Cat5 vs Ethernet

difference between cat5 and ethernet and cat 5 cable layout
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HartJohnson,United States,Professional
Published Date:02-08-2017
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1 fixing physical networks Walking on Wires My darling, we are forever entwined, like an unshielded twisted pair of wires... Will I ever get his mind off of the network? Just plug in that cable and the network’s up, right? Network cables silently do their job, pushing our data from here to there, faster than we can blink. But what happens when it all goes wrong? Organizations rely on their networks so much that the business falls apart when the network fails. That’s why knowing how to fix physical networks is so important. Keep reading, and we’ll show you how to troubleshoot your networks with ease and fix physical problems. You’ll soon be in full control of your networks. this is a new chapter 1 Download at Boykma.Comproblems at coconut Coconut Airways has a network problem There’s no better way to travel between islands than by seaplane, and Coconut Airways has an entire fleet. They offer scenic tours, excursions and a handy shuttle service between the islands. Their service is proving popular with tourists and locals alike. Demand for flights is sky-high, but Coconut Airways has a problem— whenever staff try to use the flight booking system, they’re presented with a network error message: Coconut Airways depends on their flight booking system. Without it, passengers can’t book seats, and it’s bringing their flights to a standstill. What’s more, no passengers means no money. Coconut Airways needs to get their network up and running again, and fast. Think you can help them out? 2 Chapter 1 Download at afixing physical networks Here’s the wiring closet for Coconut Airways. What sort of problems do you see? Circle each one. you are here4 3 Download at aLooks like there’s a break in the flight booking network cable. That’s probably what’s causing the network error message on the flight booking system. Put your fiber optic devices closer to where the cables come in to the You don’t want fiber-optic rack. In this case, the cables to bend much. All of top of the rack would the weight of the cables be best. resting on one another might cause problems in the long run. Don’t dangle your power supplies. Gravity and a little nudge could drop your power. Check your connectors and ports regularly. You never know when a connector will pop, especially when you have dangling cables. Which cable goes where? Label your wires so that you can troubleshoot problems more efficiently. messy networks Here’s the wiring closet for Coconut Airways. What sort of problems do you see? Circle each one. The booking system network cable is busted It looks like a break in the flight booking network cable is giving the Coconut Airways staff network errors. If we can fix the network cable, that should get rid of the messages, and Coconut Airways will be able to book passengers on their flights again. So how do you think we should fix the network cable? 4 Chapter 1 Download at a Bind your cables and run them along a stable surface. That way you reduce tangling, snags, and confusion. Label your devices on the front and the back.RJ-45 connector The jacket and the wires inside appear to have been chewed. fixing physical networks How do we fix the cable? There are two key things we need to do in order to mend the cable and get the flight booking system up and running again. W e need to cut out the broken part of the cable. 1 It’s the break in the cable that’s causing us the problem, so let’s get rid of it. We need to attach a connector. 2 By cutting out the broken part of the cable, we lose the connector on the end. We need the connector so that we can plug the cable into things, so we’ll need to put a new one on. But how do we do this? At the moment we don’t know anything about the sort of cable it is, and the type of cable has an effect on how we go about things. So what sort of cable are we dealing with here? What sorts of network cables do you already know about? How do you think they are different from one another? Why? you are here 4 5 Download at aWriting on the outside of the cable tells you useful information such as the speed. category 5 cabling Introducing the CAT-5 cable The sort of cable running the main Coconut Airways network is called a Category 5 cable for Ethernet, or CAT-5 cable. It has two distinguishing features. First of all, it has an unshielded twisted pair cable or UTP cable. Secondly, it takes an RJ-45 connector on either end. Most Ethernet networks run on CAT-5 cables. CAT-5 cables have print on the outside giving you important information about the cable. As an example, you can look on the outside of the cable to see what type it is, what the speed is, and any relevant standards. So what’s inside a CAT-5 cable? Let’s take a look. 6 Chapter 1 Download at a This is an RJ-45 connector. It