate essays, rubrics are helpful for writers. Knowing what makes an essay strong before you begin writing will help you produce a better overall composition. How Are Scoring Rubrics Organized? Not all rubrics look alike. Some rubrics consist of lists that describe different traits of writing. Others are written in paragraph form. All assign point values based on quality. The rubrics used here are made up of two descriptive sections, the Score Scale and the Scoring Criteria. The Score Scale outlines the range of possible scores with descriptions of each. The Scoring Criteria details four characteristics that are important in a strong composition. Combined, they illustrate the features of an effective piece of writing. Different types of writing, such as persuasive, expository, and narrative, have their own rubrics. Although the rubrics have some elements in common—the use of effective sentence structure, for example—they also include traits that are specific to each writing form. How Can I Use Scoring Rubrics? As mentioned above, rubrics provide valuable information that can help you focus on the qualities of strong writing. One way to do this is to take information from the Score Scale and Scoring Criteria and make a writing checklist. Use this checklist as follows: •As you plan your essay, think about how you will meet the criteria on your checklist. •As you write, refer to your checklist and monitor your work to ensure that your essay meets the criteria. • When you have completed your essay, review it against the checklist. Reread your essay, looking for examples of each item. As you find them, check off the appropriate box. If you find that you are weak in any area, revise your essay as needed. Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7 5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Name  Date  Use the appropriate Score Scale and Scoring Criteria for the corresponding type of writing to complete the writing checklist below. Add items that address the specific qualities of this type of writing. For example, with a persuasive essay, you would include under the Main Idea heading “I clearly state my position.” Use the four point description to make your checklist. Main Idea □ The subject matter I chose is appropriate for the prompt. □ Supporting Details □ The details I include are clearly related to the subject matter. □ I include enough details to support my main idea. □ Organization □ My composition has a strong beginning, a well-developed middle, and an effective ending. □ My essay follows a clear, logical progression. □ Coherence □ I establish relationships between ideas in my composition. □ I use transitional words and phrases, parallel structure, and other techniques to connect sentences and paragraphs. □ I use effective sentence structure and word choice. □ 6 Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7Expository Clarification Essay: Prompt 1 DIRECTIONS: Write a well-organized composition on the topic below. Think about the foreign country that you would most like to visit. Name the country and explain why you would like to go there. As you write your paper, remember to: •Name the country you would most like to visit. •Give at least two reasons why you would like to visit this country. Explain your reasons. •Write in complete sentences. •Write well-developed paragraphs with topic sentences. • Use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. You may use scratch paper to plan your essay. When you are finished planning, write the final copy of your essay on a separate sheet of paper. Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7 7 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Focused Holistic Score Scale: Expository Clarification Essay SCORE POINT 4 The response reflects a strong mastery of expository writing. There is skill in all four criteria. The writer clearly identifies the subject matter and focuses on it exclusively, providing relevant reasons to support his or her choice and elaborating on those reasons with details that are both appropriate and clearly articulated. The response follows a clear, logical organization with a beginning, middle, and end. The writer exhibits an appropriate sense of audience. All aspects of the prompt are addressed, and the essay is coherent and seems complete in all aspects. SCORE POINT 3 The response reflects a reasonable mastery of expository writing. There is competency in all four criteria. The response clearly identifies the subject matter, focuses on this topic, and gives reasons, details, and examples to support it. Some responses may include only a few clearly elaborated reasons; others may present more reasons with less elaboration. There may be some minor weaknesses in coherence. Some explanations may be unclear, or transitional links may be missing. However, the response is organized and coherent overall, demonstrating a clear, logical progression. The writing shows an acceptable sense of audience. All aspects of the prompt are addressed, and the essay seems complete, but minor weaknesses may appear. SCORE POINT 2 The response reflects a weak sense of expository writing. The response focuses on the subject matter but is deficient in some other major area. Some responses provide only one reason to support the main idea. (The minimum number required is two.) Others may provide two or more reasons, but offer little elaboration. The writer makes some effort to include supporting details; but those details are insufficient and not clearly related to the subject matter, requiring the reader to make inferences. The response has some organizational strategy, but the logical progression may be haphazard and occasionally difficult to follow. The writer may lack an appropriate sense of audience. Some aspects of the prompt may not be addressed. SCORE POINT 1 The response reflects a lack of understanding of expository writing. It demonstrates an effort to address the prompt but does not sustain consistent focus. The writer makes an effort to support ideas but without an overall sense of strategy or control. If the response offers reasons to support the main idea, they are inappropriate or unintelligible. Elaboration is unclear and off-topic. The writer lacks an appropriate sense of audience. Many essays lack any organizing principle or sense of direction. Others may demonstrate minimal control but are simply too undeveloped to receive a higher score. 8 Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7NON-SCORABLE The composition is entirely illegible, incoherent, off-topic, blank, or written in a language other than English. Expository Clarification Essay: Focused Holistic Scoring Criteria Main Idea The writer identifies the subject matter and consistently focuses on the main idea while responding to the prompt. Supporting Details The writer provides sufficient details to explain, develop, and support his or her argument or ideas fully. The writer also provides details that are related to the subject matter and address the inherent question, “Why?” Organization The writer establishes a sense of beginning, middle, and ending in the composition. The composition shows a logical development from beginning to end and seems complete. Coherence The writer establishes relationships between the ideas, causes, and/or statements in the composition. Sentences are logically connected. To achieve coherence the writer may use transitions, connectives, parallel structure, repetition, pronouns, and synonyms. Conventions Rating + The composition provides evidence that the writer has a reasonable and acceptable level of proficiency in sentence formation, usage, mechanics, and spelling. - The composition provides evidence that the writer does not have a reasonable and acceptable level of proficiency in sentence formation, usage, mechanics, and spelling. Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7 9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Name  Essay  Expository Clarification Essay DIRECTIONS: After you have read the student essay, fill in this sheet with your observations. Provide thoughtful, thorough responses, and be sure to provide specific references to the essay. Write a response to every question. 1. The introduction of an essay should catch the reader’s attention and let the reader know what the essay will discuss. Evaluate the effectiveness of the introduction in this essay. Then suggest one way the introduction could be improved. 2. When writing a clarification essay, the writer should establish a stance or position and offer reasons to support it. Look over the reasons the writer offers in this essay. Do these reasons clearly support the writer’s position? Identify any reasons that are unclear or confusing, and explain why you think they are ineffective. 3. Writers can make an expository essay more interesting by including anecdotes (brief, vivid stories that illustrate a point) and other supporting details. Identify two anecdotes or specific details that make this essay more readable. If the writer did not include anec- dotes, identify a place where you think it might have been useful to include one. 4. Precise vocabulary and vivid word choice can make an essay more interesting to read. Identify at least three words in this essay that you think can be replaced with more vivid or accurate language. Use a thesaurus or dictionary to find synonyms for these words. 10 Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7Expository Clarification Essay Score of 1 I would like to travel to lots of different lands. I would like to take a trip all around the world. There are many places to see. This includes Scotland. My ancesters are from Scotland. There are mysteries there. I like to read about mysteries, spooky ghost stories and haunted places. There’s haunted castles in Scotland. My friend Karen would be scared to go because she hates all gohst stories and scarey movies even on Halloween. I wouldn’t be scared to go to a haunted castle in Scotland. I wouldn’t be scared to go to Lock Ness and se the monster either. Nessie is like a gohst because there’s no clear photographs of her. Karen is from Peurto Rico. My grandmother came from Scotland. We all have different backgrounds it’s interesting to hear about ancesters. Karen and I go to the same school and live in the same town but our ancesters came from different places far away. Karen has been to her home land I want to go to mine. Karen has photos of herself in Peurto Rico, I want photos of myself in Scotland. Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7 11 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Expository Clarification Essay Score of 2 There are several foreign countries I would like to visit, and they include China, Canada, Australia, Scotland, Jamaica, and Japan. The one I most want to see is Scotland. Second on the list close behind is Canada because it’s not so far away. I would like to see Scotland because I have heard about some of the mysterious and interesting places there. My heritage is in Scotland. My grandmother loves to talk about Scotland. She taught me about it. There are clans, tartans, the Scottish Highlands, Lock Ness, castles, historical figures, and Edinburgh International Festival of the Arts. That’s a lot to see. I could look for my family tartan. Loch Ness has the Lock Ness Monster some say it is real. They call it “Nessie.” I could see if it is real for myself. If I went there. The capital of this country is Edinburgh. There’s a castle there you can walk through. The natural landscape have steep valleys, green fields, and blue lakes, and farmers raise sheep there. It is a place I have always wanted to see. I would take photographs. I could add my photographs to my grandmother’s photographs of Scotland. A photo of Nessie would make me famous. My grandmother said a trip to Scotland is like a trip going back home. 12 Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7Expository Clarification Essay Score of 4 There are several foreign countries I would like to visit, but the one I most want to see is Scotland. Some of my ancestors came from there, and I would really like to find out more about my heritage. I also would like to see Scotland because I have heard about some of the mysterious places there, and I want to investigate them in person. My grandmother came from Scotland when she was a little girl, and she has been collecting information about our family for a long time. She told me that many of our ancestors came from Scotland and settled in the United States in the eighteenth century. She explained that each family, or clan, in Scotland has its own tartan. A tartan is a kind of plaid fabric made from wool; it is used in making clothes and banners. Each tartan has its own special design and colors and is an easy way for the Scottish people to identify members of different clans. During my visit, I hope I can find our tartan and locate other members of our clan. I have also heard many family stories about the Scottish Highlands, and I would hope my visit would take me through this beautiful area. My grandmother has photographs of its steep valleys, green fields, and crystal blue lakes. I would especially like to see Loch Ness. It is 23 miles long and about 800 feet deep. Many people claim to have seen a sea creature swimming in this lake. I would like to see the creature, called “Nessie,” for myself. My grandmother also told the story of a haunted castle in Edinburgh. She said the castle belonged to Robert Bruce, a legendary warrior and later a king of Scotland. I would like to spend time wandering the castle and visiting other museums and shops in the capital city. The highlight of my trip, however, would be a visit to the Edinburgh International Festival Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7 13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Expository Clarification Essay (continued) Score of 4 of the Arts. It is held every year in August and features music and traditional dances. I would like to hear the bagpipes play, and dance the Highland fling during the festival. A trip to Scotland, for me, would be a trip back in time, but a trip to remember for a long time to come. 14 Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7Scoring Explanation: Expository Clarification Essay Refer to pages 8–9 for the Focused Holistic Score Scale and the Conventions Rating. These scoring guides help explain how these essays were evaluated. Essay 1 Focused Holistic Score: 1 The writer responds to the prompt, but he or she provides little real support for the choice and frequently digresses. The essay lacks focus and is incomplete. Conventions Rating: – This essay is choppy and includes run-on sentences and errors in spelling, subject-verb agreement, and pronoun usage. Essay 2 Focused Holistic Score: 2 The writer addresses the prompt and includes many reasons to support his or her choice. However, the reasons are listed and lack elaboration. In addition, the organization is somewhat haphazard, and paragraphs lack coherence. Conventions Rating: – This essay contains sentence fragments and run-on sentences, spelling and punctuation errors, and errors in subject-verb agreement and pronoun use. Essay 3 Focused Holistic Score: 4 The writer responds to the prompt and stays focused on the main idea throughout the essay. The writer provides several reasons to support his or her choice, and these reasons are well elaborated and clear. Paragraphs are coherent, and the body paragraphs are parallel in structure. The response is well organized with a logical progression of ideas. Conventions Rating: + This essay contains no significant errors. Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7 15 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Expository Clarification Essay: Prompt 2 DIRECTIONS: Write a well-organized composition on the topic below. Think about a person from history that you would most like to meet if you could. It can be any famous person who is no longer alive—a military leader or an artist, a hero or a villain. Identify this person and explain why you would like to meet her or him. As you write your paper, remember to: •Identify the person from history that you would like to meet. •Give at least two reasons why you would like to meet this person. Explain your reasons. •Write in complete sentences. •Write well-developed paragraphs with topic sentences. • Use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. You may use scratch paper to plan your essay. When you are finished planning, write the final copy of your essay on a separate sheet of paper. 16 Writing Prompts, Scoring Rubrics, and Sample Responses • Grade 7