allows you to plug your cable into places. The Unshielded Twisted Pair cable and the RJ-45 connector together form a CAT-5 cable.fixing physical networks The CAT-5 cable dissected If you open up a CAT-5 cable, you’ll find eight colored wires twisted into four pairs. One pair is brown, another pair is blue, another pair is green, and the final pair is orange. Each pair consists of one plain and one striped wire. So why are the pairs twisted? The problem with wires that aren’t twisted is that they generate magnetic fields that interfere with the signal carried on the wire. This means that you can get electromagnetic interference and crosstalk— both of which are bad for your network data. When the wires are twisted, the magnetic field around the wire is effectively disrupted so that any interference is reduced. The more twists there are in the pairs, the better. See, being twisted can be a good thing... It’s not just the twists in the wires that are significant, the colors are important too. Let’s take a closer look. you are here 4 7 Download at a This is the outer jacket of the There are four colored, twisted UTP cable. There’s no shielding pairs of wire. The colors are layer between the jacket and brown, blue, green and orange. the twisted wire pairs. Each pair consists of a plain and striped wire of the same color. In this pair, one of the wires is plain orange, and the other has orange and white stripes....while the orange pair sends data. Brown and blue wires are for the future. the colors matter So what’s with all the colors? The paired wires in a CAT-5 cable are colored for a reason. Each color has a specific meaning, and so does the solidity of the color. Orange and green wires send and receive data. The orange pair sends data, while the green pair receives data. The color solidity shows the wire polarity. If a wire is striped, then this means that it is positive. If a wire is solid, then the wire is negative. Blue and brown wires are reserved for future bandwidth capacity. Blue and brown wires don’t do anything yet, but they will in the future. The cable standards folks designed CAT-5 with the extra colored wires so that they could be used for higher bandwidths in the future. 8 Chapter 1 Download at a The green pair receives data... Solid wires are negative. Striped wires are positive, and solid wires are negative. More wires = more bandwidthPress the “Begin Test” button on speedtest.net... ...and you get a report on your download and upload capacity. fixing physical networks Test Drive Bandwidth tells us how much data can flow through the wires on a cable. Network speed tells us the rate at which data can move on a wire. To get an idea about bandwidth and network speed, visit the following site and test the connection you’re using: http://www.speedtest.net/ What’s the difference between bandwidth and speed on a network cable? you are here 4 9 Download at a Mb/s stands for megabits per second..bandwidth and speed are not equal bandwidth: the transmission capacity of a computer network or telecommunication system. speed: the rate at which something is able to move. Q: Q: Q: What’s the difference between What’s the difference between Can I build my own CAT-5e and megabits per second (Mbps) and CAT-6 cables? bandwidth and speed? megabytes per second (MBps)? A: Building a CAT-5e cable is generally A: Bandwidth is a capacity; speed is no more difficult than building a CAT-5 a rate. Bandwidth tells you the maximum A: Megabits per second (Mbps) cable. We don’t recommend building your amount of data that your network can is a bandwidth rate used in the own CAT-6 cables because of the precision transmit. Speed tells you the rate at which telecommunications and computer needs of the cable. the data can travel. The bandwidth for a networking field. One megabit equals one CAT-5 cable is 10/100 Base-T. The speed million bursts of electrical current (aka of a CAT-5 cable changes depending on binary pulses). Megabytes per second conditions. (MBps) is a data transfer rate used in computing. One megabyte equals 1, 048, 576 bytes, and one byte equals 8 binary Q: What is Base-T? digits (aka bits). A: Base-T refers to the different Q: Aren’t there newer, faster cable standards for Ethernet transmission rates. standards like CAT-5e and CAT-6? The 10 Base-T standard transfers data at 10 megabits per second (Mbps). The 100 A: CAT-5e and CAT-6 cables are newer Base-T standard transfers data at 100 standards for cables. We cover CAT-5 Mbps. The 1000 Base-T standard transfers because it’s the base framework for the data at a massive 1000 Mbps. higher cable standards. CAT-5e and CAT-6 have bandwidths of 10/100/1000 Base-T. 10 Chapter 1 Download at afixing physical networks Let’s fix the broken CAT-5 cable Now that we know more about how CAT-5 cables work, let’s see if you can fix the Coconut Airways network cable. All you need is a pair of wire cutters, a utility knife, a crimping tool, and an RJ-45 connector. 1 Cut the br oken part out. Cut the cable well before the break to ensure that you have a good set of wire ends. Make the cut as straight as possible so that the individual wires are the same length. Strip the cable cover back on the good end. 2 Cut carefully along the length of the jacket with a blade, making sure you don’t cut into the insulation of the bundled wires inside the jacket. A good cut length is somewhere between 1/2 and 1 inch. Once you’ve done that, pull the cable jacket apart and peel it back to expose the twisted pairs. Untwist and fla tten the individual wires. 3 Untwist the wires so that you can line them up with the slots on the RJ-45 connector. Generally you need about1/2 inch of the wire to fit into the connector. Place eac h wire into the RJ-45 connector. 4 Each wire fits into a slot in the RJ-45 connector. Just line up each wire with the relevant slot and you’re good to go. Now stop right there Are you trying to get me electrocuted or something? How do I know which position each wire goes in? Do you expect me to just guess??? Where you put each wire is important. Each wire needs to go into a particular slot in the RJ-45 connector, but at the moment we don’t know which wire goes where. We need to know more about what’s inside the RJ-45 connector. you are here 4 11 Download at aorder matters, too A closer look at the RJ-45 connector As we saw earlier, the connector at the end of a CAT-5 cable is called an RJ-45 connector. It allows you to plug your cable into a wall jack or the network port of a network device like a computer. Each wire in the cable goes into a slot inside the RJ-45 connector, and this connects it to a pin in the connector. So which wire goes where? The position of each wire is important. When you plug an RJ-45 connector into a jack, the pins on the connector make contact with pins in the jack. If the wires are in the correct position, this allows information, in the form of electrons, to flow. If the wires are in the wrong position, the information won’t be able to get through. The order of the wires in an RJ-45 connector conforms to one of two standards. These standards are 568A and 568B. 12 Chapter 1 Download at a Each wire in the cable goes into a slot in the RJ-45 connector. This fixes the wire to a pin in the connector.fixing physical networks 568A and 568B Wiring Standards Up Close 568A and 568B are cabling standards that tell you which order your wires need to go in when fitting an RJ-45 cable. The 568A wire order If you’re following the 568A wiring standard, you use the following wire order: Striped green, solid green, striped orange, solid blue, striped blue, solid orange, striped brown, solid brown. orange green brown blue The 568B wire order If you’re following the 568B wiring standard, you use the following wire order instead: Striped orange, solid orange, striped green, solid blue, striped blue, solid green, striped brown, solid brown. green orange brown blue Can you see any similarities between the 568A and 568B wire orders? The order for each standard is basically the same except the orange and green wires are switched over. So which standard should you use? When you attach an RJ-45 connector, the key thing is that both ends of the cable use the same standard. Before fitting a new RJ-45 connector, take a look at the other end of the cable. If the other end of the cable uses standard 568A for the RJ-45 wire order, then fit your new RJ-45 connector using the 568A standard. If it uses 568B, then use this standard instead. you are here 4 13 Download at a Striped wires alternate with solid colored wires. The 568B wire order is like the 568A wire order but with the position of the green and orange wires switched around.fix the broken cable The good end of the broken Coconut Airways network cable has an RJ-45 connector wired up using standard 568B. What should the wire order be on the other end? Draw a line between each wire and its rightful slot. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 orange green blue brown 14 Chapter 1 Download at afixing physical networks The Case of the Meteorologist and the RJ-45 Connector Stranded in a remote research station after a heavy storm, Jack has  to repair a CAT-5 cable that uses cabling standard 568B. Normally,  he could jump on his favorite search engine to find the pin and wire  color arrangement, but the storm has taken out his connection to  the Internet. Jack’s in a panic. What can he do? If he doesn’t repair the  Five Minute network soon, he’ll lose crucial research data from his  Mystery weather-monitoring instruments. Suddenly, Jack has an idea and leaves the room armed with a  pair of scissors. Five minutes later, the network’s back up. How did Jack solve the problem without looking up Standard 586B? you are here4 15 Download at ahow did you do? The good end of the broken Coconut Airways network cable has an RJ-45 connector wired up using standard 568B. What should the wire order be on the other end? Draw a line between each wire and its rightful slot. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 orange green blue brown 16 Chapter 1 Download at afixing physical networks So what are the physical steps? Now that we know how the wiring standards for the RJ-45 connectors work, let’s have another go at fixing the broken CAT-5 network cable for Coconut Airways. 1 Cut the br oken part out. Cut the cable well before the break to ensure that you have a good set of wire ends. Make the cut as straight as possible so that the individual wires are the same length. Strip the ca ble cover back on the good end. 2 Cut carefully along the length of the jacket with a blade, making sure you don’t cut into the insulation of the bundled wires inside the jacket. A good cut length is somewhere between 1/2 and 1 inch. Once you’ve done that, pull the cable jacket apart and peel it back to expose the twisted pairs. Untwist and flatten the individual wires. 3 Untwist the wires so that you can line them up with the slots on the RJ-45 connector. Chec k whether the other end of the cable follows wiring 4 standard 568A or 568B. Both ends of the cable need to follow the same wiring standard, so make a note of what the other end uses. Place each wire into the RJ-45 connector using the 5 same standard as the other end. 6 Attach the connector to the cable with a crimping tool. Once the lines are in their proper slots, place the RJ-45 into the crimping tool, and then squeeze the tool to crimp the RJ-45 snugly onto the cable. Check the end of the RJ-45 connector to ensure that the wire is seated correctly in each slot. you are here 4 17 Download at a These are the steps we went through earlier.macgyver-style The Case of the Meteorologist and the RJ-45 Connector How did Jack solve the problem without looking up Standard 586B? After he left with the scissors, Jack found an old  Five Minute RJ-45 end that used Standard 586A. He cut off the  Mystery connector, traced the wires to their pins and wrote  down the order for Standard 586B by trading the  Solved orange and green wires’ position in the wiring order. Q: Q: Are you sure that a CAT-5 connector is called “RJ-45”? What is a crossover cable used for? I’ve read that it’s called an “8P8C” connector? A:Suppose you want to connect a laptop to a desktop computer. A: Through common use, we have come to call an 8P8C One way of doing this would be to use a crossover cable, a cable connector an RJ-45 connector. The acronym 8P8C stands for 8 that can send and receive data on both ends at the same time. A positions, 8 contacts. The RJ-45 connector looks a lot like an 8P8C crossover cable is different from a straight-through cable in that a connector, so over time, many folks mislabeled the connector. Now, straight-through cable can only send or receive data on one end at through that common but incorrect use, more people call an 8P8C a time. connector an RJ-45 connector. Say “8P8C” to a network pro, and you may get a funny look. You could also use a switch or a hub to connect the two devices— but you’ll see more about these later in the book. Q: Why should I always use the same wiring standard on Q: both ends of the cable? How long should I make my CAT-5 cable? A: The general rule of thumb is that you measure the distance A: If we don’t use the same standard on both ends of the between the devices you want to connect and add one to two feet cable, we won’t have a “straight-through” or patch cable; for flexibility of movement. The maximum length of CAT-5 is 328 we’ll have what’s called a “crossover cable.” In other words, feet (100 meters). we’ll flip-flop the green and the orange wire pairs, and the send wires and receive wires will trade purposes. Always check the opposite end of the cable and match the wire pair configuration. 18 Chapter 1 Download at afixing physical networks You fixed the CAT-5 cable Thanks to you, the Coconut Airways flight bookings system is back in business. Before too long, all of their scheduled flights are fully booked and ready for take-off. Hey, not so fast Do you think I’m gonna fly these planes without being paid? We fixed the flight booking network, but it looks like the network troubles aren’t over for Coconut Airways. What do you think might have gone wrong? you are here 4 19 Download at a The Coconut Airways Pilotmore problems at coconut Coconut Airways has more than one network You’ve done a great job of fixing the flight booking system. Unfortunately, that’s not the only network at Coconut Airways. The Coconut Airways accounts and payroll systems run off a coaxial network down in the basement, and they’ve recently had a problem with the local wildlife getting into the building. It looks like a hungry critter has taken a good chunk out of one of the coaxial cables, and the damaged cable has brought things to a standstill. Without the coaxial network, Coconut Airways can’t process payments from customers and can’t pay the pilots to fly the planes. They need you to save the day for them again. 20 Chapter 1 Download at a